cell development

Quick fact. Ready?
Vitamin A is required for cells to develop into their specific type and perform their own jobs. Without sufficient vitamin A, cells will never properly develop, and will instead die off.

Lupus vulgaris, also known as Tuberculosis luposa, are painful, cutaneous, tuberculosis skin lesions that typically appear on the face, particularly around the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks, ears and neck. This condition develops as a result of pre-existing untreated, or poorly treated,  tuberculosis. If left untreated it can ultimately develop into disfiguring skin ulcers, and in long standing scarred areas squamous cell carcinoma can develop. 


A letter from Theodore Kaczynski to the authors of the book American Terrorist: Timothy McVeigh & the Oklahoma City Bombing.

I should begin by noting that the validity of my comments about McVeigh is limited by the fact that I didn’t know him terribly well. We were often put in the outdoor rec yard together in separate wire-mesh cages, but I always spent most of the rec period running in a small oval, because of the restricted area of the cages and consequently I had only about 15 or 20 minutes of each rec period for talking with other inmates. Also, I was at first reluctant to become friendly with McVeigh because I thought (correctly) that any friendly relations between McVeigh and me would be reported to the media and I also thought (incorrectly, it seems) that such reports would lose me many supporters. But my reluctance very soon passed away: When you’re confined with other people under the conditions that exist on this range of cells, you develop a sense of solidarity with them regardless of any differences or misgivings.

On a personal level I like McVeigh and I imagine that most people would like him. He was easily the most outgoing of all the inmates on our range of cells and had excellent social skills. He was considerate of others and knew how to deal with people effectively. He communicated somehow even with the inmates on the range of cells above ours, and, because he talked with more people, he always knew more about what was going on than anyone else on our range.

Another reason why he knew more about what was going on was that he was very observant. Up to a point, I can identify with this trait of McVeigh’s. When you’ve lived in the woods for a while you get so that your senses are far more alert than those of a city person; you will hardly miss a footprint, or even a fragment of one, and the slightest sound, if it deviates from the pattern of sounds that you’re expecting to hear at a given time and place, will catch your attention. But when I was away from the woods, or even when I was in my cabin or absorbed in some task, my senses tended to turn inward, so to speak, and the observant alertness was shut off. Here at the ADX, my senses and my mind are turned inward most of the time, so it struck me as remarkable that even in prison McVeigh remained alert and consistently took an interest in his surroundings.

It is my impression that McVeigh is very intelligent. He thinks seriously about the problems of our society, especially as they relate to the issue of individual freedom, and to the extent that he expressed his ideas to me they seemed rational and sensible. However, he discussed these matters with me only to a limited extent and I have no way of being sure that he does not have other ideas that he did not express to me and that I would not consider rational or sensible. I know almost nothing about McVeigh’s opinions concerning the U.S. government or the events at Waco and Ruby Ridge. Someone sent me a transcript of his interview with 60 Minutes, but I haven’t read it yet. Consequently, I have no way of knowing whether I would consider his opinion on these subjects to be rational or sensible.

McVeigh is considered to belong to the far right, and for that reason some people apparently assume that he has racist tendencies. But I saw no indication of this. On the contrary, he was on very friendly terms with the African-American inmates here and I never heard him make any remark that could have been considered even remotely racist. I do recall his mentioning that prior to the Gulf War, he and other soldiers were subjected to propaganda designed to make them hate the people they were going to fight, but when he arrived in the Persian Gulf area he discovered that the “enemies” he was supposed to kill were human beings just like himself, and he learned to respect their culture.

McVeigh told me of his idea (which I think may have significant merit) that certain rebellious elements on the American right and left respectively had more in common with one another than is commonly realized, and that the two groups ought to join forces. This led us to discuss, though only briefly, the question of what constitutes the “right.” I pointed out that the word “right,” in the political sense, was originally associated with authoritarianism, and I raised the question of why certain radically anti-authoritarian groups (such as the Montana Freemen) were lumped together with authoritarian factions as the “right.” McVeigh explained that the American far right could be roughly divided into two branches, the fascist/racist branch, and the individualistic or freedom-loving branch which generally was not racist. He did not know why these two branches were lumped together as the “right,” but he did suggest a criterion that could be used to distinguish left from right: the left (in America today) generally dislikes firearms, while the right tends to be attracted to firearms.

