cell function


08/100 days of productivity!! i went to the botanical gardens today!! didnt manage to make any notes but I got to revise the structures & functions of cell organelles!! ヾ(@⌒ー⌒@)ノ today was such a relaxing day!! i laid down on soft grass, listened to hamilton & read a book!!! 🍂

Neuro chip records brain cell activity at higher resolution

Brain functions are controlled by millions of brain cells. However, in order to understand how the brain controls functions, such as simple reflexes or learning and memory, we must be able to record the activity of large networks and groups of neurons. Conventional methods have allowed scientists to record the activity of neurons for minutes, but a new technology, developed by University of Calgary researchers, known as a bionic hybrid neuro chip, is able to record activity in animal brain cells for weeks at a much higher resolution. The technological advancement was published in the journal Scientific Reports.

“These chips are 15 times more sensitive than conventional neuro chips,” says Naweed Syed, PhD, scientific director of the University of Calgary, Cumming School of Medicine’s Alberta Children’s Hospital Research Institute, member of the Hotchkiss Brain Institute and senior author on the study. “This allows brain cell signals to be amplified more easily and to see real time recordings of brain cell activity at a resolution that has never been achieved before.”

The development of this technology will allow researchers to investigate and understand in greater depth, in animal models, the origins of neurological diseases and conditions such as epilepsy, as well as other cognitive functions such as learning and memory.

“Recording this activity over a long period of time allows you to see changes that occur over time, in the activity itself,” says Pierre Wijdenes, a PhD student in the Biomedical Engineering Graduate Program and the study’s first author. “This helps to understand why certain neurons form connections with each other and why others won’t.”

The cross-faculty team created the chip to mimic the natural biological contact between brain cells, essentially tricking the brain cells into believing that they are connecting with other brain cells. As a result, the cells immediately connect with the chip, thereby allowing researchers to view and record the two-way communication that would go on between two normal functioning brain cells.

“We simulated what Mother Nature does in nature and provided brain cells with an environment where they feel as if they are at home,” says Syed. “This has allowed us to increase the sensitivity of our readings and help neurons build a long-term relationship with our electronic chip.”

While the chip is currently used to analyze animal brain cells, this increased resolution and the ability to make long-term recordings is bringing the technology one step closer to being effective in the recording of human brain cell activity.

“Human brain cell signals are smaller and therefore require more sensitive electronic tools to be designed to pick up the signals,” says Colin Dalton, adjunct professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the Schulich School of Engineering and a co-author on this study. Dalton is also the facility manager of the University of Calgary’s Advanced Micro/nanosystems Integration Facility (AMIF), where the chips were designed and fabricated.

Researchers hope the technology will one day be used as a tool to bring personalized therapeutic options to patients facing neurological disease.

It’s hard not to think, since our brain is generated that way.

It’s hard not to breath, since oxygen is what gives us life.

It’s hard not to function, since each cell works spontaneously.

Thats why it’s hard to let go of some people, because they’ve become the thoughts that occupy our minds, the oxygen that fills our lungs, and the cells that function our organs.

—  dalal-binhumaid 
Steven Grant Rogers

Word Count: 1393 (oops)

Warnings: language, brief references to blood and injury, Steve being dumb

Request: (Anon) “ I loved your Steve x reader! Can I put in a request for another Steve x reader but she’s (enhanced); she usually works in the lab with Bruce, she’s able to mess with cells and bodily functions and etc. she’s a good healer basically and can keep Bruce calm when Natasha isn’t there. Steve gets shot ‘a little bit’ again. Oh please, you don’t even have to follow everything; I just want to see reader go momma bear on the star spangled banner after he gets injured!”

A/N: Hope you like it, sweetpea!

Originally posted by s-a-l-t-w-a-t-e-r-k-i-d-blog1


You and Bruce both looked up from your respective lab tables, grimacing at the sound of Bucky’s voice echoing down the hallway. The worry that cut through the irritation in his voice sent you running off for the medical supplies in the corner. You were enhanced in a way that gave you some level of control over biological tissue and body functions, but there was only so much you could fix.

“Bucky, I’m fine,” Steve argued through gritted teeth as the pair came into view through the glass walls of the lab, and you felt your stomach drop at the sight of the blood that stained the front of his uniform.

You let out a steady stream of quiet curse words as you cleared off the table in front of you and pulled on medical gloves.

“Y/N! This punk went and got himself shot again!” Bucky called out to you as they came through the doors.

