but why???? how the fuck did this little bean shaped nubbin of a thing wind up being this all-important piece of cell that we learn about in once sentence and then completely forget about until it’s time to take an exam?
tumblr, sit down and let me learn you a thing
back in the waaaaaaaaaaaaay back early days of life, when there were just like, bacteria and random assed algae and shit floating around in the primordial soup, before there was oxygen in the atmosphere, all cells got their energy from anaerobic respiration
which basically means they used no oxygen, just kinda fermented stuff and nibbled at nutrient bits here and there, but it was suuuuuuuper inefficient
like, imagine trying to run through your day on only two sips of coffee. that’s literally all you can make each day is two sips of coffee, and you HAVE to work with it in order to do your whole life and living thing. that is literally all you are allowed
you’d be pretty fuckin sluggish, amirite
well, along the way, these new kinds of bacteria start forming. they have these weird greenish pigments. they can use the sun to make a jillion times more energy than most other cells. like, by an enormous margin. like, instead of starting their day with two sips of coffee, they start their day with three and a half cups.
and the byproduct of their energy conversion is oxygen
suddenly they just start breeding, since they can outperform everything else in the primordial soup
and this oxygen keeps filling the air, changing the composition of the atmosphere from methane, ammonia, nitrogen, and CO2, to something a little more oxygen rich. the skies turn blue. the oceans go from olive to reddish to blue as the iron in them oxidizes and falls to the seafloor. suddenly it starts looking like what we’re used to.
these little green bacteria start making some pretty sweet deals. some of them sneak into larger cells, trading their energy output for not having to hunt down nutrients for their own survival. the cells they live inside stop trying to make energy on their own and rely on the bacteria, now basically functioning as chloroplasts.
but now that there’s oxygen in the atmosphere, a NEW kind of bacteria emerge. these little guys are purple.
these guys use sunlight and oxygen to produce even MORE energy than just chloroplasts on their own. They’re mega efficient, but they don’t produce oxygen at the end of their little processes. instead they make sulfates and phosphates.
these little guys start hanging around inside larger cells, some of which have chloroplasts, and some of which instead consume other cells to create energy
they give up photosynthesis, instead getting their energy from either the chloroplasts or the “food” from the larger cells, and in return the bigger cells get an enormous amount of energy, which lets them compete on a much higher level than before.
that’s where mitochondria come from.
but the thing is, mitochondrial DNA doesn’t change much over time. It was already pretty solid when it first entered the early, larger cells.
what they’ve found is that plants, fungi, and animals all have different mitochondrial DNA bases
and protists have basically a FRILLION different types of mitochondrial DNA
this means that this happened multiple times, each using slightly different kinds of little purple bacteria
in fact, fungi’s are SO different that some of the codons in the DNA, that in every other organism on earth mean “stop coding for anything, this is the end of the sequence” in fact produce a completely different result and make amino acids instead like tryptophan
which means this has to be an ancient, crazy lineage that happened before DNA was really set in stone, before the different codons became universal for different kinds of amino acids
Referred to by my biology teacher in high school as a “cellular workhorse” this molecule is constantly being used and reused in the living cell to facilitate energy transfer for a wide range of metabolic processes. Cells break down the ATP to release energy for vital processes and also reform the molecule in order to transfer energy onwards, hence ATP’s nickname as the “energy currency” in cells. The breakdown process involves the removal of the phosphate group on the end (top-left in the diagram) to convert the molecule into ADP (adenosine diphosphate).
The phosphorus design is based on the 5-petal Woodland Star flower, each petal having 3 lobes.
I’m sorry, this isn’t Jojo at all but I think I’ve had it for today. As a pharmacy tech, I’m tired of hearing “Well, I started to feel better so I didn’t finish them.” I always knew this but now as a Molecular and Cellular Biology major, I not only know why but how. If you’re willing to heed my advice from the title, good; be on your way. If you need to know more, keep reading.
It’s widely known–to some extent–that not completing a regiment of antibiotics can result in resistant bacteria, or even super bacteria.
But in an infection, you already have resistant bacteria lurking. Not taking antibiotics doesn’t literally create resistant bacteria. So how, then, do the antibiotics take care of the resistant ones?
A lot of antibiotics aren’t bacterialcidal: They don’t actually kill them. Many inhibit growth by some mechanism depending if the bacteria is gram negative or gram positive. For example, penicillin inhibits growth by disrupting the formation of a peptidoglycan layer on gram positive bacteria. Others target the LPS layer on gram negative ones. This keeps the non resistant bacteria at bay. So what kills the resistant ones? Your immune system. Antibiotics buy time and energy for your immune system to recognize and destroy the resistant strains. Your immune system is intelligent in that sense and can form antibodies for new illnesses. It’s important to give your immune system this time because bacteria grow, mutate, and transfer genetic material at astonishing rates. If you wanted to look at a microcosm of the mechanics that go into evolution, you’ve got it with bacteria.