By this criterion McVeigh himself would have to be assigned to the right. He once asked me what kind of rifle I’d used for hunting in Montana, and I said I’d had a .22 and a .30-06. On a later occasion McVeigh mentioned that one of the advantages of a .30-06 was that one could get armor-piercing ammunition for it.  I said, “So what would I need armor-piercing ammunition for?” In reply, McVeigh indicated that I might some day want to shoot at a tank. I didn’t bother to argue with him, but if I’d considered it worth the trouble I could have given the obvious answer: that the chances that I would ever have occasion to shoot at a tank were very remote. I think McVeigh knew well that there was little likelihood that I would ever need to shoot at a tank—or that he would either, unless he rejoined the Army. My speculative interpretation is that McVeigh resembles many people on the right who are attracted to powerful weapons for their own sake and independently of any likelihood that they will ever have a practical use for them. Such people tend to invent excuses, often far-fetched ones, for acquiring weapons for which they have no real need.

But McVeigh did not fit the stereotype of the extreme right-wingers. I’ve already indicated that he spoke of respect for other people’s cultures, and in doing so he sounded like a liberal. He certainly was not a mean or hostile person, and I wasn’t aware of any indication that he was super patriotic. I suspect that he is an adventurer by nature, and America since the closing of the frontier has had little room for adventurers.

McVeigh never discussed the Oklahoma City bombing with me, nor did he ever make any admissions in my hearing. I know nothing about that case except what the media have said, so I’m not going to offer any opinion about whether McVeigh did what they say he did. However, assuming that the Oklahoma City bombing was intended as a protest against the U.S. government in general and against the government’s actions at Waco in particular, I will say that I think the bombing was a bad action because it was unnecessarily inhumane.

A more effective protest could have been made with far less harm to innocent people. Most of the people who died at Oklahoma City were, I imagine, lower-level government employees—office help and the like—who were not even remotely responsible for objectionable government policies or for the events at Waco. If violence were to be used to express protest, it could have been used far more humanely, and at the same time more effectively, by being directed at the relatively small number of people who were personally responsible for the policies or actions to which the protesters objected. Such protest would have attracted just as much national attention as the Oklahoma City bombing and would have involved relatively little risk to innocent people. Moreover, the protest would have earned far more sympathy than the Oklahoma City bombing did, because it is safe to assume that many anti-government people who might have accepted violence that was more limited and carefully directed were repelled by the large loss of innocent life at Oklahoma City.

The media teach us to be horrified at the Oklahoma City bombing, but I won’t have time to be horrified at it as long as there are greater horrors in the world that make it seem insignificant by comparison. Moreover, our politicians and our military kill people in far larger numbers than was done at Oklahoma City, and they do so for motives that are far more cold blooded and calculating. On orders from the president, a general will kill some thousands of people (usually including many civilians regardless of efforts to avoid such losses) without bothering to ask himself whether the killing is justified. He has to follow orders because his only other alternative would be to resign his commission, and naturally he would rather kill a few thousand people than spoil his career. The politicians and the media justify these actions with propaganda about “defending freedom.” However, even if America were a free society (which it is not), most U.S. military action during at least the last couple of decades has not been necessary for the survival of American society but has been designed to protect relatively narrow economic or political interests or to boost the president’s approval rating in the public-opinion polls.

The media portray the killing at Oklahoma City as a ghastly atrocity, but I remember how they cheered the U.S. action in the Gulf War just as they might have cheered for their favorite football team. The whole thing was treated as if it were a big game. I didn’t see any sob stories about the death agonies of Iraqi soldiers or about their grieving families. It’s easy to see the reason for the difference: America’s little wars are designed to promote the interests of “the system,” but violence at home is dangerous to the system, so the system’s propaganda has to teach us the correspondingly correct attitudes toward such events. Yet I am much less repelled by powerless dissidents who kill a couple hundred because they think they have no other way to effectively state their protest, than I am by politicians and generals—people in positions of great power—who kill hundreds or thousands for the sake of cold calculated political and economic advantages.

You asked for my thoughts on the behavior of federal law enforcement officers. My personal experience suggests that federal law enforcement officers are neither honest nor competent, and that they often disobey their own rules.

I’ve found by experience that any communication with journalists is risky for one in my position. I’m taking the risk in this case mainly because I think that McVeigh would want me to help you in the way that I have. As I indicated near the beginning of this letter, when you’re locked up with other people you develop a sense of solidarity with them in spite of any differences.

Sincerely yours, Ted Kaczynski.

OH so the other day I had a thought.

For years it has absolutely driven me up a wall when people refer to Shiro as albino, because he is absolutely not albino. Albinism is characterized by a complete lack of color, specifically black and dark colors, and the presence of red or pink eyes. He doesn’t have red eyes and his tongue is blue.

I’ve struggled so much with what to refer to him as.

And then it hit me.

Leucistic. He’s leucistic. Leucism is a thing.