“Of course he did. Shirt off and lie on the table,” you ordered briskly, far too mad to meet Steve’s eyes as he offered up a sheepish smile. “Bucky, tell me what happened.”

“It’s not that big of a deal! I just –”

“Hey! I didn’t ask you, star spangled dumbass! Do what you’re told!” you snapped.

“Star spangled dumbass? Haven’t heard that one before…” Bruce commented mildly.

“I like it. It fits. Because no one in their right mind would take a bullet for someone who is entirely encased in a suit of metal,” Bucky grumbled, shooting Steve a glare.

“STEVEN GRANT ROGERS ARE YOU TRYING TO GET YOURSELF KILLED?” you thundered, sterilizing the area around Steve’s wound with a bit more aggression than was strictly necessary.

“It’s an instinct, alright?” Steve said with a wince, grabbing at your wrist as you probed his side carefully to determine whether the bullet was still lodged inside.

“An instinct to get yourself shot for no reason?” You yanked your hand out of his grip and went about your work to pull the bullet out of him.

“It really isn’t that big of a deal!”

“You got shot, Steve!”

“Only a little!”

“There is no such thing as getting shot only a little, you idiot!”

You had successfully removed the bullet, and now you yanked your right glove off to hover your hand over the hole in his side. Your hand began to glow faintly, and you watched with an expression of intense focus as the muscle and skin began to knit back together. When you were done, you wiped away all remaining traces of blood and pulled your other glove off, flinging them both on the table.

Steve’s fingers traced over the shiny pink mark that was all that remained of his injury and glanced up at you.

“I’m not going to apologize for trying to defend a friend… however misguided the attempt was. I would take a bullet for any of you,” he said quietly.

“You better fucking not,” you and Bucky grumbled simultaneously.

 “STEVEN GRANT ROGERS!” you shrieked, storming into the kitchen with a bloody t-shirt clenched in your fist.

Steve cringed at the sight, belatedly realizing that the laundry room trashcan was not the best place to dispose of that shirt.

“No, okay, just listen –”

He cut off abruptly with a blush when you yanked the hem of his shirt up, revealing a wide layer of bandages taped just over his hip.

“What the fuck is this? What did you do?” you questioned angrily as you peeled away the bandage to reveal an angry red slash.

“It’s not that big of a – Ah!” He drew in a sharp breath as you clapped your hand over the cut, not bothering with the gentle hovering technique you used last time, and he felt his skin heat up as you began to use your powers.

“If you say it’s not that big of a deal one more time, I swear…”

“But it really –”

“Why didn’t you come to me?” you interrupted, meeting his eyes searchingly.

“I didn’t want to worry you,” Steve answered quietly, his expression softening at the hurt and concern in your eyes.

“I am always worried about you. Always. The fact that I have the ability to help you when you get hurt is what lets me sleep at night. You have to come to me when something like this happens.”

“Okay. I’m sorry,” he whispered.

“Do you promise?”

“Yes, I promise, but only if you promise to stop being so mad when I get hurt trying to do my job.”

“Fine. I guess Bucky will just have to summon enough anger for two.”

“Shouldn’t be a problem,” Steve laughed fondly.

 “STEVEN GRANT ROGERS!” You shoved against him again and again, but he never faltered. “Steve, move! I have to help him!”

Bruce was doubled over, drawing quick and shallow breaths. He was fighting against it with all he had, but it was a losing battle.

“Steve!” you cried again, and this time he turned around and grabbed you roughly by the shoulders.

“Y/N, you can’t help him!”

“Yes, I can!” You struggled against his grip, and he ducked down to meet your eyes.

“I can not take that risk. You’re far more likely to get yourself hurt or killed, and I can not let that happen.”

You let out another noise of frustration before doing the only thing you could think to do, something you had been thinking about doing for a long time now. Hooking your hand behind his neck, you yanked him forward, crashing your lips to his in a quick and desperate kiss. It had the desired effect of making his grip loosen in surprise, and you ripped yourself away from him, ducking under his arm and sprinting towards Bruce.

A green tinge was beginning to take over his skin by the time you reached him, but you snatched up both of his hands in yours and pressed your forehead to his.

“Stay with me, Bruce. You’ve got this,” you whispered as you focused on slowing his heart rate and lowering his blood pressure.

It worked, though it took a lot out of you. Exhaustion took over your body, and you had the presence of mind to lower yourself gingerly to the ground as you felt yourself begin to lose consciousness. You heard Bruce’s shaky apologies and Steve’s voice calling your name, and then you heard absolutely nothing.

