casing exotics


The geometry–entanglement relationship was general, Van Raamsdonk realized. Entanglement is the essential ingredient that knits space-time together into a smooth whole — not just in exotic cases with black holes, but always.

“I felt that I had understood something about a fundamental question that perhaps nobody had understood before,” he recalls: “Essentially, what is space-time?”

“You can think of space as being built from entanglement.”

greencheeked  asked:

I've heard avian appointments cost more because they're considered exotic and it isn't generally a lucrative field. Can you elaborate, or (if that's wrong) explain why they tend to cost more?

Veterinary medicine in general is not a lucrative field, exotics even less so, however that isn’t why exotic appointments cost more. Vet students learn about cats, dogs, and livestock as part of the curriculum while in school. Any other species requires taking electives or learning on your own. So in order to know how to properly treat birds it takes lots of extra time and money on the vet’s part. Being a board certified avian vet requires even more time and intensive study.

Learning about exotics means learning entirely new anatomy, physiology, handling techniques and more. Even medication dosages and diseases differ from one bird species to another. Many exotics need specialized equipment in order to see and treat them as well. A hospital that sees only dogs and cats simply will not have the equipment or expertise to see a bird.

Because exotics are not very common, many diagnostics and medications cost more for them because the companies that make them don’t sell very many or they are very time intensive to run.

Many exotic issues are husbandry problems and this can be quite complex so where a dog or cat vet can see an appointment every 10-15 minutes, an avian appointment almost always takes an hour or more simply to explain everything and do the exam. So exotic vets see less patients a day for the most part.

So when you bring a bird to an experienced avian vet you are paying for their extra education and time spent learning about birds as well as their specialized equipment and testing. In the case of exotics, you usually get what you pay for and while a dog or cat vet may not charge as much as an avian vet, you aren’t getting the best care for them. In some cases that I have seen as a second opinion the other vet actually did more harm than good simply because they didn’t know about birds and treated them like they would a dog.
The quantum source of space-time
Many physicists believe that entanglement is the essence of quantum weirdness — and some now suspect that it may also be the essence of space-time geometry.

In early 2009, determined to make the most of his first sabbatical from teaching, Mark Van Raamsdonk decided to tackle one of the deepest mysteries in physics: the relationship between quantum mechanics and gravity. After a year of work and consultation with colleagues, he submitted a paper on the topic to the Journal of High Energy Physics.

In April 2010, the journal sent him a rejection — with a referee’s report implying that Van Raamsdonk, a physicist at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, was a crackpot.

His next submission, to General Relativity and Gravitation, fared little better: the referee’s report was scathing, and the journal’s editor asked for a complete rewrite.

Quantum ‘spookiness’ passes toughest test yet

But by then, Van Raamsdonk had entered a shorter version of the paper into a prestigious annual essay contest run by the Gravity Research Foundation in Wellesley, Massachusetts. Not only did he win first prize, but he also got to savour a particularly satisfying irony: the honour included guaranteed publication in General Relativity and Gravitation. The journal published the shorter essay1 in June 2010.

Still, the editors had good reason to be cautious. A successful unification of quantum mechanics and gravity has eluded physicists for nearly a century. Quantum mechanics governs the world of the small — the weird realm in which an atom or particle can be in many places at the same time, and can simultaneously spin both clockwise and anticlockwise. Gravity governs the Universe at large — from the fall of an apple to the motion of planets, stars and galaxies — and is described by Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity, announced 100 years ago this month. The theory holds that gravity is geometry: particles are deflected when they pass near a massive object not because they feel a force, said Einstein, but because space and time around the object are curved.

Both theories have been abundantly verified through experiment, yet the realities they describe seem utterly incompatible. And from the editors’ standpoint, Van Raamsdonk’s approach to resolving this incompatibility was  strange. All that’s needed, he asserted, is ‘entanglement’: the phenomenon that many physicists believe to be the ultimate in quantum weirdness. Entanglement lets the measurement of one particle instantaneously determine the state of a partner particle, no matter how far away it may be — even on the other side of the Milky Way.

