celtiberians

Cernunnos by Milek Jakubiec.

Cernunnos is the conventional name given in Celtic studies to depictions of the “horned god” of Celtic polytheism. Cernunnos was a Celtic god of fertility, life, animals, wealth, and the underworld. The name itself is only attested once, on the 1st-century Pillar of the Boatmen, but he appears all over Gaul, and among the Celtiberians. Cernunnos is depicted with the antlers of a stag, sometimes carries a purse filled with coin, often seated cross-legged and often associated with animals and holding or wearing torcs, are known from over 50 examples in the Gallo-Roman period, mostly in north-eastern Gaul.

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Celtiberian Bronze Helmet, 4th century BC

This helmet was hammered from thin metal and decorated with repousse designs. Plain bands crisscross and encircle it, dividing the helmet into quadrants. A square opening has been cut away in the front for the face. Each quadrant contains a motif of three schematically rendered men beneath a “sun circle” ringed with dots. These lively human figures with their arms raised and one foot lifted off the ground seem to be engaged in an ecstatic dance. Dances such as these are described by Roman writers who observed the bellicose customs of the Celtiberians. Two projections along the transversal band of the helmet indicate that it once included an attached ornament or crest.

The Celtiberians were Celtic-speaking people of the Iberian Peninsula in the final centuries BC. These tribes spoke the Celtiberian language. Extant tribal names include the Arevaci, Belli, Titti, Lusones, and Berones. Celtiberians were celebrated for their fine weapons and armor.

Facts About Celtic Polytheism
  • Commonly referred to as Druidism or Druidry, both terms are incorrect.
  • A Druid is a political title within the Celtic Polytheistic religions equivalent to that of a priest/priestess.
  • A practitioner of Celtic Polytheism is not called a Druid. Not unless that practitioner is a priest or counselor to other Celtic Polytheists.
  • Despite common belief, Wicca, and Neo-Druidism are technically not Celtic religions; but rather Celtic inspired or influenced religions.
  • Celtic Polytheism is not witchcraft. A practitioner of Celtic Polytheism is never called a witch or a wizard.
  • Celtic Polytheism is actually a family of religions rather than a singular religion itself.
  • The religion branches are Gaelic Polytheism, Brythonic Polytheism, Gallaecian Polytheism & Celtiberian Polytheism, Gaulish Polytheism, and Pictish Polytheism.
  • Each of these religions have regional differences. For example, the gods and stories of Ireland, the Scottish Highlands, and the Isle of Man are mostly the same or similar with minor differences.
  • All of the Celtic Polytheistic religions are technically extinct, however many stories from Ireland, and Wales have survived in particular.
  • Modern Celtic religions are referred to as Celtic Reconstructionist Polytheism, or simply Celtic Reconstructionism.
  • There is not a common pantheon of gods, as there were many different gods in each religion. While some gods appear in multiple religions with different names, majority of Celtic gods are unique to their branches.
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Magical Spain (via Pinterest).

Definitely, Spain is different

Mine is a country of contrasts, full of legends and history, with a cultural heritage of centuries, and I love it.

(Credits of the photographies in the description).

Celtic Iron Dagger with Scabbard, Early 1st ML BC

An iron dagger with T-shaped pommel with two small roundels to the ends, central rib with hatched design and rivets to the side; long handle and small cross guard with long, stiletto blade; long sheath with roundels to the edges and collar below and large roundel at the end; entire surface decorated with guilloche pattern; Iberian workmanship.

The Celtiberians were Celtic-speaking people of the Iberian Peninsula in the final centuries BC. Archaeologically, the Celtiberians participated in the Hallstatt culture in what is now north-central Spain. The term Celtiberi appears in accounts by Diodorus Siculus, Appian and Martial who recognized intermarriage between Celts and Iberians after a period of continuous warfare.

