cell nuclei

anonymous asked:

What the fuck are mushrooms what are they I have no clue please help

fruit but like. fungus fruit

like i wish i was making this up but like???? the reason they exist is for the same reasons fruit exists. like

fruit (meaning fruiting structures in this case, not fruits and veggies): 

-made by plonts

-basically just the expanded ovary of the plant after the plant has sexy times

-holds seeds, which are baby plants that are genetically different from the mother. when the fruit falls the babies use the food in the fruit to grow into new plants

mushrooms: 

-happen when two or more fungus living in the ground, in the wood, in whatever substrate the mushroom is growing on, have sexy times

-they dont really have typical sexy times?? like they just smash themselves together until they fuse and make a special arm thing made of cells with nuclei from all the fungi involved in the sexy fungus time

-the weird arm thing eventually grows up to above ground and develops into a mushroom with help from all the fungi parents underground

-the mushroom spits out spores. all the spores have recombined versions of the parents’ genes and are basically baby fungi cells. the mushroom pumps these out in the millions and they drift on the wind or whatever until they find a nice spot where they can live their happy fungus lives in peace. think about spores as seeds without the food for survival if it helps you???

-also a single mushroom can have up to 9 different parents

-and funguses can have literally 20k+ biological sexes so just smash that together and u prob have a baby one way or another 

-basically mushrooms exist so the fungi can reproduce spores in a way that can better get picked up and spread around. if they stayed underground, the babies wouldn’t be able to get anywhere; when the spores are pumped out above ground somehow, they can get picked up by the wind, rain, animals, whatever and can go find a better place to live. mushrooms are distribution organs. 

a good diagram (x): 

-also fun side fact scientists have learned that lightning strikes in some fungus patches greatly accelerate the rate of mushroom production in certain species, to the point where commercial mushroom farms shock some of their fungus patches to promote growth. we think this is an evolutionary thing that some species have developed in response to trees getting struck by lightning. like if a tree gets struck, the funguses around it are like guys we’re gonna get so much food omg and start reproducing because they can afford to if they’re about to get a giant dead tree to eat

fungi are weird man

“Population Statistic” By Medhi Jorfi, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School. Interstellate Volume 2 (in press).

The human brain is composed of an intricate network of over 100 billion neurons which shape our reality, emotions, and actions. The goal of neuroscience is to unravel the processes by which we perceive and interact with our environment. This image shows a ball of neurons derived from human stem cells, immunostained for MAP-2 (neuronal cell marker) and nuclei. 

bob-newby-superhero  asked:

That ask about your not capitalising the regular names of the aliens got me thinking.. Any ideas on what human scientists name the aliens' species scientifically?

So… Going down the taxon levels (pun not intended), I’m pretty sure that all the aliens we see in Animorphs are Animalia kingdom given how much they all tend to move around and react to the environment, which would make them by default Eukarya domain.  Within the Anmalia kingdom I’d be comfortable saying that andalites and hork-bajir are almost certainly Chordata (Cassie kills a hork-bajir by breaking its neck, and at one point Ax mentions his back legs “collapsing” after a fall breaks some internal bones in #8, both of which suggest the existence of spinal cords), whereas yeerks are probably part of the Mollusca phylum and taxxons might be Arthropods given their number of legs.  We know that taxxons eat, of course, and #43 strongly implies that they poop, so I’m a little more confident in that one than I am with the yeerks - after all, yeerks are solar-powered, and on Earth that only happens with plants and bacteria, never with animals.  (All right, now I’m kind of headcanoning that each yeerk is a single GINORMOUS bacterium cell, but there’s really no basis for that in canon.)

Of course, all of this speculation assumes that ALIENS HAVE CELLS WITH NUCLEI, which is already a pretty big jump, but the very fact that all these species can walk around on Earth without spacesuits (except the yeerks, who I guess kind of use humans as spacesuits) suggests that at the very least they can do something meaningful with oxygen and/or nitrogen and/or carbon and/or argon when they breathe.  We also know that they can’t just skip breathing, because there are mentions of Marco successfully strangling both taxxons and hork-bajir, whereas #29 establishes that yeerks can’t “breathe” unless they’re in some kind of liquid and MM4 hinges partially on Ax not being able to breathe underwater unless he’s in morph.