Einstein loathed the idea of entanglement, and famously derided it as “spooky action at a distance”. But it is central to quantum theory. And Van Raamsdonk, drawing on work by like-minded physicists going back more than a decade, argued for the ultimate irony — that, despite Einstein’s objections, entanglement might be the basis of geometry, and thus of Einstein’s geometric theory of gravity. “Space-time,” he says, “is just a geometrical picture of how stuff in the quantum system is entangled.”

“I had understood something that no one had understood before.”

This idea is a long way from being proved, and is hardly a complete theory of quantum gravity. But independent studies have reached much the same conclusion, drawing intense interest from major theorists. A small industry of physicists is now working to expand the geometry–entanglement relationship, using all the modern tools developed for quantum computing and quantum information theory.

Einstein was no lone genius

“I would not hesitate for a minute,” says physicist Bartłomiej Czech of Stanford University in California, “to call the connections between quantum theory and gravity that have emerged in the last ten years revolutionary.”

Gravity without gravity

Much of this work rests on a discovery2 announced in 1997 by physicist Juan Maldacena, now at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey. Maldacena’s research had led him to consider the relationship between two seemingly different model universes. One is a cosmos similar to our own. Although it neither expands nor contracts, it has three dimensions, is filled with quantum particles and obeys Einstein’s equations of gravity. Known as anti-de Sitter space (AdS), it is commonly referred to as the bulk. The other model is also filled with elementary particles, but it has one dimension fewer and doesn’t recognize gravity. Commonly known as the boundary, it is a mathematically defined membrane that lies an infinite distance from any given point in the bulk, yet completely encloses it, much like the 2D surface of a balloon enclosing a 3D volume of air. The boundary particles obey the equations of a quantum system known as conformal field theory (CFT).

Maldacena discovered that the boundary and the bulk are completely equivalent. Like the 2D circuitry of a computer chip that encodes the 3D imagery of a computer game, the relatively simple, gravity-free equations that prevail on the boundary contain the same information and describe the same physics as the more complex equations that rule the bulk.

“It’s kind of a miraculous thing,” says Van Raamsdonk. Suddenly, he says, Maldacena’s duality gave physicists a way to think about quantum gravity in the bulk without thinking about gravity at all: they just had to look at the equivalent quantum state on the boundary. And in the years since, so many have rushed to explore this idea that Maldacena’s paper is now one of the most highly cited articles in physics.

Quantum weirdness: What’s really real?

Among the enthusiasts was Van Raamsdonk, who started his sabbatical by pondering one of the central unsolved questions posed by Maldacena’s discovery: exactly how does a quantum field on the boundary produce gravity in the bulk? There had already been hints3 that the answer might involve some sort of relation between geometry and entanglement. But it was unclear how significant these hints were: all the earlier work on this idea had dealt with special cases, such as a bulk universe that contained a black hole. So Van Raamsdonk decided to settle the matter, and work out whether the relationship was true in general, or was just a mathematical oddity.

He first considered an empty bulk universe, which corresponded to a single quantum field on the boundary. This field, and the quantum relationships that tied various parts of it together, contained the only entanglement in the system. But now, Van Raamsdonk wondered, what would happen to the bulk universe if that boundary entanglement were removed?

He was able to answer that question using mathematical tools4 introduced in 2006 by Shinsei Ryu, now at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, and Tadashi Takanagi, now at the Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics at Kyoto University in Japan. Their equations allowed him to model a slow and methodical reduction in the boundary field’s entanglement, and to watch the response in the bulk, where he saw space-time steadily elongating and pulling apart (see ‘The entanglement connection’). Ultimately, he found, reducing the entanglement to zero would break the space-time into disjointed chunks, like chewing gum stretched too far.


The geometry–entanglement relationship was general, Van Raamsdonk realized. Entanglement is the essential ingredient that knits space-time together into a smooth whole — not just in exotic cases with black holes, but always.

“I felt that I had understood something about a fundamental question that perhaps nobody had understood before,” he recalls: “Essentially, what is space-time?”

Entanglement and Einstein

The origins of space and time

Quantum entanglement as geometric glue — this was the essence of Van Raamsdonk’s rejected paper and winning essay, and an idea that has increasingly resonated among physicists. No one has yet found a rigorous proof, so the idea still ranks as a conjecture. But many independent lines of reasoning support it.