The Celtiberians were the most influential ethnic group in pre-Roman Iberia, but they had their largest impact on history during the Second Punic War, during which they became the allies of Carthage in its conflict with Rome, and crossed the Alps in the mixed forces under Hannibal’s command. As a result of the defeat of Carthage, the Celtiberians first submitted to Rome in 195 BC; Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus spent the years 182 to 179 BC pacifying the Celtiberians; however, conflicts between various semi-independent bands of Celtiberians continued. After the city of Numantia was finally taken and destroyed by Scipio Aemilianus Africanus the Younger after a long and brutal siege that ended the Celtic resistance (154 – 133 BC), Roman cultural influences increased. The Sertorian War, 80 – 72 BC, marked the last formal resistance of the Celtiberian cities to Roman domination, which submerged the Celtiberian culture.

The "Celtic" Pantheon(s)

I felt inspired to write something like this again, because it’s been a while.

Celtic is an umbrella term for a variety of cultures, languages, and religions. It does not describe a single culture or pantheon. The word originally springs up from Hellenic Keltoi, a name applied by the Greeks to the invaders from Gaul who settled in Eastern Europe. While the word celt- does exist in the Gaulish language, it was not used to describe whole peoples, rather simply served as an element in personal names. It’s meaning is something similar to “warrior”, implying that the Greeks heard “we are warriors” and assumed it was the name for an entire people. In modern times, the word Celtic is used as an umbrella term for a variety of nations and cultures who all speak languages that fall into the same language family. However, their religions, and their cultures, are distinct from one another, with only a few borrowed concepts between them.

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schnano  asked:

I recently found out that there is a small revival of Leukitanea, erm Lusitanian(sp?), in some places in Portugal (Lusitania and Galacia(?) i think) Since you're a language enthusiast and the ambassador for Portugal, I was wondering if you had any opinion on it.

Hello! This question was quite hard to answer due to several complications, but I’m really glad you decided to ask because it’s really, really interesting! And I’d like to thank you as well for sending me the links of the articles with this info, your interest is really flattering!

Anyways, I think I ought to explain some stuff about the pre-Roman and Roman history of Portugal before really getting to the bottom of the question. So without further due, let us discuss ~history~

First, about Lusitania and Gallaecia. These two regions were named by the Romans post-conquest after the tribes that occupied the regions. Gallaecia was named after the Gallaeci, a Celtic tribe, while Lusitania was named after the Lusitanians. About the Lusitanians, it’s still widely debated what type of culture and language they practised and spoke. Some argue that the Lusitanians were either a Celtic or a pre-Celtic tribe, while others defend that they were more closely tied to the Iberian (or Celtiberian) peoples of the peninsula and that their language belonged to the Italic language family.

As for the regions per se, Gallaecia incorporated most of northwest Iberia, that is, modern-day Galicia, northern Portugal, Asturias, and the most northwestern parts of Castile and Léon; while Lusitania incorporated all of Portugal’s territory below the Douro river plus modern-day Extremadura and parts of the province of Salamanca in Castile and León. For a better insight, here’s a picture of Roman Iberia (Hispania) divided into its provinces:

Source: (x)

So now that we got that cleared up, let’s talk about the languages themselves! 

Lusitanian

As above mentioned, there are no clear evidences that Lusitanian was either a Celtic or an Italic language. Our only records written in what we presume to be the ancient Lusitanian language are 5 sizeable inscriptions, plus the names of various locations and gods. Some of Lusitanian’s features are considered non-Celtic: for example, the inclusion of the letter “p” in positions where Celtic languages wouldn’t include it, as in the word porcom (meaning “pig”). Granted, several etymologists have labeled Lusitanian under the category of Italic language (interesting to notice that porcom is not that far way from the Latin word porcus, or the Portuguese word porco, both meaning “pig”). However, there is also the argument that this phenomenon isn’t necessarily non-Celtic and might possibly just be a specific Celtic dialect. This because a lot of personal and place names in ancient Lusitania are undoubtly of Celtic origin, according to several scholars. There’s also the fact that the phonology of the language is completely unknown, so who knows how they’d pronounce porcom? Maybe they kept the p as an archaism and weakened the sound. In the end, no one knows for sure and the debate is still very much active and will keep being active as long as no conclusive evidence is found.

