This is happening now, people.

In case I get arrested today, please everyone keep posting and sharing as much information as you can here and seriously go in person in a group to local media and demand that they cover this, civil rights violations are rampant, a mans hands were broken with a baton, 85 people arrested, several sprayed with bear mace, they released tear gas, they have a sound cannon out there just matter of time til they use it, they jam the cell and wifi signals and caused my phone to turn off at 40% battery for awhile.

the pipeline is 90%+ completed, this is the last stand on the sacred burial ground by the camps and under the Missouri river, energy transfer partner company wants it done by end of the month and the police are like their mercenaries. they built a larger holding cell so they can arrest more people, they stripsearch people in jail, they have been known to delete photos and video off of peoples phones. helicopters and planes fly around us and identify our faces, our livestream videos are censored, there are infiltrators causing disruption in the camps and informants telling them everything. the media made a blackout so if you searched standing rock nothing showed up.

Please take action to your local media and demand they cover this, dont they have a code of ethics as a profession?! north dakota is breaking so many laws and they need to be held accountable!

Please take action to your local government, demand that your senator and congress person address this.

they are treating environmental activists like terrorists, look at those photos and video who looks like the terrorist to you?

do you want to have freedom in this country?! then take Action! we need everyone everywhere to take to the streets and make calls and tell everyone you know and encounter about what is happening!

do you want clean drinking water?! then take action Now!

and Pray for us!

thank you I love you 

(from Lolly Bee at Standing Rock, North Dakota)

This is the real deal. This has been going on for months. Mainstream media is blocking it from being shown to the masses. In some cases, search engines are blocking out access to live footage. Some of it seems too audacious to accept, but it’s happening. It’s happening every day to the peaceful protesters who are fighting against the Dakota Access Pipeline. Unfortunately, the police has been targeting journalists and photojournalists for arrest and police brutality, so much of the footage taken has been confiscated. (Don’t believe me, check out what happened to Deia Schlosberg and Amy Goodman, along with countless of other journalists of smaller platforms). I did an experimental search on “bear mace” and “standing rock” and saw for myself that the last article about this brutality was from early September (even though there was a live video of it occurring once more just yesterday – and this was a Google search, people. GOOGLE.)

The unethical and abusive behavior by the armed officials needs to be shared and exposed. Please, do your part to share and reblog this so the world will see what is happening in North Dakota.


Scientific Illustration by Nicole Rager Fuller / Sayo Studios, 2014

  1. The key components of genetics: chromosomes, DNA, RNA, and protein production.
  2. Cell Signaling and Drug Action
  3. Growth factors (the blue and purple spheres) bind to certain receiving proteins, called receptors, which relay the growth factor signals into the cell. These signals are further relayed through a large network of proteins by kinases, which eventually change the activity of genes within the nucleus.
  4. Cell signaling is the process used by cells to communicate with other cells. Signals (hormones, growth factors, calcium, nitric oxide, etc.) originate in a cell, leave, and then enter and are interpreted by another cell.
  5. The protein production process in an animal cell, from transcription and translation, to the folding of amino acids into functional proteins.

(via DNA and Genetics)

Mobile Startup Creates Censorship-Proof App to Help Activists And Crime Fighters
Update: Since the publication of this article, Facebook removed and blocked Cell 411 from allowing users to post live video to their own walls; the company is now trying to find a work around the Facebook block and still allow users to present live video streams to Facebook friends.

Startup Cell 411 Inc. (getcell411.com) has created a mobile app that makes it virtually impossible for governments, police and criminals to erase video which could serve as evidence of a crime or abuse. 

The app, called Cell 411, has been around for a number of months but the newly-released version has features that are unseen in any other mobile apps used by activists, aiming to fight censorship and also criminal activity.

Cells talk to their neighbors before making a move

To decide whether and where to move in the body, cells must read chemical signals in their environment. Individual cells do not act alone during this process, two new studies on mouse mammary tissue show. Instead, the cells make decisions collectively after exchanging information about the chemical messages they are receiving.

“Cells talk to nearby cells and compare notes before they make a move,” says Ilya Nemenman, a theoretical biophysicist at Emory University and a co-author of both studies, published by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS). The co-authors also include scientists from Johns Hopkins, Yale and Purdue.