In 2013, for example, Maldacena and Leonard Susskind of Stanford published5 a related conjecture that they dubbed ER = EPR, in honour of two landmark papers from 1935. ER, by Einstein and American-Israeli physicist Nathan Rosen, introduced6 what is now called a wormhole: a tunnel through space-time connecting two black holes. (No real particle could actually travel through such a wormhole, science-fiction films notwithstanding: that would require moving faster than light, which is impossible.) EPR, by Einstein, Rosen and American physicist Boris Podolsky, was the first paper to clearly articulate what is now called entanglement7.

Maldacena and Susskind’s conjecture was that these two concepts are related by more than a common publication date. If any two particles are connected by entanglement, the physicists suggested, then they are effectively joined by a wormhole. And vice versa: the connection that physicists call a wormhole is equivalent to entanglement. They are different ways of describing the same underlying reality.

No one has a clear idea of what this under­lying reality is. But physicists are increasingly convinced that it must exist. Maldacena, Susskind and others have been testing the ER = EPR hypothesis to see if it is mathematically consistent with everything else that is known about entanglement and wormholes — and so far, the answer is yes.

Hidden connections

Theoretical physics: Complexity on the horizon

Other lines of support for the geometry–entanglement relationship have come from condensed-matter physics and quantum information theory: fields in which entanglement already plays a central part. This has allowed researchers from these disciplines to attack quantum gravity with a whole array of fresh concepts and mathematical tools.

Tensor networks, for example, are a technique developed by condensed-matter physicists to track the quantum states of huge numbers of subatomic particles. Brian Swingle was using them in this way in 2007, when he was a graduate student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, calculating how groups of electrons interact in a solid mat­erial. He found that the most useful network for this purpose started by linking adjacent pairs of electrons, which are most likely to interact with each other, then linking larger and larger groups in a pattern that resembled the hierarchy of a family tree. But then, during a course in quantum field theory, Swingle learned about Maldacena’s bulk–boundary correspondence and noticed an intriguing pattern: the mapping between the bulk and the boundary showed exactly the same tree-like network.

“You can think of space as being built from entanglement.”

Swingle wondered whether this resemblance might be more than just coincidence. And in 2012, he published8 calculations showing that it was: he had independently reached much the same conclusion as Van Raamsdonk, thereby adding strong support to the geometry–entanglement idea. “You can think of space as being built from entanglement in this very precise way using the tensors,” says Swingle, who is now at Stanford and has seen tensor networks become a frequently used tool to explore the geometry–entanglement correspondence.

Another prime example of cross-fertilization is the theory of quantum error-correcting codes, which physicists invented to aid the construction of quantum computers. These machines encode information not in bits but in ‘qubits’: quantum states, such as the up or down spin of an electron, that can take on values of 1 and 0 simultaneously. In principle, when the qubits interact and become entangled in the right way, such a device could perform calculations that an ordinary computer could not finish in the lifetime of the Universe. But in practice, the process can be incredibly fragile: the slightest disturbance from the outside world will disrupt the qubits’ delicate entanglement and destroy any possibility of quantum computation.

That need inspired quantum error-correcting codes, numerical strategies that repair corrupted correlations between the qubits and make the computation more robust. One hallmark of these codes is that they are always ‘non-local’: the information needed to restore any given qubit has to be spread out over a wide region of space. Otherwise, damage in a single spot could destroy any hope of recovery. And that non-locality, in turn, accounts for the fascination that many quantum information theorists feel when they first encounter Maldacena’s bulk–boundary correspondence: it shows a very similar kind of non-locality. The information that corresponds to a small region of the bulk is spread over a vast region of the boundary.

Nature special: General relativity at 100

“Anyone could look at AdS–CFT and say that it’s sort of vaguely analogous to a quantum error-correcting code,” says Scott Aaronson, a computer scientist at MIT. But in work published in June9, physicists led by Daniel Harlow at Harvard University in Cambridge and John Preskill of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena argue for something stronger: that the Maldacena duality is itself a quantum error-correcting code. They have demonstrated that this is mathematically correct in a simple model, and are now trying to show that the assertion holds more generally.