Leucism is caused by a defect in the cells that cause pigmentation in the skin, feathers, fur, etc of a living thing. It’s characterized by either the entire surface (if all pigment cells fail to develop) or patches of body surface (if only a subset are defective) having a lack of cells capable of making pigment. It does not affect the eyes, and it doesn’t always affect the entire body.

Shi’s eyes and tongue are not lacking in color…

tldr; Ichigo’s hollow isn’t fucking albino. He’s leucistic.

After months of speculation and mounting data, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention officially confirmed today that the Zika virus does indeed cause microcephaly, a devastating birth defect in which babies are born with small, malformed heads and brains.

Zika, which is currently ripping through South and Central America and feared to be about to enter the US, generally only causes mild disease in adults. But, in pregnant women, the virus has been linked to causing not just microcephaly, but miscarriages, premature birth, vision problems in babies, and other birth defects. A study released Monday by the journal Science found that the Zika virus preferentially kills off developing brain cells. In an experiment, researchers grew brain organoids—a bundle of brain cells used to model brain development, then infected them with Zika. The virus killed off 40 percent of the organoids’ cells. The findings echo a study published last month where researchers reported watching the virus melt the brain of a baby in utero after the mother had been infected.

Take a close look at Effigia okeeffeae. Dating back 210 million years, this ancient creature isn’t a dinosaur—it’s an archosaur more closely related to crocodiles. Still, scientists think this species, like all archosaurs, had much of the genetic toolkit for producing feathers. That’s because scales and feathers originate from the same type of thickened cells in a developing embryo. Whether an animal has feathers or scales depends on how genes direct those cells to differentiate during early development. 

Learn more in Dinosaurs Among Us. 


People ask me all the time. “Adam, what’s your favorite organ?” And I answer, without hesitation, “The kidney!”

Now scientists have grown primitive kidneys in a laboratory dish. They take ordinary adult cells and infect them with a virus to “reprogram” them back to a embryonic state. These induced pluripotent stem cells can develop into any type of cell with the right coaxing. Scientists have already created heart, liver, even neural tissue from iPSCs. But making the cells develop into a kidney has proven difficult.

Now, scientists at Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Australia have figured out the right recipe to create very simple kidneys. The top image is the full “organoid”, the bottom GIFs show series of cross sections. In all the images, the colors label different proteins that indicate specialized structures.

These organoids don’t have all the functionality of a real kidney, but they represent a step in the right direction. The ultimate goal? Grow fully functional kidneys for people who need transplants. Because the grown kidneys would be derived from the patient’s own cells, rejection of the transplant by the host immune system wouldn’t be a problem.

Images: Minoru Takasato/Nature

New treatment can 'halt' multiple sclerosis, says study - BBC News
A strong form of chemotherapy followed by a stem cell transplant can halt the progression of multiple sclerosis, a small study published in The Lancet suggests.

One of many new treatments being investigated to deal with MS. MS is an autoimmune disease caused by the immune system responding to a few ‘self’ proteins as though they were proteins of something dangerous. This causes the immune system to damage the myelin sheath surrounding the nerve cells which leads to their eventual destruction. As this is an autoimmune disease, one of the treatments (the one described here) looks at suppressing or destroying the immune cells and then repopulating the blood and lymph tissues with new white blood cells courtesy of previously harvested stem cells. Hopefully (depending on the causes of the disease in the first place) this will have removed the self-attacking immune cells and the new cells will not develop the same problem. However the research is relatively new and long term studies have not yet been done.


Cyanobacteria from a pond sample into which neighbors were dumping their grass clippings. Cyanobacteria is the long strands that have “beads” on them. Those beads are called heterocysts and they allow the bacteria to perform nitrogen fixation in aerobic conditions where fixed nitrogen is absent. The heterocyst cells develop from vegetative cells on the strand in a semi-regular interval, and therefore some cyanobacteria are multicellular bacteria containing different types of cells.


When people talk about it as if it was “another excuse” to justify obesity, they sound plain stupid.

Here are some facts:

- Lipedema is a chronic, hereditary, genetic condition which affects at least 11% women. It doesn’t affect males.
- Lipedema usually appears during puberty when women get our “curves”.
- Lipedema affects this kind of fat cells that only women develop, therefore it is barely studied because women-exclusive conditions are often overlooked.
- Lipedema consists of these fat cells who are hypertrophic and sick, and don’t shrink via exercise or diet unlike normal fat cells would. The cause and definite treatment remain unknown.
- Lipedema affects always at least the legs. Both legs present a bilateral inflammation that don’t affect the feet, leaving a kind of “step” right before the feet begin. Often it also affect the arms, leaving the person with “bingo wings”. It may also be present in other parts such as the belly but it’s less usual.
- Lipedema has only two possible treatments. The usual one consists of manual (or machine assisted, or both) lymph draining massage therapy, together with compression bandages to reduce volume and compression garments to keep the lost volume. The non so usual one is a kind of liposuction called lymph sparing liposuction that is a technique only developed in Germany and it’s very expensive.
- If left untreated, lipedema can develop into lipo-lymphedema, which can be very dangerous.
- Lipedema is also called “painful fat syndrome”. Affected limbs will sport spots and marks from bad blood flow as well as bruises that appear for no reason. Also when squeezed, the person experiences excruciating pain, since the lipedema fat is extremely sensible and tender.
- Lipedema makes you fat, and not the other way around. You don’t get lipedema from obesity, since it’s a genetic condition.
- Lipedema needs more research. Doctors often fail to diagnose a lipedema affected patient due to their complete ignorance of the condition. There isn’t a medical specialization that studies lipedema and it’s often mistaken by obesity.
- Lipedema is the ugly cousin of lymphedema. Because it’s such an overlooked condition, its treatments involve methods which are effective against lymphedema but may or not be effective against lipedema. It is known they’re somehow related but again, since it’s so overlooked, there isn’t a specific treatment for it so it borrows from lymphedema. Have in mind that lipedema fat cells squish lymph flow, and this is why treatments aimed to improve lymph flow work for it. However they do not fix the overgrown, sick fat cells, which is ultimately the problem of the condition.
- Lipedema can be often diagnosed efficiently by a physiotherapist who is used to treat lymphedema patients. They often study lipedema too, so they’re the people you go ask your questions to.

Please if you got any questions regarding this, let me know. I’ve been under treatment for over a year now so I know quite a bit.

Let’s spread the word. Don’t let lipedema remain an unknown condition.

Stem Cells Become Beating Heart

Beating cardiac tissue has been coaxed from stem cells in research that could help doctors better understand early human heart development.

Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley and the Gladstone Institutes say they used chemical and physical cues to start the transformation of human stem cells, which can morph into any other type of cell. Once initiated, the differentiating cells started organizing themselves into a more complex arrangement, including tiny chambers like in developing embryonic hearts. Learn more below.

Keep reading


Cancer Glasses Detect Tiny Tumors

by Marsha Lewis, Inside Science

Some people need them to see, others just to read, but a new pair of high-tech glasses could save your life.

“This is what we call cancer glasses,” said Suman Mondal, a graduate student of biomedical engineering at Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri.

During surgical procedures to remove cancerous cells, surgeons often have to rely on the naked eye to spot and remove cancerous tumors or other masses. Unfortunately, cancerous tissue can sometimes look an awful lot like healthy tissue. See a video on the glasses and learn more below.

Keep reading

Scientists confirm: Children’s show “Steven Universe” more likely to cause cancer than intense UV rays

by: James “Jimmy” Russels

BeedFuzz News

According to scientists at the University of Cyprus Pennbrook, rats exposed to forty four minutes of Cartoon Network’s television series “Steven Universe” develop cancerous cells in their skin about three times faster than rats exposed to forty four minutes of intense ultraviolet radiation…

Keep reading

Basal Cell Carcinoma

Basal cell carcinoma is the most common type of cancer that occurs in humans. In the United States alone, an estimated 900,000 people develop basal cell carcinoma each year, and by most accounts, that number will continue to grow as the Earth’s protective ozone layer becomes increasingly compromised. Individuals with fair skin that tends to burn rather than tan, blue or green eyes, and blonde hair are among those that are most likely to acquire the disease.

• After the help of my family, we’ve convinced my dad to let me stay here in MN for the summer to take classes. (YAY!)
• I’m also currently torn about choosing between two different lab assistant jobs as well.
• One is with the organ transplant clinic and another is in genetics and cell development.
• They both pay well but I’m not sure if I’m qualified enough and I’m scared of rejection.
• I’ll be staying busy with chemistry classes everyday and hopefully a part time lab assistant job.
• Everything’s been happening so quickly.
• My first year of college is nearly over and it’s so hard to believe.
• I’ve learned so much about myself this year.
• Though it’s been rough, this has been the best year of my life.
• Friday is mine and Nathan’s six month anniversary.
• We’re going back to the restaurant where we had our first ever date.
• Which happened spontaneously on a rainy Thursday because all the dining halls were closed.
• He’s been the best thing to ever happen to me in a very long time.
• I have so much to figure out yet but I’m excited to see where the rest of my life takes me.

ppl forgot about the best/worst part of the sonic hedgehog pathway

Sonic Hedgehog also has an important role in the formation of the eyes. During early development, the cells that develop into the eyes form a single structure called the eye field. This structure is located in the center of the developing face. Sonic hedgehog signaling causes the eye field to separate into two distinct eyes.