David Ellison, Andrew Mugler, Matthew D. Brennan, Sung Hoon Lee, Robert J. Huebner, Eliah R. Shamir, Laura A. Woo, Joseph Kim, Patrick Amar, Ilya Nemenman, Andrew J. Ewald, and Andre Levchenko. Cell–cell communication enhances the capacity of cell ensembles to sense shallow gradients during morphogenesis. PNAS, January 2016 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1516503113

Andrew Mugler, Andre Levchenko, and Ilya Nemenman. Limits to the precision of gradient sensing with spatial communication and temporal integration. PNAS, January 2016 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1509597112


*spoilers for ‘Bubbled’*

This weeks episodes are the best in the series in my opinion. I love getting background on Characters and the Gem War. And there was gorgeous background art in this episode.

What we learned:

  • Eyeball is a nugget of anger
  • Steven: “no signal? Come on, I’m right by a satellite!” even in cartoons the cell signal struggle is real
  • Eyeball (and possibly Jasper) came to Earth for closure.
  • Steven keeps a picture of Rose on his phone
  • It seems like Rose’s healing powers are rare. We don’t know if they’re rare for a Rose Quartz or rare for any Gems to have.
  • Eyeball: “they’re gonna give me my own Pearl!” I don’t think Pearls are exclusive to Diamonds, just upper class, important Gems.
  • Steven asked what would happen to him if something happened to his Gem. This is a good question, he’s half human, would he exist, just without Gem powers? Would Rose reform out of the Gem? 
  • It seems Rose did shattered Pink Diamond
  • When Steven was getting pulled into the Ruby Ship, the opening made a Pink Diamond symbol.

Garnet, talking about Rose shattering PD: “She didn’t always do what was best for her, but she always did what was best for Earth.”

Pepper and Halt: Spicy Chemical May Inhibit Gut Tumors

Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine report that dietary capsaicin – the active ingredient in chili peppers – produces chronic activation of a receptor on cells lining the intestines of mice, triggering a reaction that ultimately reduces the risk of colorectal tumors.

The findings are published in the August 1, 2014 issue of The Journal of Clinical Investigation.

The receptor or ion channel, called TRPV1, was originally discovered in sensory neurons, where it acts as a sentinel for heat, acidity and spicy chemicals in the environment. “These are all potentially harmful stimuli to cells,” said Eyal Raz, MD, professor of Medicine and senior author of the study. “Thus, TRPV1 was quickly described as a molecular ‘pain receptor.’ This can be considered to be its conventional function, which all takes place in the nervous system.”

But Raz and colleagues have found that TPRV1 is also expressed by epithelial cells of the intestines, where it is activated by epidermal growth factor receptor or EGFR. EGFR is an important driver of cell proliferation in the intestines, whose epithelial lining is replaced approximately every four to six days.

“A basic level of EGFR activity is required to maintain the normal cell turnover in the gut,” said Petrus de Jong, MD, first author of the study. “However, if EGFR signaling is left unrestrained, the risk of sporadic tumor development increases.”

The scientists discovered that TRPV1, once activated by the EGFR, initiates a direct negative feedback on the EGFR, dampening the latter to reduce the risk of unwanted growth and intestinal tumor development. They found that mice genetically modified to be TRPV1-deficient suffered higher-than-normal rates of intestinal tumor growths.

“These results showed us that epithelial TRPV1 normally works as a tumor suppressor in the intestines,” said de Jong. In addition, molecular studies of human colorectal cancer samples recently uncovered multiple mutations in the TRPV1 gene, though Raz noted that currently there is no direct evidence that TRPV1 deficiency is a risk factor for colorectal cancer in humans.

“A direct association between TRPV1 function and human colorectal cancer should be addressed in future clinical studies,” he said.

But if such proves to be the case, the current study suggests one potential remedy might be spicy capsaicin, which acts as an irritant in mammals, generating a burning sensation in contact with tissue. Capsaicin is already broadly used as an analgesic in topical ointments, where its properties as an irritant overwhelm nerves, rendering them unable to report pain for extended periods of time. It’s also the active ingredient in pepper spray.

The researchers fed capsaicin to mice genetically prone to developing multiple tumors in the gastrointestinal tract. The treatment resulted in a reduced tumor burden and extended the lifespans of the mice by more than 30 percent. The treatment was even more effective when combined with celecoxib, a COX-2 non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug already approved for treating some forms of arthritis and pain.

“Our data suggest that individuals at high risk of developing recurrent intestinal tumors may benefit from chronic TRPV1 activation,” said Raz. “We have provided proof-of-principle.”

Thank you to anybody who ever reblogged this post. I really appreciate your help.

Unfortunately, Rebecca passed away at 14:45 on 12th May 2015 (Tuesday). She caught an infection which spread through her body very quickly, as the chemo had broken down her immune system. None of us expected her death to happen this way, nor did we expect it would happen so soon. She was a very beautiful human being and she will always have a special place in my heart.