“People have been saying for years that entanglement is somehow important for the emergence of the bulk,” says Harlow. “But for the first time, I think we are really getting a glimpse of how and why.”

Beyond entanglement

That prospect seems to be enticing for the Simons Foundation, a philanthropic organization in New York City that announced in August that it would provide US$2.5 million per year for at least 4 years to help researchers to move forward on the gravity–quantum information connection. “Information theory provides a powerful way to structure our thinking about fundamental physics,” says Patrick Hayden, the Stanford physicist who is directing the programme. He adds that the Simons sponsorship will support 16 main researchers at 14 institutions worldwide, along with students, postdocs and a series of workshops and schools. Ultimately, one major goal is to build up a comprehensive dictionary for translating geometric concepts into quantum language, and vice versa. This will hopefully help physicists to find their way to the complete theory of quantum gravity.

Still, researchers face several challenges. One is that the bulk–boundary correspondence does not apply in our Universe, which is neither static nor bounded; it is expanding and apparently infinite. Most researchers in the field do think that calculations using Maldacena’s correspondence are telling them something true about the real Universe, but there is little agreement as yet on exactly how to translate results from one regime to the other.

Another challenge is that the standard definition of entanglement refers to particles only at a given moment. A complete theory of quantum gravity will have to add time to that picture. “Entanglement is a big piece of the story, but it’s not the whole story,” says Susskind.

He thinks physicists may have to embrace another concept from quantum information theory: computational complexity, the number of logical steps, or operations, needed to construct the quantum state of a system. A system with low complexity is analogous to a quantum computer with almost all the qubits on zero: it is easy to define and to build. One with high complexity is analogous to a set of qubits encoding a number that would take aeons to compute.

Susskind’s road to computational complexity began about a decade ago, when he noticed that a solution to Einstein’s equations of general relativity allowed a wormhole in AdS space to get longer and longer as time went on. What did that correspond to on the boundary, he wondered? What was changing there? Susskind knew that it couldn’t be entanglement, because the correlations that produce entanglement between different particles on the boundary reach their maximum in less than a second10. In an article last year11, however, he and Douglas Stanford, now at the Institute for Advanced Study, showed that as time progressed, the quantum state on the boundary would vary in exactly the way expected from computational complexity.

Quantum quest: Reinventing quantum theory

“It appears more and more that the growth of the interior of a black hole is exactly the growth of computational complexity,” says Susskind. If quantum entanglement knits together pieces of space, he says, then computational complexity may drive the growth of space — and thus bring in the elusive element of time. One potential consequence, which he is just beginning to explore, could be a link between the growth of computational complexity and the expansion of the Universe. Another is that, because the insides of black holes are the very regions where quantum gravity is thought to dominate, computational complexity may have a key role in a complete theory of quantum gravity.

Despite the remaining challenges, there is a sense among the practitioners of this field that they have begun to glimpse something real and very important. “I didn’t know what space was made of before,” says Swingle. “It wasn’t clear that question even had meaning.” But now, he says, it is becoming increasingly apparent that the question does make sense. “And the answer is something that we understand,” says Swingle. “It’s made of entanglement.”

As for Van Raamsdonk, he has written some 20 papers on quantum entanglement since 2009. All of them, he says, have been accepted for publication.

Nature 527, 290–293 (19 November 2015) doi:10.1038/527290a


The last of my converted Alpha Legion characters is the Praetor, the leader of this particular army and who lets me use the Rite of War - in this case Pride of the Legion for Veterans as Troops choices.

In my proxy games I did experiment with a few builds - even running a Delegatus as a cheaper option for a while - but I ended up settling in a fairly standard close combat build. Artificer Armour, Iron Halo, Plasma Pistol, Paragon Blade, Power Dagger, Digital Lasers, Venom Spheres and Melta Bombs. Not cheap by any means but easily able to go toe to toe with all but the most dedicated close combat threats, and even then he’s a scary opponent.

