For Refinery29’s celebration of Black History Month we put together a list of Black men and women you ought to know. Their legacy in civil rights, feminism, and LGBTQ equality lives on today.
Bayard Rustin — A leading Black figure in the civil rights movement and advisor to Martin Luther King, he was the architect of the 1963 March on Washington and was heavily involved in the first Freedom Rides. He was also gay and a registered communist who went to jail for his sexual orientation. Although widely heralded, he was attacked even by fellow activists for his faith in nonviolence, unapologetic queerness, and attention to income equality. President Obama honored Rustin posthumously with the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2013.
Combaheee River Collective — A seminal Black lesbian feminist group active from 1974-1980. Although officially short lived, its influence has been major. The group is best known for writing the Combaheee River Collective Statement, an important document in promoting the idea that social change must be intersectional — and that Black women’s needs were not being met by mainstream white feminism and therefore must strike out on their own. Members of the collective included Audre Lorde and…Chirlane McCray, now First Lady of New York City and author of the landmark essay “I Am a Lesbian,” published in Essence in 1979.
John Carlos, Tommie Smith, and Peter Norman — The winners of the 1968 Mexico City Olympics 200 Meter Sprint. In one of the proudest and most political moments of sports history, John Carlos and Tommie Smith raised their leather-gloved fists in the Black Power salute. They wore black socks without shoes to represent black poverty and a scarf and necklace to symbolize “those individuals that were lynched, or killed and that no-one said a prayer for, that were hung and tarred. It was for those thrown off the side of the boats in the middle passage.”
We also include in our list Peter Norman, the white Australian silver medalist from that ceremony, to commemorate his solidarity with the two Black athletes. White people are more than indebted to black history, and Norman is an excellent example of a white ally. Although he didn’t perform the black power salute, he publicly supported the duo without regard to personal safety or retribution. Norman was penalized for his alliance with Carlos and Smith and was never again allowed to compete in any Olympics despite repeatedly qualifying. Largely forgotten and barred from major sporting events, he became a gym teacher and worked at a butcher shop. At his funeral in 2006, John Carlos and Tommie Smith were his pallbearers.
The Friendship Nine — This group of nine Black students from Friendship Junior College willingly went to jail without bail in 1961 after staging a sit-in at McCrory’s lunch counter in Rock Hill, South Carolina. They pioneered the civil rights strategy “Jail, No Bail,” which placed the financial burden for racist incarceration back on the state. They’re appreciated today for their bravery and strategic ingenuity. In 2015 their conviction was finally overturned and prosecutor Kevin Brackett personally apologized to the eight living members of the group.
Barbara Jordan — A lawyer and politician, Barbara Jordan was the first Black woman elected to the Texas Senate after Reconstruction, the first southern Black woman to be elected as a US Senator, and the first Black woman to deliver a keynote speech at the Democratic National Convention. Her keynote address is widely considered the greatest of all time, aided by her charismatic and eloquent public speaking skills. She is also remembered as one of the leaders of the impeachment of Richard Nixon. We chose the above quote to illustrate her unique punchy sense of humor.
Pauli Murray — This civil rights activist, feminist, and poet was a hugely successful lawyer who is also recognized as the first Black female Episcopal priest. Like many figures on this list, Murray was acutely aware of the complex relationship between race and gender, and referred to sexism as “Jane Crow,” comparing midcentury treatment of women to that of African Americans in the South. Although she graduated from Howard University first in her class, she was barred from enrolling as a postgraduate at Harvard because she was a woman. Instead, in 1965 she became the first African American to receive a JSD from Yale Law. Once armed with a law degree she became a formidable force in advancing feminist and civil rights. She is a cofounder of the National Organization for Women (NOW). She also identified as having an “inverted sex instinct,” which she used instead of “homosexual” to describe her complicated gender identity and lifelong attraction to women.
On Thursday, a tweet depicting a Black History Month banner hanging in Fayetteville, Arkansas, went viral.
According to the latest US Census numbers, Fayetteville is, in fact, about 80% white. And, according to Susan Norton, communications director for the city of Fayetteville, the banner is hanging on Dixon Street.
“Fayetteville does honor and respect, deliberately and intentionally, all people,” Norton said in a phone interview. “We celebrate black history, LGBTQ people, we celebrate new Americans, we celebrate immigrants.”
Norton also said the town is an officially designated “compassionate city” and that the same group that worked to get that status, Compassion Fayetteville, put up the banner. Read more
Way back in 1929, President Hoover approved a proposal for a National Memorial Building for African American achievements in arts and sciences — but Congress did not. Congress didn’t officially pass an act to erect a federally owned museum until 2003. Ground wasn’t broken until nine years later, with a little help from President Obama.
“Gratis screenings for Hidden Figures will take place at 10AM on that Saturday at
AMC venues in Atlanta, GA; Baltimore, MD; The Bronx, NY; Charlotte, NC;
Chicago, IL; Dallas, TX; Detroit, MI; Los Angeles, CA; New Orleans, LA;
Philadelphia, PA; Oakland, CA; St. Louis, MO; Miami, FL; and
Washington, DC. Tickets will be distributed on a first come, first
served basis and can be reserved at AMC’s website.“
President Gerald Ford officially recognized Black History Month in 1976.
But people had been celebrating Black History Month, however, since long before Ford’s designation.
In 1915, Carter Woodson — a historian often referred to as the “Father of Black History” — developed an association in Chicago to bring attention to the importance of studying and spreading knowledge about black life and history.
At the time, it was called the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History; since then, it has been renamed the Association for the Study of African American Life and History.
The founders created reading and study materials for teachers, wrote plays and made posters sharing important information and dates about black history.
In 1926, they also announced that “Negro History Week” would take place during the month of February.
Over time — and especially as a response from college students during the Civil Rights movement — a push came for the celebratory week to be expanded to a month.
Woodson chose February partly because it was the birth month of two people who’d played important roles in black history: Abraham Lincoln and Frederick Douglass. Read more
Best Known For: Being the first black woman to win Best Director at Sundance, the first black woman to be nominated for a Golden Globe for Best Director and being the first black woman to direct a movie nominated for Best Picture at the Oscars.