Gallaecian (or Gallaic)

Now Gallaecian, the ancient langauge of Gallaecia, is a different story. Unlike Lusitanian, Gallaecian is in fact labeled as a (extint) Celtic language. Most of the debate surrounding Gallaecian comes down to the question of its relation with Lusitanian, that is, if they were closely related languages (given their geographic proximity) or not. Some of those who believe Lusitanian was a Celtic lanugauge usually group these two together. reffering to them as different dialects of the same language. And just like Lusitanian, written records of Gallaecian are scarce, but they definitely point out to a strong connection with Celtic languages.

As for the reconstruction of these languages, I’d like to thank you once again for providing the link and I’ll leave it here for anyone who’d like to check it out.

The Return of Gallaic?

So on to the bottom of the question! First of, it would be absolutely awesome if we could actually revive this one (two?) ancient language. Unfortunalety, as said above, records are scarce and its phonology is a mystery (which happens often with dead languages). However the source does mention some interesting proceedures as how they’re reconstructing the language. 

First, Gallaic is (or was) a Celtic language, and Celtic languages are still a thing today. This means we can look at the modern-day Celtic languages and use them as a key to unlock most of the aspects of the language such as word order for example, 

Second, Celtic influence is very present in Galican and Portuguese, specially in the northern dialects. It’s save to say that after Latin, Celtic languages were the 2nd most influencal group in creating Galican-Portuguese, which would later split into two distinct, albeit very similar languages. This means that thousands of words of Celtic origin, including place names, have entered the modern day languages and are still widely used in common vocabulary. So we can sort of fill the gaps with the vocabulary we have today, even if only in theory.

And finally, the modern-day languages can actually offer us some insight into the phonology of Gallaic. It’s said that one of the reasons why Portuguese sounds so different from Spanish is because of the deeper Celtic influence, which makes it sound more “rough”. In fact, I often see this description of European Portuguese going around and it goes “it sounds like Russians trying to speak Spanish”. It might sound weird for some, but apparently there’s a strong enough consensus among people who speak neither of them, as shown by stuff like this:

Source: (x)

Or this google search of mine:

To be honest I feel flattered. Russian is a lovely language.

So as a final note, the revival of Gallaic does sound good on paper, but for now we shouldn’t raise the bar too high given the limited resources. I’m still skeptic about this subject although I can see how the examples above can provide a lot of help. But then again, we can always end up finding more stuff and new ways to put the pieces together.

I hope this suffices and thank you once again for asking!

anonymous asked:

Hi!I want to read about celtic warrior women, do you know any original source or something about it? especially about celtiberian women, thanks :)

Hi anon, sorry for the late reply. Here’s a brief list of resources, but I will be doing additional research and posting historical quotes, extracts from books and other related posts. Hope this helps!

Online sources:

- Ancient Celtic Women and the historians who loved/hated them
- Famous Celtic women in history
- Celtic Warrior Women (Mythology)
- Celtic Women

Books:

- Women of the Celts - Jean Markale
- Celtic Myth and Religion - Sharon Paice MacLeod
- Wild Irish Roses: Tales of Brigits, Kathleens, and Warrior Queens - Trina Robbins
- Creating Form from the Mist: The Wisdom of Women in Celtic Myth and Culture - Lynne Sinclair-Wood
Women of the Celts - Jean Markale
- Boadicea: warrior queen of the Celts -  John Matthews
- Celtic women in legend, myth and history - Lyn Webster Wilde

Gallery: X

Statue of Viriato, at Viseu, Portugal

Viriatus (known as Viriato in Portuguese and Spanish) was the most important leader of the Lusitanian people that resisted Roman expansion into the regions of western Hispania (as the Romans called it) or western Iberia (as the Greeks called it), where the Roman province of Lusitania would be finally established after the conquest.