The base model is the Legion Champion. I took MkIII arms from my Prospero spares, and added a glaive from the Dark Eldar Hellions as his Paragon Blade. Paragon Blades are described as being basically any kind of super fancy melee weapon, and in many cases exotic or even xenos (something I imagine the Alpha Legion to be open to), and it mirrors their Primarch’s use of the spear. I took the backpack from the Calth Chaplain and an Alpha Legion head from Forge World. Then I finished him off with the same kind of plasticard and putty crest on the helmet as I did with Exodus.

Welcome to Mute Laboratories

Facility Tour Master-post

Enclosed below is the official tour of my giant-friendly and tiny-friendly facility, Mute Labs!

Just wanted to say that I was blown away by the amount of interest generated from the sneak-peak yesterday!  Really appreciate it, especially considering my inconsistent activity in the community as of late ^^; I’m hopeful that the interest was from the concept itself and not from the…I think, misconception that some people had that the ‘world-building’ involved was linked to this project of mine becoming a video game…cuz it’s not, sad to say >.> Just a fictional community with which to link future g/t fluff shots and innovative ideas ^u^

As always, I’m open to ideas and questions!  Hope y’all enjoy!

Keep reading


This is a home-brew country you can add to your next DnD world.

Races of the Country:

Human, lizard-men mix


Mostly marshlands with a few hills.

Brier patches grow throughout the region. Some grow in small clusters while others can go on for kilometers with vines as thick as tree-trunks.

While most brier thorns are harmless or merely inconvenient, some do secrete poison or acid.


No cities exists in this region. Most of the population lives in villages with a few growing to the size of towns.

The settlements are built on top of hills surrounded by several rings of thick brier bushes to keep intruders out.

Architecture Style:

Buildings: They are mostly constructed with stone cut from the hills.

Many buildings are netted with brier bushes, with entire patches growing on the roof. From afar, entire villages are camouflaged within the foliage.

Most of the population refuses to cut away the brier bushes due to their religious beliefs explained in Religion.

Inside of the rooms: The stone walls are painted with images, brier patches often with faces painted upon the thorns. This is a symbol of good luck and for religious beliefs explained in Religion.

Clothing style:

People wear mostly fur and skins gathered from the rabbits and snakes within the marshlands.

Necklaces and bracelets woven from the brier-bushes are usually worn by everyone, with the nobles and elders often having their likeness carved on the thorns - this is for religious reasons explained in Religion.


The people of the region worship the brier bush, believing it is the outer limbs of a great earthen God living deep beneath the earth.

Decorating houses or wearing jewelry made from brier bushes invites good luck and welcomes the spirit of the great earthen God to watch over them.

The people carve faces into the thorns because upon one’s death, their body is given into the earth and fed upon by the brier patches. Then their essence is reborn, growing into the thorns forever protecting the people and the great earthen God. Even if the thorns burn or are destroyed, the cycle only continues on again and again.

The great earthen God is believed to have grown its limbs, the brier patches, to protect the people and give food and shelter to its children.

The god is viewed more as a stern parent, neither overly loving or hateful.

The origins for these beliefs are unknown and considered tribal or legends by outsiders.


Each settlement is self-sufficient, but are collectively aligned in mutual interest.

Every few months the leaders of each settlement gather and discuss the issues of the day – defense, resources, invasions, food, etc.

Most leaders are benevolent and care for their people, usually their settlement first then all others second, but will collectively work together for the betterment of the nation.


Trade is mostly furs, skins and poison with their main import being food.

The population uses coin but in some rare cases will trade exotic brier thorns - For example: Thorns of rare colors, or one that resembles something important.


Hunting wildlife
Growing small vegetable farms on the hills

The main source of food is the starchy edibles within the larger brier bushes. Harvested by hand, the food is considered sacred and not to be wasted. Although outsiders would consider eating one’s God an insult, the population of the region believes it is not different than a mother feeding her offspring.


Feral goblin tribes

Within the marshes, living in dens built from brier patches, are tribes of goblins, consisting of a few dozen to the largest being 1000s.
They are red skinned and covered in yellow bony thorns.
The goblins worship the brier patches for the same reason as the local population.
The goblins raid settlements for food, often coating their bone spears and daggers with poison secreted from the brier thorns.
The goblins, being feral, are chaotic in nature, very territorial and often very hostile to other races.
The war with the local population is mostly for resources, but also religious, believing the other races have no right to be in the marshlands and suckle form the great earthen Mother’s bosom.

