cell-signalling

  • me, having a calm night reading through the SCP wiki: I see my cellular device is showing... a notification
  • boy [text]: hey ;)
  • me [text]: hello
  • boy [text]: wyd
  • me [text]: I am having a calm night reading through the SCP wiki
  • me: does not ask in return what he is doing or what he wants to be doing
  • boy [text]: haha but what would you be doing if I was there with you rn ;)
  • me, triangulating the position of the entity's cell signal, recording it, slamming my phone into the wall, picking up its remains, and locking said remains in a lead-lined 30.0 x 20.0 x 10.0-centimeter box, as I close out of all programs on my laptop to enter DEFCON 1 XK-Class Emergency Mode, typing: SCP-XXXX is any one of a number of malicious entities which seek copulation with human women whom they perceive to be heterosexual and attracted to solely heterosexual, monogamous, white, cisgender males such as themselves. 95 percent of SCP-XXXX entities are speculated to be between the ages of 18 and 25 years, and are frequently found roaming college campus football stadiums. Care must be taken when addressing SCP-XXXX instances as they frequently
  • me, radioing the MTF unit commander as I continue typing: I've got another one on the radar lads, ready the containment teams,

Okay but aliens who are human enthusiasts. Like they collect all of our little sound bites that escape into outer space. The ones that are considered the most rare and precious are the ones of people just sitting around chatting with each other about benign things, especially ones that come from cell phone signals. On the flip side, the most common and worthless ones are ones from important events. The most common ones that every collector has are the signals that were purposely sent out to space. Like the ones from SETI, the ones that say “hey we’re here” cause, duh, everyone knows you’re there.

5

If you’ve ever wondered how much of an asshole my roommate is, in the hour I spent doing calc homework without cell signal, she sent me the transcriptions of the following: The Gettysburg address, The lyrics to 5 Jon Cozart songs, And last but not least, Obama’s farewell address. (Followed quickly by a meme)

This is what I put up with.

@alazypizza

3

Cell Signaling 
Requested by oceanliquidation
(Cliffnotes AP Biology Workbook 4th Edition)

Please note there are 2 more types of signal receptors: 
Protein Kinase Receptors: transmembrane-protein enzymes that are kinases, that add a phosphate group to  protein. The best understood of these are Receptor Tyrosine Kinases.
Intracellular Receptors: receptors positioned in the cytoplasm or nucleus, and are able to pass through the phospholipid membrane. 

Neuro chip records brain cell activity at higher resolution

Brain functions are controlled by millions of brain cells. However, in order to understand how the brain controls functions, such as simple reflexes or learning and memory, we must be able to record the activity of large networks and groups of neurons. Conventional methods have allowed scientists to record the activity of neurons for minutes, but a new technology, developed by University of Calgary researchers, known as a bionic hybrid neuro chip, is able to record activity in animal brain cells for weeks at a much higher resolution. The technological advancement was published in the journal Scientific Reports.

“These chips are 15 times more sensitive than conventional neuro chips,” says Naweed Syed, PhD, scientific director of the University of Calgary, Cumming School of Medicine’s Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, member of the Hotchkiss Brain Institute and senior author on the study. “This allows brain cell signals to be amplified more easily and to see real time recordings of brain cell activity at a resolution that has never been achieved before.”

The development of this technology will allow researchers to investigate and understand in greater depth, in animal models, the origins of neurological diseases and conditions such as epilepsy, as well as other cognitive functions such as learning and memory.

“Recording this activity over a long period of time allows you to see changes that occur over time, in the activity itself,” says Pierre Wijdenes, a PhD student in the Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program and the study’s first author. “This helps to understand why certain neurons form connections with each other and why others won’t.”

The cross-faculty team created the chip to mimic the natural biological contact between brain cells, essentially tricking the brain cells into believing that they are connecting with other brain cells. As a result, the cells immediately connect with the chip, thereby allowing researchers to view and record the two-way communication that would go on between two normal functioning brain cells.

“We simulated what Mother Nature does in nature and provided brain cells with an environment where they feel as if they are at home,” says Syed. “This has allowed us to increase the sensitivity of our readings and help neurons build a long-term relationship with our electronic chip.”