Viriatus developed alliances with other Iberian groups, even far away from his usual theatres of war, inducing them to rebel against Rome. He led his army, supported by most of the Lusitanian and Vetton tribes as well as by other Celtiberian allies, to several victories over the Romans between 147 BC and 139 BC before being betrayed by them and murdered while sleeping.

Legendary Objects

Weapons

Swords

  • Fragarach - forged by the gods, wielded by Manannán mac Lir and Lugh Lamfada.  No armour could stop it, and it would grant its wielder command over the powers of wind.
  • Excalibur -  the sword which Merlin received from the Lady of the Lake.
  • Tyrfing - said to be the sword of Odin, however, Svafrlami was the first owner of the cursed sword.
  • Joyeuse - the sword of Charlemagne. 
  • Tizona - the sword of El Cid, it frightens any unworthy opponents.

Polearms

  • Ascalon - the spear that St George used to kill the dragon.
  • Gáe Buide and Gáe Derg - spears used by Diarmuid Ua Duibhne and they could inflict wounds that none can recover from.
  • Lance of Olyndicus - used by the celtiberians’ war chief who fought against Rome. According to Florus, he wielded a silver lance that was sent to him by the gods from the sky.
  • Spear of Destiny - the spear said to have pierced Jesus at the crucifixion.

Bows

  • Apollo’s Bow - could cause health or cause famine and death in sleep.
  • Artemis’ Bow - crafted by moonlight and silver wood or made of gold. 
  • Cupid’s Bow - which, along with dove- and owl-fletched arrows, could cause one to love or hate the person he/she first saw after being struck.
  • Ichaival - a bow possessed by Odin. Another source said it was came from Ydalir, the home of the god Ullr. It possessed the power of each pull of just 1 arrow, it will release 10 arrows.

Clothing

  • Aphrodite’s Magic Girdle - a magic material that made whoever you desired fall in love with you. 
  • The Falcon Cloak - owned by Freyja, it allows the wielder to turn into a falcon and fly.
  • The Hide of Leviathan - was supposedly able to be turned into everlasting clothing or impenetrable suits of armour.
  • The Hide of the Nemean Lion - which Heracles earned overcoming the Nemean lion, was supposedly able to endure every weapon and was unbreakable.
  • Seven-league Boots -  allowed the wearer to travel seven leagues each step.
  • Tarnkappe - Sigurd’s magical cloak which makes the wearer invisible.

Jewellery

Necklaces

  • Necklace of Harmonia - allowed any woman wearing it to remain eternally young and beautiful, but also brought great misfortune to all of its wearers or owners.
  • Necklace of The Lady of the Lake - It was enchanted so that its wearer would be unfathomably loved. Its true name is unknown.

Rings

  • Andvarinaut - a magical ring capable of producing gold, first owned by Andvari.
  • Draupnir - a golden arm ring possessed by Odin. The ring was a source of endless wealth. 
  • Ring of Dispel - a ring which can dispel any enchantment.
  • Ring of Gyges - a mythical magical artifact that granted its owner the power to become invisible at will.
  • Seal of Solomon - a magical brass or steel ring that could imprison demons.

Relics

  • Baetylus - a sacred stone which was supposedly endowed with life.
  • Cintamani Stone - a stone believed to have fallen from the skies during the reign of king Lha Tototi Nyentsen in a chest with four other objects.
  • Pandora’s Box - the sealed box that contained all the evils of mankind.
  • Sessho-seki - a stone that kills anyone who comes into contact with it.
  • Stone of Giramphiel - Sir Gawain wins from the knight Fimbeus and it offers him protection against the fiery breath of dragons and the magic of the sorcerer Laamorz.
  • Holy Grail - the cup or platter used by Christ at the Last Supper, and in which Joseph of Arimathea received Christ’s blood at the Cross. Quests for it undertaken by medieval knights are described in versions of the Arthurian legends written from the early 13th century onward.