Brier patches

While considered sacred, the species is invasive, growing everywhere and strangling everything, including most other wildlife, and the farms.
Chopping and tending the brier patches are a necessity as the settlements would be overgrown in a year. Because of the sacred nature of the plant, all vines must be cut with care and burned with a shaman or priest praying over the flames. This, of course, makes things difficult as cutting away a field could take days instead of a few hours.

The Fallen

There is a second species of brier bushes, the fallen.
The species does not root itself into the ground, instead blowing around like a bramble weed.
The bush can roam the marshlands in dozens to 100s.
The vines of the bush can move like limbs, and the bush likes to entangle its victims using its thorns to drink the blood of those it embraces, similar to a spider leaving only a husk when finished.
Considered demons by the local population, these are the spirits who turned against the great earthen God with their thorns, the souls of the damned, forever cursed to be separated from their mother.
Although hunted by the shamans and religious orders, their numbers never seem to end, with some years being mild to plaques of 1000s engulfing whole settlements and wiping out entire feral goblin tribes.


The great brier bridges

Through the marshlands the settlements have built a series of bridges out of the brier’s vines. This is their only source of roads, well-maintained, and rises over the wetlands.

The poison trade

Due to the thorns that secret poison, rogue guilds have come to this region to take the thorns and use it as trade.
The locals and goblin tribes both take offense to these acts and will often be the only time the two parties unite to destroy the invaders.
Because of this, the more powerful guilds and merchants whose greedy nature desires these coveted poisons will often hire mercenary battalions to stomp out those who resist them or even resort to burning down settlements or assassination of leaders.
This of course has only lead to the more xenophobic nature of both the settlements and the feral goblin tribes.

CWRU Theoretical Physicists Suggest Dark Matter May Be Massive

In a new study, theoretical physicists from Case Western Reserve University suggest that dark matter may be massive and that the Standard Model may account for it.

The physics community has spent three decades searching for and finding no evidence that dark matter is made of tiny exotic particles. Case Western Reserve University theoretical physicists suggest researchers consider looking for candidates more in the ordinary realm and, well, more massive.

Dark matter is unseen matter, that, combined with normal matter, could create the gravity that, among other things, prevents spinning galaxies from flying apart. Physicists calculate that dark matter comprises 27 percent of the universe; normal matter 5 percent.

Instead of WIMPS, weakly interacting massive particles, or axions, which are weakly interacting low-mass particles, dark matter may be made of macroscopic objects, anywhere from a few ounces to the size of a good asteroid, and probably as dense as a neutron star, or the nucleus of an atom, the researchers suggest.

Physics professor Glenn Starkman and David Jacobs, who received his PhD in Physics from CWRU in May and is now a fellow at the University of Cape Town, say published observations provide guidance, limiting where to look. They lay out the possibilities in a paper listed below.

The Macros, as Starkman and Jacobs call them, would not only dwarf WIMPS and axions, but differ in an important way. They could potentially be assembled out of particles in the Standard Model of particle physics instead of requiring new physics to explain their existence.

“We’ve been looking for WIMPs for a long time and haven’t seen them,” Starkman said. “We expected to make WIMPS in the Large Hadron Collider, and we haven’t.”

WIMPS and axions remain possible candidates for dark matter, but there’s reason to search elsewhere, the theorists argue.

“The community had kind of turned away from the idea that dark matter could be made of normal-ish stuff in the late ’80s,” Starkman said. “We ask, was that completely correct and how do we know dark matter isn’t more ordinary stuff— stuff that could be made from quarks and electrons?”

After eliminating most ordinary matter, including failed Jupiters, white dwarfs, neutron stars, stellar black holes, the black holes in centers of galaxies and neutrinos with a lot of mass, as possible candidates, physicists turned their focus on the exotics.

Matter that was somewhere in between ordinary and exotic—relatives of neutron stars or large nuclei—was left on the table, Starkman said. “We say relatives because they probably have a considerable admixture of strange quarks, which are made in accelerators and ordinarily have extremely short lives,” he said.

Although strange quarks are highly unstable, Starkman points out that neutrons are also highly unstable. But in helium, bound with stable protons, neutrons remain stable.

