celtiberians

Celtic Iron Dagger with Scabbard, Early 1st ML BC

An iron dagger with T-shaped pommel with two small roundels to the ends, central rib with hatched design and rivets to the side; long handle and small cross guard with long, stiletto blade; long sheath with roundels to the edges and collar below and large roundel at the end; entire surface decorated with guilloche pattern; Iberian workmanship.

The Celtiberians were Celtic-speaking people of the Iberian Peninsula in the final centuries BC. Archaeologically, the Celtiberians participated in the Hallstatt culture in what is now north-central Spain. The term Celtiberi appears in accounts by Diodorus Siculus, Appian and Martial who recognized intermarriage between Celts and Iberians after a period of continuous warfare.

The Celtiberians were the most influential ethnic group in pre-Roman Iberia, but they had their largest impact on history during the Second Punic War, during which they became the allies of Carthage in its conflict with Rome, and crossed the Alps in the mixed forces under Hannibal’s command. As a result of the defeat of Carthage, the Celtiberians first submitted to Rome in 195 BC; Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus spent the years 182 to 179 BC pacifying the Celtiberians; however, conflicts between various semi-independent bands of Celtiberians continued. After the city of Numantia was finally taken and destroyed by Scipio Aemilianus Africanus the Younger after a long and brutal siege that ended the Celtic resistance (154 – 133 BC), Roman cultural influences increased. The Sertorian War, 80 – 72 BC, marked the last formal resistance of the Celtiberian cities to Roman domination, which submerged the Celtiberian culture.

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Celtiberian Bronze Helmet, 4th century BC

This helmet was hammered from thin metal and decorated with repousse designs. Plain bands crisscross and encircle it, dividing the helmet into quadrants. A square opening has been cut away in the front for the face. Each quadrant contains a motif of three schematically rendered men beneath a “sun circle” ringed with dots. These lively human figures with their arms raised and one foot lifted off the ground seem to be engaged in an ecstatic dance. Dances such as these are described by Roman writers who observed the bellicose customs of the Celtiberians. Two projections along the transversal band of the helmet indicate that it once included an attached ornament or crest.

The Celtiberians were Celtic-speaking people of the Iberian Peninsula in the final centuries BC. These tribes spoke the Celtiberian language. Extant tribal names include the Arevaci, Belli, Titti, Lusones, and Berones. Celtiberians were celebrated for their fine weapons and armor.

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Magical Spain (via Pinterest).

Definitely, Spain is different

Mine is a country of contrasts, full of legends and history, with a cultural heritage of centuries, and I love it.

(Credits of the photographies in the description).

A Celtiberian shield done in wood, bronze. These shields were often circular and decorated,

Up until the end of the 5th century/beginning of the 4th century bce, Celtiberian cemeteries bore much in the way of rich, military related grave goods, including swords and shields, and an quite the accumulation of bronze artifacts such as helmets, cuirasses, military styled brooches called fibula, horse equipment etc. This indicates the presence of a ‘warrior elite’, meaning that the richer burials were more likely to also be those of great military leaders who had achieved their place in high society via their battle prowess.

Beautiful craftsmanship, bronze, a representation of a horse with a blanket which the Celtiberians traditionally used as a saddle. The tail and forefeet can also be used as fasteners for a warrior’s cape.

What is perhaps most interesting and curious about this piece is that it has become the symbol of Soria, where the hillfort of Numancia is found. The same as the donkey in Cataluña, the sheep in Navarra, this icon can be found on bumperstickers and postcards across the province. It has for this reason become the most famous piece in the Numancia Museum.