Moving down to class, I’m pretty comfortable putting andalites down as mammals: they have warm blood (#29), they’re covered in fur (#1), they perform complex brain operations (#29), and it’s strongly implied they make little andalites through birth rather than eggs (AC).  None of the others fit into classes that well, given that taxxons have too many legs to be insects or arachnids and too much variation in “leg” shape (everything from tiny hands to cone-shaped pods to segmented leg-limbs) to count as Diplopada, yeerks absorb all their energy from their sun (which rules out their existences as actual slugs), and hork-bajir have too much exoskeleton in combination with bipedalism to fit most vertebrate classes.

So I think I’ve talked myself into the hypothesis that class would be the taxon where the poor confused biologists of a post-Animorphs Earth would have to start making up names.  I’m not sure if it would make the most sense to have a new general class called Extraterrestria (or something) as a preliminary “junk pile” category before the evolutionary ancestry of these species could be established thoroughly enough to make more nuanced categories more feasible, or if it would instead make sense to establish a taxon above domains that accounted for Terrestria vs. Extraterrestria.  Either way the issue of how to define “species” would inevitably get complicated, given that right now the rule of thumb is “Can they make babies together?” and Tobias’s existence would imply that humans are a subspecies of andalite (or vice versa) until everyone could agree on a new rule.  Heck, if we count Seerow Hamee as well, now andalites and hork-bajir and humans are all the same species, and while I love the diplomatic implications of that idea it wouldn’t be particularly informative for anyone trying to study aliens systematically.

As for what the specific names of those species end up being, I bet you dollars to donuts they’d be a) Eurocentric, b) not that descriptive to the point where they end up getting revised a lot, c) kind of dumb, and d) bad fake-Latin combined with bad fake-Greek.  Since that’s the pattern taxon-names tend to follow right now.  The thing with just sort of mushing together Greek root words and suffixes to make crappy neologisms that nonetheless sound impressive (*cough* eleutherophobia is not a real word *cough*) is the number-one parlor trick of life scientists, and I have a sneaking suspicion it would persist even when describing species that have no history of Latin, Greek, or even characteristics that can be meaningfully described in Latin or Greek.  Because, well, we’re only human.

yoongi scenario | d is for dalliance

dalliance  /‘dalɪəns/  noun.  a brief involvement with someone; amorous play

genre: angst, fluff
word count: 1k
warnings: hints at sex
a stand-alone in the ‘synonymous with love’ series // d is for…


“We were dazzling – resplendent in the night’s sky. We lit up the city with our passion; every street was kindling for our fire. But the problem with stars is that they die in the end. And we were no exception.”

Those words, though repeated a thousand times, still taste dulcet on your tongue. They are delicate things, but they make you feel at ease – repeating the mantra till it throbs through you. This way you won’t forget what you are. It reminds you of the fleeting seconds you spent with him - Min Yoongi, your star boy, a sky away from you - it reminds you of the dalliance you had, great and glorious, it will repeat, it has to.

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anonymous asked:

Hello, can you explain more in detail what this nucleus means to both Kaneki eating it from Furuta ? Is Furuta gonna die soon, because of it missing?

Hello

Please, again, take this with a grain of salt because I am very confused about the translation and even changing one word would be enough to revoke the entire interpretation and lead to another.. specifically that there is a difference in MS and JB’s translations…

For me, it can be either of the following cases:

A- Furuta’s Nucleus is nothing special

This makes sense because, in reality, all Kanou’s experimental subjects received a nucleus: Kaneki, Amon, Takizawa, Kurona & Nashiro, the investigators made into quinx, and the oggai children… There is no way for them to become what they became without receiving a nucleus from a ghoul which was Rize or Yoshimura depending on the subject. Even when we talk in terms of kakuhou or organ transplants, those are cells that have nuclei. 

In short, it is possible that Kanou was only declaring that Furuta was also one of his test subjects and had a transplant operation to get Rize’s DNA.

There is no way you can insert someone else’s DNA directly into someone’s body without it being surrounded by a cell… at least not through a surgery. In bacteria, we can do this through a process called transformation. In cells (be it plant, animal, or humans) we call it transfection… but it’s always cells in culture in petri dishes.. not immediately into a living body. 