Below is the original text that accompanied this photo.


Keep reading


Cell Signaling 
Requested by oceanliquidation
(Cliffnotes AP Biology Workbook 4th Edition)

Please note there are 2 more types of signal receptors: 
Protein Kinase Receptors: transmembrane-protein enzymes that are kinases, that add a phosphate group to  protein. The best understood of these are Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.
Intracellular Receptors: receptors positioned in the cytoplasm or nucleus, and are able to pass through the phospholipid membrane. 

How cells communicate

During embryonal development of vertebrates, signaling molecules inform each cell at which position it is located. In this way, the cell can develop its special structure and function. For the first time now, researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have shown that these signaling molecules are transmitted in bundles via long filamentary cell projections. Studies of zebrafish of the scientists of the European Zebrafish Resource Center (EZRC) of KIT revealed how the transport of the signaling molecules influences signaling properties. A publication in the Nature Communications journal presents the results.

Caption: These images show control of cell differentiation in the central nervous system: Long, blue-colored cytoplasmic projections, so-called filopodia, carry the red-colored signaling protein Wnt at the tip. As soon as neighboring cells are activated by the Wnt filopodia, the contact points are colored yellow. Credit: Photos: Eliana Stanganello and Steffen Scholpp

Know the Enemy

Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most common and deadliest of brain cancers. It has steadfastly defied advances in neurosurgery, radiation therapy and various conventional or novel drugs. Even with maximum treatment effort, the median patient survival rate for a diagnosed GBM is nine to 12 months – a statistic that has not significantly changed in decades.

If science is to eventually conquer GBM, it is going to have to better understand the enemy. In a recent paper, published in the Journal of Biological Chemistry, researchers at UC San Diego School of Medicine took a step in that direction.

In glioblastoma, a mutation of the EGF receptor, called EGFRvIII, is a biomarker of tumor aggressiveness, even when EGFRvIII is expressed only in a small sub-population of tumor cells. The researchers, led by senior author Steven Gonias, MD, PhD, Distinguished Professor and Chair of the Department of Pathology, report that EGFRvIII-expressing cells release a soluble glycoprotein called suPAR, which activates cell-signaling and promotes migration and invasion of EGFRvIII-negative cells.

Their conclusion: suPAR appears to be a cancer-promoting factor in glioblastoma and likely one of the reasons GBMs are so difficult to treat and defeat.

External image

Dr. Karine Gibbs is an assistant professor at Harvard University. She received her undergraduate degree from Harvard and a PhD in microbiology and immunology from Stanford University.

Her research is focused on processes by which organisms and cells can tell the difference between themselves and other, i.e., self recognition. These processes are exemplified in the bacteria Proteus mirabilis. Various forms of the bacteria detect each other as either foreign or identical. Identical cells merge, while distinct barriers are formed between foreign cells.  The Gibbs lab hypothesizes that proteins on the surface of the cell are responsible for self vs. non-self recognition.  Additionally, self-recognition elements are exported from the cell (chemicals, biomolecules etc) which are taken up by surrounding cells and identified as either foreign or identical. 

The solution to a 50-year-old riddle: Why certain cells repel one another

When cells from the connective tissue collide, they repel one another - this phenomenon was discovered more than 50 years ago. It is only now, however, that researchers at the University of Basel have discovered the molecular basis for this process, as they report in the journal Developmental Cell. Their findings could have important implications for cancer research.

Prof. Olivier Pertz’s research group at the University of Basel has now precisely answered these questions. The group identified a coherent signaling axis consisting of three proteins called Slit2, Robo4, and srGAP2 which operates as follows:

  •  The repulsion factor Slit2 binds to the receptor Robo4, whereupon the signal enters the cell’s interior and activates srGAP2.
  •  This molecule consequently inhibits the regulator Rac1, which coordinates the cytoskeleton.
  •  The inactivation of Rac1 causes the cell to retract - such that the two cells repel one another.

If the function of Slit2, Robo4, or srGAP2 is deactivated, colliding cells will stick to one another and will not separate as easily.

Caption: The protein srGAP2, which initiates the repulsion reaction, is heavily concentrated at the front of the cell (in red, yellow, and green). Credit: University of Basel, Department of Biomedicine

Okay but aliens who are human enthusiasts. Like they collect all of our little sound bites that escape into outer space. The ones that are considered the most rare and precious are the ones of people just sitting around chatting with each other about benign things, especially ones that come from cell phone signals. On the flip side, the most common and worthless ones are ones from important events. The most common ones that every collector has are the signals that were purposely sent out to space. Like the ones from SETI, the ones that say “hey we’re here” cause, duh, everyone knows you’re there.