“That opens the possibility that stable strange nuclear matter was made in the early universe and dark matter is nothing more than chunks of strange nuclear matter or other bound states of quarks, or of baryons, which are themselves made of quarks,” he said. Such dark matter would fit the Standard Model.

The Macros would have to be assembled from ordinary and strange quarks or baryons before the strange quarks or baryons decay, and at a temperature above 3.5 trillion degrees Celsius, comparable to the temperature in the center of a massive supernova, Starkman and Jacobs calculated. The quarks would have to be assembled with 90 percent efficiency, leaving just 10 percent to form the protons and neutrons found in the universe today.

The limits of the possible dark matter are as follows:

  • A minimum of 55 grams. If dark matter were smaller, it would have been seen in detectors in Skylab or in tracks found in sheets of mica.
  • A maximum of 1024 (a million billion billion) grams. Above this, the Macros would be so massive they would bend starlight, which has not been seen.
  • The range of 1017 to 1020 grams per centimeter squared should also be eliminated from the search, the theorists say. Dark matter in that range would be massive for gravitational lensing to affect individual photons from gamma ray bursts in ways that have not been seen.

If dark matter is within this allowed range, there are reasons it hasn’t been seen.

  • At the mass of 1018 grams, dark matter Macros would hit the Earth about once every billion years.
  • At lower masses, they would strike the Earth more frequently but might not leave a recognizable record or observable mark.
  • In the range of 109 to 1018, dark matter would collide with the Earth once annually, providing nothing to the underground dark matter detectors in place.

“What do some of these posts mean by ‘exotic pet’? does it mean those that aren’t domesticated? cause I have pet domestic rats who are bred and meant to be pets, but they’re referred to as exotic pets by vets and such and I don’t understand why owning them would be bad since they’re domestic and can easily be owned in a way that’s healthy for them?”

 Someone shot us this really good ask privately, and agreed that I could make a text post out of it because it’s something I really wanted to share with everyone. This is actually a really interesting thing to point out - the term ‘exotic pet’ is often used interchangeably, but it means two different things in different fields. 

When I (or zookeepers, wildlife rescue, etc) talk about exotic pets, we’re referring to animals that are not genetically domesticated and/or have not been commonly genetically modified to be pets for a long time. So rats are definitely not exotic pets, in that definition. It also is a term used to apply to animals whose husbandry needs are different from “normal” pets - e.g., foxes being destructive and stinky, wolf hybrids having unexpectedly not-domestic behavioral tendencies and getting grounchy around mating season, parrots needing a huge amount of mental enrichment. 

However, ‘exotic animal’ has a different meaning in the vet world. Most vets are trained exclusively on cats and dogs, and they can make the choice to specialize in other areas; generally, those are small animals like rodents, reptiles, birds, large animals, or ‘exotics’. In that case, exotic animals are defined as ‘not common companion animals or domesticated livestock’. However, in common parlance, small animals/herps/birds are often also referred to as exotic animal specialties by non-vet people. 

Hunters do more in terms of conservation than you do sitting behind your computer blaming something you obviously don’t understand.

In the cases of exotic animals, like the big cats depicted here are usually the result of “green hunts” and are very expensive. Green hunts can be the process of tranquilizing and tagging or the killing of sterile males.

In areas where these endangered species reside, the countries that allow hunting have a higher and much healthier population. By charging the hunter for the right to bag the animal, the money in turn goes back into the conservation and economy of these countries. A farmer is far less likely to push endangered species from their land if there is an incentive for keeping them around. It goes from being a nuisance to a source of income. Not to mention that you can not transport meat from another country back to America. If they do kill, the meat is donated to the locals.

On a domestic front here in the states, the revenue generated from the sale of hunting licenses helps fund our state forests and game lands. Not to mention many hunters donate meat to food drives for hungry families. Many hunters are conservationists by nature, and I myself take more trash out of the woods than I go in with. I thank God and the animal for its life and the bounty given to me every time I clean an animal. I do not condone poaching by any means! If you’re legal, enjoy the outdoors.

Hunting is a means of population control for many species. I would sooner have a rabbit in my pot than have them dead all over the road.