When you run in vivo studies (aka studies on an organism that is alive) the only way to do so is to create the organism from scratch using transgenics via totipotency: first you take an egg cell and delete its nucleus, than you transfect the egg cell with the modified dna then you insert this cell into the womb of a surrogate mother so that the cell would develop into a blastocyst then a baby… then an adut that you would cross with another adult so that eventually you will receive your transgenic mouse after a couple of generations etc.. 
tl;dr you can’t give an organism naked dna aka a nucleus. You have to give it a transplant so that its body would start reading the new dna. The only other way is to clone that human via transgenics… aka making a new baby Furuta and waiting for him to become an adult which would take years.

So as a summary, Kanou, in this case, was only saying Furuta was also given the same treatment Kaneki and the others were given… and when he said Kaneki consumed the nucleus, he was not referring to Furuta per se, but to the oggai children that also have Rize’s nucleus/dna.

B- Furuta’s Nucleus is Special

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The heart, part 2

Essay written by thinkveganworld,tumblr.com

It is only with the heart that one sees rightly. What is essential is invisible to the eye.” - Antoine de Saint-Exupery

The Heart’s Code by Paul Pearsall, first published over a decade ago, is an interesting and still timely read. Pearsall is a psychologist, a PhD, who has studied the relationship between the heart, brain and immune system. He’s worked in a cardiac rehabilitation program helping heart attack victims recover.

Pearsall’s studies have led him to conclude the physical heart might have its own independent kind of intelligence and that the heart communicates with the outside world in its own unique way. Candace Pert, PhD, recommends Pearsall’s leading edge research. Her book, Molecules of Emotion, describes scientific evidence of tiny chains of information-rich amino acids in the brain and shows these “bits of brain” circulate throughout the heart and the rest of the body.

When Gary Schwartz, PhD, was professor of psychology and psychiatry at Yale, he found that atoms, cells and the heart itself store coded information. He also concludes hearts carry a form of conscious intelligence, energy and memory.

Pearsall refers to additional scientific research suggesting the heart has its own intrinsic nervous system He says “intrinsic cardiac adrenergic (ICA) cells in the heart synthesize and release catecholamines - neurochemicals such as dopamine and other substances previously thought to exist only in the brain.“ He concludes the intelligence and energy stored in the heart “remember” who we are and that the heart sends its own energy to other cells in the body and even to other people’s bodies.

He notes that the nucleic acid in all cell nuclei, DNA, contains memory and information. The heart transmits powerful energy, and its cells contain particularly vivid personal identity. Pearsall gives examples of heart transplant recipients’ acquiring the personal tastes and even recalling specific experiences their donors had.

Though some cultures acknowledge “heart wisdom,” our society doesn’t support people in accessing the heart. Pearsall says, “It’s a brain’s world.” The brain is king, and the heart is seldom heard. One reason is that the heart’s energy is subtle and can only be perceived when the brain is quiet and still.

Meditation and other contemplative practices offer some people a door to this deeper awareness, but when the brain is left unchecked it tends to abuse the heart and the rest of the body, dragging them around through the realm of constant activity and chatter. The brain’s tyranny weakens the immune system and can cause the heart to “attack” the body just to get the brain’s attention. A heart-centered life is quieter, gentler and healthier. This isn’t an anti-intellectual stance, but a broader view that gives the brain credit where it’s due, but at the same time makes room for and honors the heart’s role.

The heart is both matter and energy. We have about 75 trillion cells in the body, mostly consisting of space. The book, The HeartMath Solution, describes research indicating the heart’s electromagnetic field is by far the strongest in the body, roughly five times stronger than the field produced by the brain. Electromagnetic fields can be detected scientifically with electroencephalograms (EEGs)

Experiments by Gary Schwartz, PhD, professor of Psychology, Neurology and Psychiatry at the University of Arizona, give evidence of a direct connection between the electromagnetic fields of the heart and brain and shows the synchronization between heart and brain increases when people focus attention on the heart. The evidence also shows one individual’s field directly affects the electromagnetic energy fields of other people.

The HeartMath Solution describes a process called “entrainment,” wherein an individual’s brain waves begin to synchronize with the electromagnetic rhythm of the heart, producing greater mental clarity and a feeling of well-being. This can occur when the individual focuses on love, appreciation, beauty, inspiring music, meditative silence and other “heart qualities.” The book says this is similar to the way a clock’s pendulums tend to fall into the same rhythm. The pendulum with the strongest rhythm always pulls the others into synch with itself.

When two people are together the heart with the strongest entrainment can bring the heart of the other person into synchronization with its own rhythm. Spiritual literature offers many accounts of enlightened individuals transmitting strong heart energy and activating the same energy in others, but a similar kind of energy transfer happens often in everyday life.