There are three methods aside from binary fission in which they transfer genes (I won’t get into the minutia of the form of informational material): Transformation, transduction and conjugation.
In transformation, a bacteria can pickup lost genes from a ruptured and dead cell.
Transduction is a way to transfer information via a viral vector.
In conjugation, genes are transferred through something called a pilus: It’s a bridge between two cells that pipes a copy of the information from one cell to another receptive cell and is the only method that doesn’t involve killing either cells. Resistant bacteria like to give around that resistance information like they’re burning a CD for their friends.
So please finish your antibiotics if you’ve been given them. It doesn’t matter if you’ve started to feel better or even great. Finish them.
(Hey science people, If I’ve missed anything or even got something wrong, help me out. There’s obviously lengthy stuff I’ve left out but I think I got the basics).
Since you mentioned it, Ironhawk college AU where everyone thinks tony and Clint are just friends and Tony has a terrible reputation for being a slut but it turns out he and Clint have been monogamous for YEARS and it's just rumors.
Send all your love and praise to @summerpipedream. They beta read this fic (and did a fantastic job). Without them this fic probably would not have been posted for a few more days, so thank you, summerpipedream. <3
“So, how would you feel if we stored the XL twin beds and we got bunk beds instead.” Tony, Clint’s new roommate, motioned at said twin beds as he stood in the middle of their dorm room. They had bumped in each other as they had been moving in, and learned that neither one of them had a parent or friend helping them, so they’d spent most of the afternoon bringing in their boxes of stuff and building a fort instead of setting up their room.
Clint was currently rearranging one of the walls of said fort. “I can chip in to pay for bunk beds, but unless you can afford to pay the storage fee, we’re sticking to the twin beds.”
“So bunk beds it is.” Tony clapped his hands together. “You can even take top bunk. I like to stay up late, so if I’m on the bottom bunk you won’t notice the light from my computer as much. I can even put up a sheet.”
“Seriously?” Tony was going to pay for storage and let Clint have top bunk? Either Tony was the best roommate ever, or this was some sort of trap and Tony was going to be the worst roommate ever.
Tony nodded, then gestured to the wall where one of the twin beds was located. “We can put a TV over there. I’ll pay for cable, unless you’re already set up for a streaming service.”
“Dude! Are you for real?”
Tony pinched himself. “I feel real.”
A smile spread across Clint’s face. “I think I’ve just fallen in love with you a little.”
“So, you up for it?” Bobbi shouted over the music and drank from her party cup. She nodded at the yellow laminated paper dangling from his neck.
It was the makeout party of the year. Everyone had to wear tags: green, yellow, or red. Red signified no kissing allowed at all, yellow was “ask first,” and green was “go for it.”
Tony and Clint had discussed it. Both had been tempted to wear green, but they had agreed it would be better to wear yellow instead.
Clint considered Bobbi. She was attractive. Very attractive. He really wanted to kiss her, but Tony had made a comment two weeks ago that he thought Bobbi had a crush on Clint. Even if it was a makeout party with no strings attached, Clint didn’t want to risk the fall out.
Besides, he had a suspicion there was a reason why Tony had brought up the crush.
“Sorry. Tempting, but my significant other might not be happy.”
“You have a girlfriend?” Bobbi frowned and cocked her head. “How come I’ve never seen her?”
Clint just smiled.
“Clint!” Tony shouted over the music as he barreled toward Clint. He shoved people aside, only pausing to grab someone wearing a green tag by the face to kiss them loudly and comically, then push them away.
Tony threw himself at Clint, his arms flopping over Clint’s shoulder and around his waist. He kissed Clint messily around his mouth, his lips never quite landing on Clint’s just right. His breath reeked of alcohol. “I love you. This party is awesome. You’re awesome. So glad we agreed to this.”
Finally, Tony’s lips found Clint’s and he shoved his tongue into Clint’s mouth.
Clint sputtered and pushed Tony’s face away. He laughed when Tony pouted at him. “You were using your tongue like my mouth was the bottom of a Nutella jar with the last bit of chocolate inside.”
“Hey, Tony,” Bobbi started hesitantly, “Clint is wearing yellow.” She pointed to Clint’s tag for Tony.
Tony scrunched his face, his alcohol addled brain not comprehending. “I think you’re missing something, Bobbi.”
Clint waved away Bobbi’s concern. “It’s okay, Tony can kiss me whenever he wants, as long as I’m not mad at him.”