New evidence that chronic stress predisposes brain to mental illness

University of California, Berkeley, researchers have shown that chronic stress generates long-term changes in the brain that may explain why people suffering chronic stress are prone to mental problems such as anxiety and mood disorders later in life.

Their findings could lead to new therapies to reduce the risk of developing mental illness after stressful events.

Doctors know that people with stress-related illnesses, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), have abnormalities in the brain, including differences in the amount of gray matter versus white matter. Gray matter consists mostly of cells – neurons, which store and process information, and support cells called glia – while white matter is comprised of axons, which create a network of fibers that interconnect neurons. White matter gets its name from the white, fatty myelin sheath that surrounds the axons and speeds the flow of electrical signals from cell to cell.

How chronic stress creates these long-lasting changes in brain structure is a mystery that researchers are only now beginning to unravel.

In a series of experiments, Daniela Kaufer, UC Berkeley associate professor of integrative biology, and her colleagues, including graduate students Sundari Chetty and Aaron Freidman, discovered that chronic stress generates more myelin-producing cells and fewer neurons than normal. This results in an excess of myelin – and thus, white matter – in some areas of the brain, which disrupts the delicate balance and timing of communication within the brain.

“We studied only one part of the brain, the hippocampus, but our findings could provide insight into how white matter is changing in conditions such as schizophrenia, autism, depression, suicide, ADHD and PTSD,” she said.

The hippocampus regulates memory and emotions, and plays a role in various emotional disorders.

Kaufer and her colleagues published their findings in the Feb. 11 issue of the journal Molecular Psychiatry.

Does stress affect brain connectivity?

Kaufer’s findings suggest a mechanism that may explain some changes in brain connectivity in people with PTSD, for example. One can imagine, she said, that PTSD patients could develop a stronger connectivity between the hippocampus and the amygdala – the seat of the brain’s fight or flight response – and lower than normal connectivity between the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, which moderates our responses.

“You can imagine that if your amygdala and hippocampus are better connected, that could mean that your fear responses are much quicker, which is something you see in stress survivors,” she said. “On the other hand, if your connections are not so good to the prefrontal cortex, your ability to shut down responses is impaired. So, when you are in a stressful situation, the inhibitory pathways from the prefrontal cortex telling you not to get stressed don’t work as well as the amygdala shouting to the hippocampus, ‘This is terrible!’ You have a much bigger response than you should.”

She is involved in a study to test this hypothesis in PTSD patients, and continues to study brain changes in rodents subjected to chronic stress or to adverse environments in early life.

Stress tweaks stem cells

Kaufer’s lab, which conducts research on the molecular and cellular effects of acute and chronic stress, focused in this study on neural stem cells in the hippocampus of the brains of adult rats. These stem cells were previously thought to mature only into neurons or a type of glial cell called an astrocyte. The researchers found, however, that chronic stress also made stem cells in the hippocampus mature into another type of glial cell called an oligodendrocyte, which produces the myelin that sheaths nerve cells.

The finding, which they demonstrated in rats and cultured rat brain cells, suggests a key role for oligodendrocytes in long-term and perhaps permanent changes in the brain that could set the stage for later mental problems. Oligodendrocytes also help form synapses – sites where one cell talks to another – and help control the growth pathway of axons, which make those synapse connections.

The fact that chronic stress also decreases the number of stem cells that mature into neurons could provide an explanation for how chronic stress also affects learning and memory, she said.

Kaufer is now conducting experiments to determine how stress in infancy affects the brain’s white matter, and whether chronic early-life stress decreases resilience later in life. She also is looking at the effects of therapies, ranging from exercise to antidepressant drugs, that reduce the impact of stress and stress hormones.

Fruit fly fat body

Our livers perform upwards of 500 different functions like storing energy molecules and playing roles in immunity. It turns out even small fruit flies have liver-like organs called fat bodies. In this image, a fat body (green) wraps around and cradles the gonad (blue sphere). This image was edited to look kaleidoscopic.

Organs need to communicate with each other about what’s happening in the body. When an animal becomes infected, cells must signal to one another to turn on pathogen defenses. The transmission of this signal is complex, but Dr. Beth Stronach’s lab at the University of Pittsburgh uses fruit fly fat bodies to study how different molecules move, transmit signals, and alert cells to invaders. Learning how cells talk to each other in many contexts - and what happens when this goes wrong - will help us understand how our bodies respond to diseases like cancer.

Image captured and submitted by Dr. Beth Stronach/University of Pittsburgh.