The human body contains around 75 trillion cells, made up of both matter and energy. The energy particles consist mainly of space, yet, as Pearsall says, we’re still “literally heavy with info-energy. “ Every cell contains memory and carries its own simple consciousness. The word cell comes from the Latin “cellula,” which translates “small chamber,” and every chamber, as Pearsall points out, has many compartments called “organelles,” all sharing an energy-bond.

Information, including memory, is carried in every cell of the heart. Based on his research, Pearsall concludes that the heart is the central coordinating instrument for the DNA’s resonating and the constant exchange of information between the cells. He mentions that nature-based cultures seem to sense the heart’s character, role and rhythm in ways our less contemplative society misses and suggests we can regain heart attunement through “cardio-contemplation.” This means paying attention to the body’s signals and quietly tuning in to subtle sensations coming from the heart.

Some of Pearsall’s suggestions for tuning in to the heart’s code include:

1. Be still. He quotes Meister Eckhart: “There is nothing in all creation so like God as stillness.”

2. Lighten up. Don’t let the brain think it has or needs constant control.

3. Be quiet. Say and do less.

4. Resonate. Listen to the heart.

5. Feel. Tune into nature and the senses.

6. Learn. Learn from and by the heart.

7. Connect. Send heart energy into the world around you.

Pearsall mentions that in the same way a mother whale’s song moves through the ocean to calm her calf, our heart’s energetic vibrations reach through space to soothe other creatures. If Pearsall and his peers have it right, apparently the human heart has endless depth and vast reach and contains all the really important information.

Lynn Margulis (1938-2011) was an evolutionary theorist and science author, the first modern proponent of the significance of symbiosis in evolution. Her research fundamentally transformed and established the understanding of the evolution of cells with nuclei. Her work was seen as controversial and was widely rejected for years, until genetic evidence proved it definitively.

Her 1966 paper, “On the Origin of Mitosing Cells”, was rejected for publication by 15 scientific journals initially, but today it is considered a landmark in endosymbiotic theory. She also proposed the Gaia theory, which sees Earth as a self-regulating system.

3

MNEMONIC: Diseases showing anticipation associated with Triplet Repeat Expansion

Anticipation: pattern of inheritance, symptoms of a genetic disorder become apparent at an earlier age as it is passed on to the next generation, an increase of severity of symptoms is also noted

Huntington Disease (HD)

  • Mnemonic: “HD es una CAGada” in Spanish, cagada means something bad, shitty, to be more precise. This is to remember the CAG trinucleotid repeat.
  • Autosomal Dominant, chromosome 4: “Huntin’ 4 food”
  • Chorea: purposeless movement of limbs, due to a loss of GABAergic neurons of neostriatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) of indirect pathway.
  • Personality changes, dementia, tendency for suicide

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Fragile X Syndrome

  • CGG trinucleotid repeat
  • X dominant, FMR 1
  • Mental retardation, large ears and jaw. post-pubertal macro-orchidism (males), attention deficit disorder (females)

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Friedreich Ataxia

  • GAA trinucleotid repeat
  • Autosomal recessive, Frataxin gene, chromosome 9
  • Neuronal degeneration: dorsal root ganglia, Clarke column (spinocerebellar tract), posterior column of spinal cord, dentate nucleus, Purkinje cells, Betz neurons, CN nuclei of VII, X, XII
  • Progressive gait & limb ataxia, arreflexia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, axonal sensory neuropathy, kyphoscoliosis, dysarthria, hand clumsiness, loss of sense of position, impaired vibratory sensation.

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MyoTonic DysTrophy

  • CTG trinucleotid repeat
  • Autosomal Dominant, MD1: chromosome 3; MD2: chromosome 19
  • Muscle loss, cardiac arrythmia, testicular atrophy, frontal baldness, cataracts.

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Confocal images of growth factor–induced microvessel sprouts in collagen and fibrin. BS1 lectin-FITC (green) stains endothelial sprouts (white arrows); α-SMA-Cy3 (red) indicates supporting cells. DAPI-stained nuclei (blue). (a) VEGF-treated ring embedded in collagen. (b) bFGF-treated ring in fibrin. (c,d) PBS-treated control aortic rings in collagen and fibrin, respectively. All animals were wild-type C57BL/6 mice aged 8–12 weeks. Scale bar, 200 μm. Panel d of this figure was originally published under the Creative Commons Attribution License in ref. 12.