While the chip is currently used to analyze animal brain cells, this increased resolution and the ability to make long-term recordings is bringing the technology one step closer to being effective in the recording of human brain cell activity.

“Human brain cell signals are smaller and therefore require more sensitive electronic tools to be designed to pick up the signals,” says Colin Dalton, adjunct professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the Schulich School of Engineering and a co-author on this study. Dalton is also the facility manager of the University of Calgary’s Advanced Micro/nanosystems Integration Facility (AMIF), where the chips were designed and fabricated.

Researchers hope the technology will one day be used as a tool to bring personalized therapeutic options to patients facing neurological disease.

ELI5: why do you see weird patterns when you close your eyes and apply pressure onto them?

This phenomenon is called phosphene.

When light hits the cells in the eye, these cells send a signal to the brain to give an image of what is seen. These cells are called photoreceptor cells, and their main means of activation is when a photon of light hits them. Another way to activate them is via mechanical stimulation (aka applying pressure to they eyes). When you apply mechanical stimulation, the subsequent activation of the cells will be random (not patterned), and when this signal is transmitted to the brain areas that are responsible for generating an image, you will see weird patterns instead of the normal images that would be generated by photon-induced stimulation.

Explain Like I`m Five: good questions, best answers.

Scientists track down possible new treatment for epilepsy

Increasing the concentration of specific fats in the brain could suppress epileptic seizures. This is evident from ground-breaking research carried out by the research groups of Professor Patrik Verstreken (VIB-KU Leuven) and Professor Wim Versées (VIB-Vrije Universiteit Brussel). The results of their close collaboration have been published in the leading trade journal Nature Structural & Molecular Biology.

Professor Patrik Verstreken specializes in brain research, focusing on synapses. These are the junctions between two nerve cells where electrical signals are transmitted. In various brain disorders — such as Parkinson’s disease — there is impaired communication at these synapses.

Professor Wim Versées examines the processes which take place in our cells, right down to the level of individual molecules and atoms. By figuring out the three-dimensional structures of protein molecules, he tries to obtain crucial information about their role in the cell and the mechanisms which underlie various disorders.

The key role of TBC1D24
In earlier research involving fruit flies, Professor Verstreken had already demonstrated that a protein known as ‘Skywalker’ plays a crucial role in maintaining communication between brain cells. An almost identical protein operates in the human brain under the name ‘TBC1D24’.

Professor Patrik Verstreken (VIB-KU Leuven): “Genetic mutations of the protein TBC1D24 cause a deviation known as the DOOR syndrome. Alongside deafness, deformed nails, brittle bones and mental retardation, this serious genetic disorder is characterized by neurodegeneration, movement disorders and epilepsy.”

Analysis with atomic precision
By joining forces with Professor Wim Versées at the VIB research center for structural biology, the scientists were able to figure out the three-dimensional structure of Skywalker, making it possible to study the protein in microscopic detail.

Professor Wim Versées (VIB-Vrije Universiteit Brussel): “Looking at Skywalker in this way gave us completely new insights into the precise function of this protein, and therefore also the function of the human protein TBC1D24. Among other things, we discovered that it connects with specific brain fats. And more importantly, this connection is impaired in over 70% of patients with a TBC1D24 mutation.”

Suppression of epileptic seizures
On the basis of this discovery, the scientists increased the concentration of specific brain fats in fruit flies with a Skywalker mutation. What happened? The epileptic seizures in the sick fruit flies were completely suppressed.

Professor Patrik Verstreken (VIB-KU Leuven): “Our work shows that increasing specific brain fats at the synapses of patients with a TBC1D24 mutation is a possible strategy for preventing epileptic seizures. And although our work focuses on people with TBC1D24 mutations, we think that our findings could be relevant to various forms of epilepsy.”

Scientific cross-pollination
Professor Wim Versées (VIB-Vrije Universiteit Brussel): “Our two research groups will now continue to collaborate in order to seek out strategies for increasing the concentration of specific fats in the brain to prevent epileptic seizures. This research stems from cross-pollination between structural biology, biochemistry and genetics, so we will certainly continue down this interdisciplinary route.”

“Sherlock, do you think Rosie had fun with Mrs. Hudson tonight?”