Should you be doing this right now? Absolutely not. There was very important research very much unfinished on the table next to you, but you couldn’t bring yourself to care.

Steve’s lips were warm and soft as they danced against yours, and butterflies performed skillful pirouettes in your stomach as his thumb stroked slowly over your cheekbone. His other hand was planted firmly on the small of your back, pressing you closer to him.

You had been yelling at him again, this time over a shallow cut on his hand he had gotten when his knife slipped while chopping vegetables in the kitchen. He had blamed you, claiming he had been distracted by the memory of your hasty kiss the week before. Doing your best to ignore that comment, you had launched into a lecture on how careless and reckless he was and how he was absolutely going to be the death of you. But this time, all you had gotten out was a “Steven Grant–” before he had successfully cut off the rest of your argument.

He let out a contented hum as he pulled back, dipping back in for one last peck before pulling away completely with a smile.

“What were you saying?”

“You know, I don’t actually remember,” you sighed with fake disbelief.

“You’re getting old,” he joked, shaking his head sadly.

“Shut up, aren’t you like 100?” you teased as he leaned back in for another kiss.

“You know, I don’t actually remember,” he whispered against your lips, stifling your giggles with long and slow kiss.

“STEVEN GRANT ROGERS STOP CANOODLING WITH MY LAB ASSISTANT!” Tony yelled in a scandalized voice as he entered the lab with a very amused Bruce.

“She’s my lab assistant, Tony,” he said dryly.


“No thanks,” he called out in answer, and you laughed as he kissed you again.

Tags: @aubzylynn @stephie-rowena @darkchocolaterey @tinuviel015

Dual-function nanorod LEDs could make multifunctional displays

Cellphones and other devices could soon be controlled with touchless gestures and charge themselves using ambient light, thanks to new LED arrays that can both emit and detect light.

Made of tiny nanorods arrayed in a thin film, the LEDs could enable new interactive functions and multitasking devices. Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Dow Electronic Materials in Marlborough, Massachusetts, report the advance in the Feb. 10 issue of the journal Science.

“These LEDs are the beginning of enabling displays to do something completely different, moving well beyond just displaying information to be much more interactive devices,” said Moonsub Shim, a professor of materials science and engineering at the U. of I. and the leader of the study. “That can become the basis for new and interesting designs for a lot of electronics.”

Keep reading

Aloe or Sabila, beautiful and medicinal succulent. A couple of weeks ago my uncle, who is almost fully blind due to diabetes, shared with me that he was able to maintain some eyes cells functioning because he drinks fresh aloe juice every morning. He even went to check with his doctor who was surprised at how his eye cells were showing some regeneration after he started using aloe. Here is what he does: he gets the ‘panca’, he does a horizontal cut (around 4 inches), gets the pulp out and blends it with some water (i think lemon will be also good with this) and drinks it. To save the panca from getting dry, he buries it in dirt until the next day when he will cut another piece of the aloe. I am sharing this in case you know people that have diabetes and want to try something else and also maybe to start talking about how we can prevent and support diabetes through decolonial foods… Arequipa has a growing number of people suffering from diabetes, this shit is so deeply connected with globalization and neoliberalism yall! DECOLONIZE EVERYTHING. What else have you, your friends, or family used to control/treat or prevent diabetes?

-La Loba Loca

Confession:  About the synthesis ending. I pretend this option doesn’t exist, because it makes no sense to me. First of all, messing with every living thing in the world seems highly unethical. Also how is a green wave supposed to rebuilt organism on a cellular level? Or create new functional cells for synthetics? And if the catalyst is so omnipotent couldn’t it REALLY come with a better idea than harvest? It seemed cartoonish to me. But of course I get other people might like it and don’t hate on them.

  • Alzheimer’s Disease is a progressive disease that destroys memory and other important mental functions.
  • Brain cell connections and the cells themselves degenerate and die, eventually destroying memory and other important mental functions.
  • Memory loss and confusion are the main symptoms.
  • No cure exists, but medications and management strategies may temporarily improve symptoms.
Supporting the damaged brain

A new study shows that embryonic nerve cells can functionally integrate into local neural networks when transplanted into damaged areas of the visual cortex of adult mice.