Marianne Baker et al. (2012) Use of the mouse aortic ring assay to study angiogenesis. Nature Protocols 7, 89–104 

“Flashing Lights” by Caitlin M. Vander Weele, Tye Lab,  MIT. Interstellate Volume 1.

When neurons are activated, calcium rushes into the cell. We can visualize calcium fluctuations within a cell as a means to examine activity in hundreds of individual neurons across many days using calcium imaging techniques. To achieve this, we can use a genetically-encoded fluorescent calcium indicator (green) within neurons which causes them to transiently “light up” when calcium is present -  reminiscent  of a lightening storm. These fast calcium events can be detected with a small, head-mounted mini-microscope  (Inscopix) so we can examine neuronal activity in unrestrained animals while they perform various behavioral tasks. Here, the calcium indicator is expressed in neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex. The DNA in cell nuclei are stained with DAPI (blue).

This is a patch of nanoscopic needles that was built to inject DNA and other nucleic acids directly into individual cells. 

The technique, developed by scientists at Imperial College London and Houston Methodist Research Institute, constructs tiny porous groups of needles out of biodegradable silicon. Each needle is 1,000 times thinner than a human hair. The team showed that their innovation could be used to deliver therapeutic nucleic acids inside human and animal cells. 

[The image (above) shows human cells (green) on the nanoneedles (orange). The nanoneedles have injected DNA into the cells’ nuclei (Blue). The image was taken by the researchers using optical microscopy. Image courtesy Chiappini et al./ICL.]

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Scientists Keep a Molecule from Moving Inside Nerve Cells to Prevent Cell Death

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, or Lou Gehrig’s disease) is a progressive disorder that devastates motor nerve cells. People diagnosed with ALS slowly lose the ability to control muscle movement, and are ultimately unable to speak, eat, move, or breathe. The cellular mechanisms behind ALS are also found in certain types of dementia.

A groundbreaking scientific study published in Nature Medicine has found one way an RNA binding protein may contribute to ALS disease progression. Cells make RNA to carry instructions for making proteins from DNA to protein-constructing machinery.

The culprit protein, TDP-43, normally binds to small pieces of newly read RNA and helps shuttle the fragments around inside nerve cell nuclei. The study describes for the first time the molecular consequences of misplaced TDP-43 inside nerve cells, and demonstrates that correcting its location can restore nerve cell function. Misplacement of TDP-43 in nerve cells is a hallmark of ALS and other neurological disorders including frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Huntington’s diseases. Studies that characterize common mechanisms behind these diseases could have widespread implications and may also accelerate development of broad-based therapies.

To find the misplaced TDP-43, the researchers viewed nerve cells donated by people who died from ALS or FTD under high powered microscopes. They discovered TDP-43 accumulates in nerve cell mitochondria, critical structures responsible for generating the enormous amount of energy nerve cells require. By physically isolating the affected mitochondria the researchers were able to pinpoint TDP-43’s exact location inside the subcellular structures. They were also able to characterize variations of the protein most likely to get misplaced.

This important work was led by Xinglong Wang, PhD, from the department of pathology at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and a team of scientists from his laboratory.

“By multiple approaches, we have identified the mitochondrial inner membrane facing matrix as the major site for mitochondrial TDP-43,” explained Wang. “Mitochondria might be major accumulation sites of TDP-43 in dying neurons in various major neurodegenerative diseases.”

The researchers discovered that once inside the mitochondria, TDP-43 resumes its RNA binding role and attaches itself to mitochondrial genetic material. This disrupts the mitochondria’s ability to generate energy for the cell. Wang’s team was able to precisely identify the RNA in mitochondria that was bound by TDP-43 and observe the resultant disassembly of mitochondrial protein complexes. This finding provides much needed clarity on the consequences of TDP-43 misplacement inside nerve cells and opens the door for deeper studies involving a range of neurological disorders. Although the study focused on ALS and FTD, according to Wang “mislocalization of TDP-43 represents a key pathological feature correlating strongly with symptoms in more than half of Alzheimer’s disease patients.”