“I think so, she usually dose.”  

*Fifteen minuets later” 

“No, impossible” 

“Hello boys. Did you miss me?”

“How are you here? You died.”

“Oh John, being dead is so boring. Cute kid by the way. Looks exactly like you.”


“If you’ve hurt her I will-”

“You’ll what? Don’t bother calling anyone, I’ve already blocked the cell signal in this building. The kid’s fine, for now anyway. But that can change very easily. Let’s talk boy.”


(Yes Moriarty is here! Send in questions for John, Sherlock and Moriarty!) 

Scientists Uncover Common Cell Signaling Pathway Awry in Some Types of Autism

Brain cells grow faster in children with some forms of autism due to distinct changes in core cell signaling patterns, according to research from the laboratory of Anthony Wynshaw-Boris, MD, PhD, chair of the department of genetics and genome sciences at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, and a member of the Case Comprehensive Cancer Center. Rapid cell growth can cause early brain overgrowth, a common feature in 20-30% of autistic children. But, the genetics of autistic children vary making it difficult to pinpoint common mechanisms underlying the disease.

“Autism is a complex disorder with multiple genetic and non-genetic factors,” explained Wynshaw-Boris. “Because the causes are diverse, it may help to define a subset of patients that have a common [symptom], in this case early brain overgrowth.”

In a study published in Molecular Psychiatry, Wynshaw-Boris and his colleagues started with skin cell samples from autistic children with enlarged brains and worked backward. Researchers in the laboratory “reprogrammed” donated skin cells to produce cells found in the developing brain including induced pluripotent stem cells and neural progenitor cells. Stem and progenitor cells are important therapeutic tools as they have the potential to grow into a multitude of cell types. The researchers hypothesized that even though the children in the study had different forms of autism, the precursor cells could be used to find common molecular and cellular mechanisms.

The researchers discovered that cells derived from autistic donors grew faster than those from control subjects and activated their genes in distinct patterns. Genes related to cell growth were unusually active, leading to more cells but fewer connections between them. This can cause faulty cell networks unable to properly transmit signals in the brain and enlarged heads during early development.

The researchers identified abnormal genes in the cells grown from autistic donors as belonging to the Wnt signaling pathway. The Wnt genes are critical for cell growth and serve as central players in cell networks, interfacing with multiple signaling pathways. Wynshaw-Boris previously identified the Wnt pathway as related to autism in mouse models of the disease. In a separate study published in Molecular Psychiatry earlier this year, the Wynshaw-Boris laboratory showed mice lacking Wnt genes display autism-like symptoms including social anxiety and repetitive behavior. The researchers could prevent these adult symptoms by treating the mice with medications that activate Wnt signaling in the uterus, during development.

“The Wnt pathway is one of the core developmental pathways conserved from invertebrates to humans. Our studies solidify previous suggestions that this pathway has a role in autism,” said Wynshaw-Boris.

Once they identified the dysfunctional signaling pathway in their reprogrammed autistic samples, the researchers (including the laboratories of Alysson Muotri, PhD at the University of California San Diego and Fred Gage, PhD at the Salk Institute) attempted to correct it by exposing mature nerve cells derived from autistic donors to drug compounds. One drug currently being tested in clinical trials for autism is insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1). When the researchers added IGF-1 to nerve cells derived from autistic donors, neural networks were reestablished. It is unclear whether the positive effects of IGF-1 were on the Wnt pathway, and the exact compensatory mechanism requires further investigation.

Wynshaw-Boris’s studies in cell culture and mouse models of autism confirm improper Wnt signaling can lead to rapid brain cell growth and brain enlargement in the embryo, resulting in abnormal social behavior after birth. The next step will be to determine which genes are most impacted by Wnt signaling defects during early development, and how these changes result in abnormal behavior. “We would also like to find other drugs or compounds that may slow down the growth of the cells in tissue culture,” said Wynshaw-Boris. Together, these findings may help researchers unravel common ways brain cells can become impaired during early development in carefully chosen subsets of patients and contribute to symptoms across the autism spectrum.