(Image caption: Neuronal transplants (blue) connect with host neurons (yellow) in the adult mouse brain in a highly specific manner, rebuilding neural networks lost upon injury. Credit: Sofia Grade, LMU/Helmholtz Zentrum München)

When it comes to recovering from insult, the adult human brain has very little ability to compensate for nerve-cell loss. Biomedical researchers and clinicians are therefore exploring the possibility of using transplanted nerve cells to replace neurons that have been irreparably damaged as a result of trauma or disease. Previous studies have suggested there is potential to remedy at least some of the clinical symptoms resulting from acquired brain disease through the transplantation of fetal nerve cells into damaged neuronal networks. However, it is not clear whether transplanted intact neurons can be sufficiently integrated to result in restored function of the lesioned network. Now researchers based at LMU Munich, the Max Planck Institute for Neurobiology in Martinsried and the Helmholtz Zentrum München have demonstrated that, in mice, transplanted embryonic nerve cells can indeed be incorporated into an existing network in such a way that they correctly carry out the tasks performed by the damaged cells originally found in that position. Such work is of importance in the potential treatment of all acquired brain disease including neurodegenerative illnesses such as Alzheimer‘s or Parkinson’s disease, as well as strokes and trauma, given each disease state leads to the large-scale, irreversible loss of nerve cells and the acquisition of a what is usually a lifelong neurological deficit for the affected person.

In the study published in Nature, researchers of the Ludwig Maximilians University Munich, the Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, and the Helmholtz Zentrum München have specifically asked whether transplanted embryonic nerve cells can functionally integrate into the visual cortex of adult mice. “This region of the brain is ideal for such experiments,” says Magdalena Götz, joint leader of the study together with Mark Hübener. Hübener is a specialist in the structure and function of the mouse visual cortex in Professor Tobias Bonhoeffer’s Department (Synapses – Circuits – Plasticity) at the MPI for Neurobiology. As Hübener explains, “we know so much about the functions of the nerve cells in this region and the connections between them that we can readily assess whether the implanted nerve cells actually perform the tasks normally carried out by the network.” In their experiments, the team transplanted embryonic nerve cells from the cerebral cortex into lesioned areas of the visual cortex of adult mice. Over the course of the following weeks and months, they monitored the behavior of the implanted, immature neurons by means of two-photon microscopy to ascertain whether they differentiated into so-called pyramidal cells, a cell type normally found in the area of interest. “The very fact that the cells survived and continued to develop was very encouraging,” Hübener remarks. “But things got really exciting when we took a closer look at the electrical activity of the transplanted cells.” In their joint study, PhD student Susanne Falkner and Postdoc Sofia Grade were able to show that the new cells formed the synaptic connections that neurons in their position in the network would normally make, and that they responded to visual stimuli.

The team then went on to characterize, for the first time, the broader pattern of connections made by the transplanted neurons. Astonishingly, they found that pyramidal cells derived from the transplanted immature neurons formed functional connections with the appropriate nerve cells all over the brain. In other words, they received precisely the same inputs as their predecessors in the network. In addition, they were able to process that information and pass it on to the downstream neurons which had also differentiated in the correct manner. “These findings demonstrate that the implanted nerve cells have integrated with high precision into a neuronal network into which, under normal conditions, new nerve cells would never have been incorporated,” explains Götz, whose work at the Helmholtz Zentrum and at LMU focuses on finding ways to replace lost neurons in the central nervous system. The new study reveals that immature neurons are capable of correctly responding to differentiation signals in the adult mammalian brain and can close functional gaps in an existing neural network.

anonymous asked:

Hello sweet girl! I was just wondering if you ever eat healthy plant fats like avocados or seeds? I've never seen you post a meal with them so I was wondering if you did. If not why is that? Are they not healthy? Thank you, loads of love and positive vibes 💜

Hey lovely💛
I definitely don’t post everything I eat! I do eat healthy fats regularly, in fact I try to include some (avocado, flaxmeal, chia seeds etc) every day!
Whole plant fats are not only healthy, they are ESSENTIAL, especially for women! Our bodies can’t produce the essential fatty acids EPA and DHA, so we need to get these through our diet in the form of omega-3 and 6, which can then be converted by our bodies. Even though we only need a small amount, we do need these! Essential fatty acids support healthy hormones, hair and skin, brain function, cell structure and so much more.
I personally have felt the consequences of cutting out all fats and I cannot stress enough how important they are!! Xx

Mitochondria, Food and IBD

Our colon (organs) needs energy to function, to digest.
That energy comes from the nutrition in the food we eat.
That energy is produced in our mitochondria.
The more energy a tissue or organ demands for proper function, the more mitochondria it’s cells contain.
Our mitochondria give off free radicals and pathogens producing that energy.
Overproduction of these by-products in our cells cause inflammation.
If we consume empty calories our mitochondria still function but not properly. (Like filling your tank with water instead of oil)
Overgrowth of bacteria cause mitochondrial dysfunction.
Bacteria such as E.coli, Staphlococcus aureus and Enterococcus can come from under cooked food, especially meat.
Candida albican can come from excessive consumption of sugar.