Tony grinned. “Isn’t he great?” Tony asked Bobbi.
Bobbi gave them an odd look. Like she didn’t know quite what to make of them. “Yeah.”
“Looks like Tony’s made a new friend.” Sam chuckled as he elbowed Clint in the side.
Clint looked up from his stir fry bowl.
Tony was chatting with Helen Cho from his Cellular and Molecular Biology class outside of the checkout line for cafeteria food. The two were laughing. Helena hugged her tray in one arm then reached into her pocket with the other. She pulled out a pen. Tony offered his arm for her to write on.
“Damn.” Sam smirked at Bucky across the table. “Tony may have more game than you.”
“Doesn’t change the fact that you’re still single.” Bucky snatched a fry off of Sam’s plate.
“Quality, Bucky. That’s what I’m looking for.”
“Doesn’t mean you can’t have fun while looking.”
Tony and Helen had separated. Tony headed over to Clint’s table.
Clint smiled and nudged Sam to scoot over to make room for Tony.
With a grunt, Sam did so. “So how’s the new girlfriend?” Sam teased Tony.
Tony rolled his eyes. “More like lab partner.” Tony sat beside Clint. Tony had only been seated for a second when he wrapped his ankle around Clint’s under the table. “Clint’s the only person for me.”
Tony pecked Clint on the cheek.
Bucky rolled his eyes. “We get it. You two are soulmate-roommates. No need to kiss each other in front of us.”
Clint and Tony shared a look and grinned.
Clint grabbed Tony’s face and gave him a hard, messy kiss that went on until Sam threw his french fries at their faces.
Tony and Clint laughed as they broke apart.
“Clint. Tony,” Steve spoke like he was talking to a potential jumper who was standing on the edge of a rooftop. “We all know you love each other.”
“Maybe a little too much,” Rhodey added.
Steve sent Rhodey an annoyed look, and Rhodey sent it right back.
“Listen, you two can’t marry each other just because you make good roommates,” Sam cut in when he saw Steve and Rhodey headbutting.
“I don’t see why not,” said Tony, who was pacing his dorm room as he looked up wedding venues on his tablet.
Clint laid sprawled on the couch, his chin resting purposefully in his hand to show off the gold band around his finger. “I think it’s the perfect reason. I mean, we have been dating for almost four years now, and we clearly enjoy living together, so why not-”
“What!” Steve, Rhodey, and Sam shouted in unison.
Clint smirked. “Have you three really been this oblivious?”
Tony scoffed. “More like they assumed I was banging every girl I talked to.”
Clint feigned ignorance. “But the kissing, Tony. We kiss all the time. We’ve even held hands when walking. For the last two years we’ve gone on vacations with each other for the holidays. We also share clothes and stuff. I feel like we’ve been pretty blatant.”
Tony gave the trio a pointed look. “I don’t know why they’ve never figured it out. All I know is, none of them should become detectives.”
“This has gotta be a prank,” Sam said.
Rhodey shook his head. “Nope. I know when Tony is lying. He’s serious. Congrats, you two. Sorry, for being a thick dumbass.”
“Does anyone else feel like everything they know is a lie?” Steve asked.
Sam huffed and clapped his hand on Steve’s shoulder. “I feel you on that. However, you have to admit, looking back on it, it does seem obvious. We should have questioned them when they started talking about sharing showers to conserve water.”
“Or you know, when we both answered the door naked that one time,” Tony added.
“So, do you three think our last name should be hyphenated, or should we make up an awesome last name?” Clint asked. “How about ‘Legend of Zelda’ for a last name?”
“Only if both of us change our middle names to ‘the’,” Tony responded.
Clint looked up at Tony adoringly. “You complete me.”
Polar bears face an ironic dilemma. They are surrounded by water they cannot use; ice and snow are too cold and seawater is too salty. They produce all the water they need from the metabolism of fat. Interestingly, adult polar bears consume only fat from the seals they catch. By not consuming protein (and merely recycling their own proteins into new ones), they have no need to urinate or defecate and go for months without doing so, thus saving previous body water.
The Golgi Apparatus is a membrane-bound organelle in the cell thatreceives proteins and lipids from the rough endoplasmic reticulum. It modifies some of them and sorts, concentrates and packs them into sealed droplets called vesicles. This organelle can be seen using an electron micrograph.
|10-10-15|“Don’t give up. Not ever. Not for one single day. Be safe, if you can be. But always be amazing.” ~Clara Oswald
Might as well include a Doctor who quote since my screensaver is the Tardis. However, here are my revised Biology notes. I quite like to make my notes kinda like a comic book, it makes studying easier for me.