Mutations in the gene encoding TDP-43 have long been linked to neurodegenerative diseases like ALS and FTD. Wang’s team found that disease-associated mutations in TDP-43 enhance its misplacement inside nerve cells. The researchers also identified sections of TDP-43 that are recognized by mitochondria and serve as signals to let it inside. These sections could serve as therapeutic targets, as the study found blocking them prevents TDP-43 from localizing inside mitochondria. Importantly, Wang’s team was able to keep TDP-43 out of nerve cell mitochondria in mice using small proteins which “almost completely” prevented nerve cell toxicity and disease progression.

“We, for the first time, provide the novel concept that the inhibition of TDP-43 mitochondrial localization is sufficient to prevent TDP-43-linked neurodegeneration,” said Wang. “Targeting mitochondrial TDP-43 could be a novel therapeutic approach for ALS, FTD and other TDP-43-linked neurodegenerative diseases.”

Wang has begun to develop small proteins that prevent TDP-43 from reaching mitochondria in human nerve cells, and has a patent pending for the therapeutic molecule used in the study.

There is no treatment currently available for ALS or FTD. The average life expectancy for people newly diagnosed with ALS is just three years, according to The ALS Association.

A Brief Explanation on Muscle Growth:

A really good explanation of muscle growth with just the right amount of science for everyone/science folk haha.

Courtesy of  Menno Henselmans.

1) When you put tension on a muscle, its fibers deform and trigger chemical activity (mechanotransduction)

2) The muscle fibres release growth factors like insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and myokines like IL-6 (interleukin-6) to signal the need for repair (myogenic signalling)

3) The MTOR master enzyme integrates all the signals for muscle growth, such as amino acid availability and the presence of growth factors. It then translates this information for your genes (translation initiation)

4) Your genes are located within muscle cell nuclei that function as command centres in their region of a muscle fiber. They contain the blueprint to create new proteins.

5) Nearby sattelite cells are activated and fuse to the muscle fibers to enlarge them (myonuclear addition) and aid in the creation of new proteins

Crepidula fornicata veliger larvae

Confocal image (extended focus Z stack) of a Crepidula fornicata (slipper limpet) veliger larva. Stained with phalloidin (F-actin; purple), DAPI (cell nuclei, blue), anti-serotonin (yellow), and anti-acetylated tubulin (red). The shell (green) image was created from the DIC picture collected during the confocal scan. The C-shaped line of nuclei are cells at the edge of the velum; the acetylated tubulin (red) staining reveals the ciliated surface of the velum. The F-actin staining (purple) highlights the main larval retractor muscle. Serotonin (yellow) reveals the serotonergic neuron cell bodies and axons. Joyce Pieretti (University of Chicago), Manuela Truebano (Plymouth University), Saori Tani (Kobe University) and Daniela Di Bella (Fundacion Instituto Leloir)

Courtesy of Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, and Development

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Match It Monday!

Plant stem, neural stem cells, or a alveoli in lungs? How did you fare?

Though not the most popular guess, this is actually a micrograph of neural stem cells specializing into mature neurons. Blue staining marks the nuclei of cells, while green and red staining mark growing axons, which can be seen growing on the periphery. This intricate pattern probably arose due to a specialized matrix on which the cells were cultured. Neural stem cells hold tremendous promise in regenerative medicine and drug discovery as they provide an essentially limitless supply of cells that can be turned into desired cell types of the nervous system.

Image by Regis Grailhe and Arnaud Ogier, Institut Pasteur, Seongnam, Korea.

NIH3T3 cells were pre-loaded with a green fluorescent cell tracker dye prior to co-culture and prior to imaging, all cell nuclei were labelled with the DNA specific Hoechst 33342. This approach allowed to positively identify individual cells as either NIH3T3 or MDCK. Imaging reveals that even in the presence of a co-culture, the majority of cells continued to display a clear preference for growing on the ridges or in the grooves. Phase contrast and fluorescence imaging reveals that after 48 h of co-culture on 100µm wide grooves, NIH3T3 cells display a clear preference to migrate and grow on the ridge surfaces.

Leclerc et al., Biomaterials 2013

Birds are weird. 

Birds, why are you so weird? 

Their blood doesn’t even look the same. Their red cells have nuclei and the white cells look weird. 

They bruise green. 

They don’t make liquid pus, only cheesy pus. 

Their voicebox isn’t in their throat, it’s down in their chest where the airway splits. 

Their lungs don’t collapse and expand. 

Their spines (aside from the neck) are almost totally fused, with only 1 or two vertebrae that aren’t. 

Birds, man.