The next time someone tries to tell you that what you eat has nothing to do with your IBD, remind them how the cells in our body function, remind them what they need to function, remind them that mitochondria contain our DNA, that our gut bacteria and digestive system are crucial to our well being and that there IS a valid connection between diet and IBD. Sure everyone’s equation to their health crisis differs and many factors correlate with one another, but to deny the role of diet is to deny the truth.  If the argument is “It’s in my genetics!”, let it be known that disease has a genetic component but whether those genes are activated or stay dormant depend on the environment of your cells. If you’ve had a life time of depriving your cells, do you really think 1 month, 6 months, 1 year of detox will reverse all that negative accumulation? There is no quick fix to healing.

The Brain’s Gardeners: Immune Cells ‘Prune’ Connections Between Neurons

A new study, published in the journal Nature Communications, shows that cells normally associated with protecting the brain from infection and injury also play an important role in rewiring the connections between nerve cells. While this discovery sheds new light on the mechanics of neuroplasticity, it could also help explain diseases like autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and dementia, which may arise when this process breaks down and connections between brain cells are not formed or removed correctly.

(Image caption: Microglia (green) with purple representing the P2Y12 receptor which the study shows is a critical regulator in the process of pruning connections between nerve cells)

“We have long considered the reorganization of the brain’s network of connections as solely the domain of neurons,” said Ania Majewska, Ph.D., an associate professor in the Department of Neuroscience at the University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC) and senior author of the study. “These findings show that a precisely choreographed interaction between multiple cells types is necessary to carry out the formation and destruction of connections that allow proper signaling in the brain.”

The study is another example of a dramatic shift in scientists’ understanding of the role that the immune system, specifically cells called microglia, plays in maintaining brain function. Microglia have been long understood to be the sentinels of the central nervous system, patrolling the brain and spinal cord and springing into action to stamp out infections or gobble up dead cell tissue. However, scientists are now beginning to appreciate that, in addition to serving as the brain’s first line of defense, these cells also have a nurturing side, particularly as it relates to the connections between neurons.

The formation and removal of the physical connections between neurons is a critical part of maintaining a healthy brain and the process of creating new pathways and networks among brain cells enables us to absorb, learn, and memorize new information.  

“The brain’s network of connections is like a garden,” said Rebecca Lowery, a graduate student in Majewska’s lab and co-author of the study. “Not only does it require nourishment and a healthy environment, but every once in a while you need to prune dead branches and pull up weeds in order to allow new flowers to grow.”

While this constant reorganization of neural networks – called neuroplasticity – has been well understood for some time, the basic mechanisms by which connections between brain cells are made and broken has eluded scientists.

Performing experiments in mice, the researchers employed a well-established model of measuring neuroplasticity by observing how cells reorganize their connections when visual information received by the brain is reduced from two eyes to one.

The researchers found that in the mice’s brains microglia responded rapidly to changes in neuronal activity as the brain adapted to processing information from only one eye. They observed that the microglia targeted the synaptic cleft – the business end of the connection that transmits signals between neurons. The microglia “pulled up” the appropriate connections, physically disconnecting one neuron from another, while leaving other important connections intact.

This is similar to what occurs during an infection or injury, in which microglia are activated, quickly navigate towards the injured site, and remove dead or diseased tissue while leaving healthy tissue untouched.

The researchers also pinpointed one of the key molecular mechanisms in this process and observed that when a single receptor – called P2Y12 – was turned off the microglia ceased removing the connections between neurons.

These findings may provide new insight into disorders that are the characterized by sensory or cognitive dysfunction, such as autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and dementia. It is possible that when the microglia’s synapse pruning function is interrupted or when the cells mistakenly remove the wrong connections – perhaps due to genetic factors or because the cells are too occupied elsewhere fighting an infection or injury – the result is impaired signaling between brain cells.