Life hacks

1. Caught doing something embarrassing in public? Say you’ve lost a bet.

2. Need to boost your creativity? Look at the colour blue, It’s a creativity enhancing colour.

3. Can’t decide if you’re hungry? Ask yourself if you want an apple. If the answer is “no” you’re probably bored not hungry.

4. If you find a hair in your food, heavily salt it before you send it back to the kitchen to make sure you got a new order.

5. If you ever get a flat tire, take a picture of it on your phone so you can use it in the future as an excuse.

6. When in an argument, act as though you are being recorded. This will ensure that you don’t say anything you will regret.

7. Always check your cell signal when looking for new dorms or apartments to live in.

8. When you’re finished an essay, copy and paste it into google translate and listen to it. It’s the easiest way to find mistakes.

9. Never say sorry to the other driver after an accident that wasn’t your fault.It’s an admission of fault and could be used against you in court.

9

This is happening now, people.

In case I get arrested today, please everyone keep posting and sharing as much information as you can here and seriously go in person in a group to local media and demand that they cover this, civil rights violations are rampant, a mans hands were broken with a baton, 85 people arrested, several sprayed with bear mace, they released tear gas, they have a sound cannon out there just matter of time til they use it, they jam the cell and wifi signals and caused my phone to turn off at 40% battery for awhile.

the pipeline is 90%+ completed, this is the last stand on the sacred burial ground by the camps and under the Missouri river, energy transfer partner company wants it done by end of the month and the police are like their mercenaries. they built a larger holding cell so they can arrest more people, they stripsearch people in jail, they have been known to delete photos and video off of peoples phones. helicopters and planes fly around us and identify our faces, our livestream videos are censored, there are infiltrators causing disruption in the camps and informants telling them everything. the media made a blackout so if you searched standing rock nothing showed up.

Please take action to your local media and demand they cover this, dont they have a code of ethics as a profession?! north dakota is breaking so many laws and they need to be held accountable!

Please take action to your local government, demand that your senator and congress person address this.

they are treating environmental activists like terrorists, look at those photos and video who looks like the terrorist to you?

do you want to have freedom in this country?! then take Action! we need everyone everywhere to take to the streets and make calls and tell everyone you know and encounter about what is happening!

do you want clean drinking water?! then take action Now!

and Pray for us!

thank you I love you 

(from Lolly Bee at Standing Rock, North Dakota)

This is the real deal. This has been going on for months. Mainstream media is blocking it from being shown to the masses. In some cases, search engines are blocking out access to live footage. Some of it seems too audacious to accept, but it’s happening. It’s happening every day to the peaceful protesters who are fighting against the Dakota Access Pipeline. Unfortunately, the police has been targeting journalists and photojournalists for arrest and police brutality, so much of the footage taken has been confiscated. (Don’t believe me, check out what happened to Deia Schlosberg and Amy Goodman, along with countless of other journalists of smaller platforms). I did an experimental search on “bear mace” and “standing rock” and saw for myself that the last article about this brutality was from early September (even though there was a live video of it occurring once more just yesterday – and this was a Google search, people. GOOGLE.)

The unethical and abusive behavior by the armed officials needs to be shared and exposed. Please, do your part to share and reblog this so the world will see what is happening in North Dakota.

Headcanons

* so Lucas gets his license before the others because he was held back so he becomes the group’s driver literally everywhere
*the car used to be pappy Jo’s so it’s old
* which Maya makes fun of 24/7 and calls his “rusty steed” but she low key likes it because ya she doesn’t know much about cars but it has a classic old feel to it that she doesn’t know why but she loves it
*One day they are driving on some back road and the car stalls and they’re in the middle of nowhere with no cell signal
* Riley is of course crying and claiming she’s going to die while Farkle is trying to calm her down which is basically him holding her until she stops
*Lucas is trying to fix the car while Smackle attempts to help (mostly flirting with him and pointing out the obvious) she’s just sitting there like “I don’t think that’s supposed to be smoking” while Lucas is stressing out because he knows nothing about cars
*Maya climbed on top of the truck trying to get signal but gives up and is just laying on it bored and saying really unhelp advice “Huckleberry try checking the thing”
*Zay is sitting in the bed of the truck playing phone games while all this goes down. Until his phone dies and he’s freaking out because he was about to beat his high score. Then the situation dawns on him and he starts sayinf unhelpful things like “wow hopefully we won’t die” and Farkle bless his soul had just calmed Riley down but this made her cry again
*Farkle gives up and just lifts Riley onto the car next to Maya who immediately starts running her hands softly through Riley’s hair and muttering calming things
*Finally some car is driving down the road and pulls over, she sees the mental state of Riley and is just like “um how can I help” she literally looks under the hood, messes with a few things then tells him to start the car and it’s working in less than 5 minutes
*Riley jumps off the truck and hugs the lady while crying how she saved their lives

WTW 3/22/17

This post was made at 5:03 p.m. EST!