A Celtiberian shield done in wood, bronze. These shields were often circular and decorated,

Up until the end of the 5th century/beginning of the 4th century bce, Celtiberian cemeteries bore much in the way of rich, military related grave goods, including swords and shields, and an quite the accumulation of bronze artifacts such as helmets, cuirasses, military styled brooches called fibula, horse equipment etc. This indicates the presence of a ‘warrior elite’, meaning that the richer burials were more likely to also be those of great military leaders who had achieved their place in high society via their battle prowess.

untilterminalfailure  asked:

Hey, I'm about to run a VtR chronicle that's going to be a heist story. I've polled every Wiccan, every mythology buff, every fantasy novel reader I know - other than the Philosopher's Stone, no one can tell me of an artifact that can provide great riches. Barring this, my last resort, I'm just going to make one up, but I was hoping to find something with a premade backstory.

Hi untilterminalfailure. Thanks for your question!

There are a lot of legends of things, places, or magical rituals that bring about wealth and prosperity for people - which, given humanity’s obsession with personal property and ownership, isn’t very surprising.

A quick search about the resources I use often brought me to this page: Wikipedia: List of Mythological Objects.

Here are some of the examples that really stand out in relation to your specific request. Bear in mind I know little about some of them, so I encourage you to do further research on those that really grab your attention. I’ve added some notes when an idea came to mind to put a bit of a spin on it to better suit your needs.

  • Draupnir, a golden arm ring possessed by Odin. The ring was a source of endless wealth. (Norse mythology)
  • Vaidurya, most precious of all stones, sparkling beauty beyond compare, the stone worn by the goddess Lakshmi and the goddess of wealth Rigveda. (Hindu Mythology)
  • Nábrók (Death Underpants), are a pair of pants made from the skin of a dead man, which are capable of producing an endless supply of money. (Icelandic folklore)
  • Andvaranaut, a magical ring capable of producing gold, first owned by Andvari. (Norse mythology)
  • Philosopher’s stone, said to perform alchemy without an equal sacrifice being made, such as turning lead to gold, and creating something out of nothing
  • Jeweled Branch of Hōrai, a branch from a tree found on Hōrai, these trees of gold have jewels for leaves. One of Kaguya-hime’s suitor set out to search for the branch. (Japanese mythology). Sometimes it isn’t the thing itself that produces wealth directly, but what it can lead people to or produce indirectly. Never underestimate the value of selling something truly desired by many.
  • Glasir (Gleaming), a tree or grove described as “the most beautiful among gods and men”, bearing golden leaves located in the realm of Asgard, outside the doors of Valhalla. (Norse mythology)
  • Golden Bough, before entering Hades, Deiphobe tells Aeneas he must obtain the bough of gold which grows nearby in the woods around her cave, and must be given as a gift to Proserpina, the queen of Pluto, king of the underworld. (Roman mythology)
  • Golden apple, an element that appears in various national and ethnic folk legends or fairy tales.
  • Alkahest, a hypothetical universal solvent, having the power to dissolve every other substance, including gold. It was much sought after by alchemists for what they thought would be its invaluable medicinal qualities. Alchemy exists in many systems and its parallels with magic, rarity, and incredible abilities are part of popular knowledge. Sometimes its an ingredient, other times a secret technique could be what‘s truly valuable.
  • Ichor, is the ethereal golden fluid that is the blood of the gods and/or immortals. (Greek mythology)
  • Orichalcum, a metal mentioned in several ancient writings, including a story of Atlantis in the Critias dialogue, recorded by Plato. According to Critias, orichalcum was considered second only to gold in value, and was found and mined in many parts of Atlantis in ancient times. A material so rare, so sought after, that having even a little of it yields great wealth.
  • Golden Fleece, sought by Jason and the Argonauts. (Greek mythology). Could be the fleece, could be the sheep.
  • Pot of Gold, Leprechaun store away all their coins in a hidden pot of gold at the end of the rainbow. (Irish mythology) What if the pot wasn’t just a container, but somehow produced it as well? Imagine the worth to that secret, as well as the truth of how its done.
  • Purple Gold Red Gourd, a powerful magic gourd that sucks anyone who speaks before it inside and melts them down into a bloody stew. (Chinese mythology). Okay, so bloody stew may not be all that valuable to most… but what if it wasn’t stew it produced, but instead gave something sweeter. At least to those willing and able to pay its hideous cost.
  • Lance of Olyndicus, the celtiberians’ war chief who fought against Rome. According to Florus, he wielded a silver lance that was sent to him by the gods from the sky. Forgetting the fact that a weapon can be forged from an expensive material, or do something wondrous, what about its rarity, or the legends and meaning carried in its history.
  • Silver apple, magical silver apples can be found on the Isle of Apple Trees. (Irish mythology)
  • Lyngurium (also Ligurium), the name of a mythical gemstone believed to be formed of the solidified urine of the lynx (the best ones coming from wild males). Finally, something to do with all that lynx piss.
  • Toadstone (also Bufonite), a mythical stone or gem thought to be found in, or produced by, a toad, and is supposed to be an antidote to poison. They’re already killing stuff, why not turn its parts into something useful?

