caving photos

A photo of the night sky taken through the entrance to a glacier in Engadin, Switzerland. To get a photo that lit the man and the night sky correctly, the photographer combined two panoramas taken with different exposures. 

Image Credit: Nicholas Roemmelt (Denmark)

      Monk carved house into side of mountain in Gheralta, Ethiopia, this is the                                window he gave himself  by Thomas Bassett

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Staffa and Fingal’s cave, Inner Hebrides, Scotland. Photos taken last week, when we had the chance to spend a few hours on the island.

Staffa is an entirely volcanic island, probably best known for its unique geological features such as the many caves and the unique shape of the basalt columns which are also found in the Giant’s Causeway and Rathlin island in Northern Ireland and, closer by, on the island of Ulva. It consists of a basement of tuff, underneath colonnades of a black fine-grained Tertiary basalt, overlying which is a third layer of basaltic lava lacking a crystalline structure. By contrast, slow cooling of the second layer of basalt resulted in an extraordinary pattern of predominantly hexagonal columns which form the faces and walls of the principal caves.

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photos from a glacial cave under the breiðamerkurjökull glacier, which is an outlet glacier to the larger vatnajökull glacier at the northern end of jökulsárlón glacial lagoon in southern iceland.

as air bubbles, which would otherwise interfere with the passage of light, become compressed from the pressure above, the denser ice which forms the cave is better able absorb yellow and red light, giving it this vibrant blue colour. 

volcanic ash, however, does become trapped in the ice, streaking certain areas of the cave with black. the glacier sits atop a volcano, whose geothermal heat carved out the cave. 

photos by nicolas broussearon franklin, erez maronaron franklin, iurie belegurschi and hougaard malan