“These findings demonstrate that microglia are a dynamic and integral component of the complex machinery that allows neurons to reorganize their connections in the healthy mature brain,” said Grayson Sipe, a graduate student in Majewska’s lab and co-author of the study. “While more work needs to be done to fully understand this process, this study may help us understand how genetics or disruption of the immune system contributes to neurological disorders.”

I can’t stop thinking about Warehouse 13 and Ghostbusters existing in the same universe though.

- Myka cultivating a partnership between the Ghostbusters and the warehouse as she slowly takes over Artie’s position.

- Claudia offering containment tips to Holtzmann, and the two of then discovering the purple neutralizer is the missing ingredient to creating a functioning containment cell

- Holtzmann working out how to build artifacts from scratch after her requests to “borrow” artifacts from the warehouse are denied

- (the Regents ream Myka for this. She still stands by the partnership even if she is pissed at Holtzmann.) (“Seriously, if you keep building artifacts, we’re going to have to take them from you.” “Why? I’ve almost eliminated this downside you’re always worried about.”)

- Erin still struggling to get over her crush on Myka because she admires the hell out of the woman. (“She fenced with a ghost – and won!” “Are you Chuck Norris-ing us or is this for real?”)

- Abby butting heads with the Regents over their conflicting ‘Everybody needs to know!’/'No one needs to know’ philosophies. (“You’re worse than the mayor’s office! How do you even do your jobs if you’re just shadows? I’ve caught ghosts with more authority that you.”)

- (as caretaker-in-training/new caretaker, Claudia’s stuck in the middle of that fight.)

- Patty geeking the fuck out over meeting H.G. Like she prefers her history books, but she won’t say no to some classic War of the Worlds. She is so stoked to meet the actual H.G. Wells still living and breathing (especially the living and breathing part) (no ghost celebrity meetings for her, nope no way)

- But for real, she has to know everything now. Helena remembers the 1880s and 90s, right? Did she ever visit New York during that time? That means she took a boat right, what port did she arrive at? Who’d she meet? Where’d she go? Skyscrapers were beginning to take off, did she get to see the New York World Building when it was completed? You know, it was the tallest building in the city for about five years there and the first to reach past Trinity Church’s spire.

- the Regents being a little grumpy that they’re still short in numbers and can’t invite Patty to be a regent. She would be so perfect! but ~no~ she’s devoted to hunting ghosts.

- (Seriously Kosan maybe cries about it at night sometimes)

just Warehouse 13/Ghostbusters mutual support and teamwork (and conflicts) forever and ever

anonymous asked:

I couldn't find this in the tags, so I have to ask: how does one kill a Gear? Sol's reputation alone proves that it's possible, but what are the means? Do you have to have a means of negating their regeneration? Or by damaging them to the point that their regeneration won't work? And for that matter, what are the limits of Gear regeneration? Raven has implied that Sol's regeneration can rival his own, but what about other Gears?

A very old answer:



Use the ‘Gears’ tag to help you with questions like this next time.

Though, just to add, Gear Cells function like a circuit plugged in to the Backyard.

Sever that circuit and they will cease to function, though the Gear itself won’t die in a full sense.  The 'central bundle’ of Gear Cells inside a Gear’s body are known as the Core, and typically the best way to dispatch a Gear would be to use Magic Weapons or War Relics to destroy the Gear’s Core.

The OutRage weapons in particular are designed to manipulate Magic energy, and so they are very proficient at killing Gears.

Raven’s a little different, however.

He once caught Sol’s Firesealed sword with just two fingers!

In the developing ears of opossums, echoes of evolutionary history

Source: Carl Woese Institute for Genomic Biology 

When we are confronted with the remarkable diversity and complexity of forms among living things–the lightweight and leathery wings of a bat, the dense networks of genes that work together to produce a functional cell–it can be hard to imagine how chance mutations and selective processes produced them. If we could rewind evolutionary time, what would we see?

In a new study published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B, animal scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, King’s College London, and the University of Chicago have discovered that hidden in the development of opossums is one possible version of the evolutionary path that led from the simple ears of reptiles to the more elaborative and sensitive structures of mammals, including humans.

Three tiny bones in the middle ear of mammals form a mechanism that converts the air vibrations of sound into the electrical impulses understood by the brain. Three of these bones are known by names that describe their shapes, either in Latin or in English: the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil), and stapes (stirrup). In the simpler ears of reptiles, as well as the shared ancestors of both groups, only the stapes is found in the middle ear, while analogs of the malleus and incus form part of the jaw.