Well, I hope that gets you started. Have a peek at the original source page I posted for more ideas.

And check out Tabletop Gaming Resources for more art, tips and tools for your game!

Celtiberian Footed Cup with Warrior Frieze, 3rd-2nd century BC

A squat unglazed drinking vessel with narrow foot-ring, carinated body and everted rim; to the lower body, red painted concentric rings, to the shoulder a frieze of advancing warriors with helmets, spears and shields next to birds and foliage; running zigzag design to the rim. 

The Celtiberians were Celtic-speaking people of the Iberian Peninsula in the final centuries BC. Extant tribal names include the Arevaci, Belli, Titti, Lusones, and Berones. The modern Iberian Peninsula includes Spain, Portugal, Andorra, as well as a part of France and the British Territory of Gibraltar.

Beautiful craftsmanship, bronze, a representation of a horse with a blanket which the Celtiberians traditionally used as a saddle. The tail and forefeet can also be used as fasteners for a warrior’s cape.

What is perhaps most interesting and curious about this piece is that it has become the symbol of Soria, where the hillfort of Numancia is found. The same as the donkey in Cataluña, the sheep in Navarra, this icon can be found on bumperstickers and postcards across the province. It has for this reason become the most famous piece in the Numancia Museum.

anonymous asked:

Hello, ummm I was wondering what the goddess Arianrhod would fall under? From what I've read she is a welsh goddess so does she fall under being gaelic or celtic, or something else? Thank you for your time. Also thanks for dealing with my awkwardness

I made a graphic! If I’m not wrong, this is how it works:

CELTIC is a broad category that Gaulish, Celtiberian, Brythonic, and Gaelic all fall under. From there, we get even more subcategories under Brythonic and Gaelic (maybe also Gaulish and Celtiberian but I’m not sure??)

Anywho, to answer your question, Arianrhod is a Celtic goddess but not a Gaelic one, but a Brythonic goddess–specifically Welsh.

I hope this clears it up a bit! And please let me know if my info-graphic is wrong (I really only focus on the Blue part, so the other colors are kinda ??? to me)

EDIT: My friend who is waaay more knowledgeable about Gaul than me weighed in and so the graphic has changed! It’s a bit simplistic, but it’ll work for introductory purposes.

[2/2] mythologies → Celtic

Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, the religion of the Iron Age Celts. Like other Iron Age Europeans, the early Celts maintained a polytheistic mythology and religious structure. Among Celts in close contact with Ancient Rome, such as the Gauls and Celtiberians, their mythology did not survive the Roman Empire, their subsequent conversion to Christianity, and the loss of their Celtic languages. It is mostly through contemporary Roman and Christian sources that their mythology has been preserved.