Sorry if there hasn’t been a WTW post for a few weeks! I’ve been trading over WT each Wednesday, I just forgot to actually make a post before I leave the house and I usually hang out at a friend’s place after class, so I don’t have the cell signal to upload one. I know, I’m the worst. But here’s hoping that today’s WTW will make up for it! I’ve got plenty of leftovers from previous giveaways, some of which were from Tapu Giveaways. Here is the list:


Clefable | Female | Level 50

Wigglytuff | Male | Level 50

Sawsbuck | “Leah” | Female | Level 100

Granbull | “Shane” | Male | Level 100

Bidoof | “Naegi” | Male | Level 50

Jigglypuff | “Maizono” | Female | Level 50


I’ll keep trading these until I either run out or I get too tired in the middle of the night (probably close to 1 a.m. EST since I’ve got an early morning class). Remember, if you happen across one of these Pokémon from IGN Ciara, send in a picture of the shiny and my trainer in Festival Plaza! I’ll give you a free shiny as a prize!

Good luck and have fun!

What would it take to survive in space? (Part 2)

Prolonged space travel takes a severe toll on the human body. As we seriously consider the human species becoming space-faring, a big question stands. Even if we break free from Earth’s orbit and embark on long-duration journeys among the stars, can we adapt to the extreme environments of space?

Variation in gravitational strength is another challenge for space travelers. Until we develop artificial gravity in a space ship or on another planet, we should assume that astronauts will spend time living in microgravity

On Earth, human bone and muscle custodial cells respond to the stress of gravity’s incessant tugging by renewing old cells in processes known as remodeling and regeneration. But in a microgravity environment like Mars, human bone and muscle cells won’t get these cues, resulting in osteoporosis and muscle atrophy. So, how could we provide an artificial signal for cells to counteract bone and muscle loss?

This is speculative, but biochemically engineered microbes inside our bodies could churn out bone and muscle remodeling signaling factors. Or humans could be genetically engineered to produce more of these signals in the absence of gravity. 

Radiation exposure and microgravity are only two of the many challenges we will encounter in the hostile conditions of space. But if we’re ethically prepared to use them, gene editing and microbial engineering are two flexible tools that could be adapted to many scenarios. In the near future, we may decide to further develop and tune these genetic tools for the harsh realities of space living.

Check out what scientists have up their sleeves in the TED-Ed Lesson Could we survive prolonged space travel? - Lisa Nip

Animation by Bassam Kurdali

ELI5: Why is menthol "cold"?

The people saying it’s because of evaporative cooling are wrong. Menthol’s boiling point is 212 Celsius, much warmer than your body.

Menthol isn’t really cold, it just tricks your body into thinking it is. There’s a type of nerve cell that responds to things like temperature, pressure, pH, etc. Some of these cells have what’s called a TRPM8 receptor on their surface. When menthol comes into contact with a TRPM8 receptor it binds to it, which makes the affected cell open an ion channel that admits sodium and calcium ions into the cell. This in turn causes the nerve cell to send a signal to the brain that the brain interprets as coldness. A similar receptor, TRPV1, is why the capsaicin in hot peppers feels ‘hot’.

Basically, menthol binds to a receptor on certain temperature-sensitive nerve cells, causing them to fire, and your brain interprets this nervous activity as coldness.

EDIT: Okay, evaporative cooling probably does have something to do with it, and it isn’t necessary for a substance to reach it’s boiling point to evaporate. However, I’m willing to bet that the cooling sensation is caused overwhelmingly by TRPV8 activation.

Explain Like I`m Five: good questions, best answers.