Title Fight: The Tsilhqot’in Nation got its land back. Canada will never be the same

ON JUNE 26, 2014, after one of the longest and most expensive cases in Canadian history, the Supreme Court unanimously ruled that the Tsilhqot’in Nation held title to approximately 1,900 square kilometres of their traditional territory. It took twenty-five years and marked the first time that an Aboriginal group in Canada had won a title claim.

Most treaties have caused Aboriginal signatories to lose land instead of gain it. The Prairies, most of Ontario, and southern Quebec are covered by what are known as land-extinguishment treaties, meaning that most or all traditional territory was ceded to the Crown. In exchange, First Nations were given small reserves to live on and the right to use the ceded lands for traditional purposes such as hunting and fishing—a right that increasingly is being undermined by industrial expansion. […]

The Crown retains what the Supreme Court calls “underlying title,” seized at the moment of sovereignty and as yet unrelinquished.

The implications of that underlying title are spelled out in the Tsilhqot’in decision. Chief Justice Beverly McLachlin, its author, declared that the Crown may override title if it can establish “a compelling and substantial public purpose.” She cites a previous Supreme Court ruling on the subject: “The development of agriculture, forestry, mining, and hydroelectric power, the general economic development of the interior of British Columbia, protection of the environment or endangered species, the building of infrastructure and the settlement of foreign populations to support those aims, are the kinds of objectives that are consistent with this purpose and, in principle, can justify the infringement of title.” While McLachlin goes on to caution that any such infringement “must be consistent with the Crown’s fiduciary duty to the Aboriginal group,” weighing the public interest against rights and title remains a legal grey area. There will be more litigation. […]

For more than a century, Canada’s federal and provincial governments have assumed ownership of unceded lands without any clear legal basis for doing so. In effect, Aboriginal litigants argue, they’ve just taken it. Perhaps because no living Canadian has ever known it to be any other way, this state of affairs appears (at least to most non-Aboriginal people) to be both natural and entirely legal.

What the Supreme Court said last year was, no, it isn’t. It is illegal, and it always has been. […]

The trial lasted five years, and comprised 339 days of court hearings. On November 20, 2007, Vickers delivered his decision. Xeni Gwet’in, he concluded, had proved ancestral occupation to 100 percent of the claim area and therefore had the right to use the land—a substantial victory that gave the Tsilhqot’in people significant power over future development in the region. But on the question of title, Vickers decided that exclusivity had been established in just less than half of the claim area. Most critically, he defeated the Crown’s central argument that if Aboriginal title existed at all, it was only in tiny, specific sites of intense use—the so-called postage-stamp theory—as opposed to the “mountaintop to mountaintop” understanding that many First Nations have insisted on. […]

By the time the case reached the Supreme Court, in November 2013, William and his team had reduced their claim to the more than 40 percent area outlined by Vickers. Seven months later, the court ruled unanimously in favour of Roger William, Xeni Gwet’in, and the Tsilhqot’in Nation. […]

“One reason there’s been so few title cases,” Woodward said, “is that it’s very hard to keep them going. This project took twenty-five years. If at any point we had lost, we would have lost forever. We had to keep winning.”

Another raw coin that I’ll be sending in for grading with the Alice in Wonderland coin later this month.

This is the first ever Maple Leaf-shaped coin! It’s a $20 coin from (where else) Canada, featuring Queen Elizabeth II on the obverse and the denomination and date on the reverse. (usually my pictures utilize a black background, but I thought the white would make the coin’s shape easier to see, so even though it looks different, this is still my picture)

The coin is made of pure silver and has a limited mintage of only 15,000.

Each one comes in this wonderful display case from the Royal Canadian Mint…

The wooden red maple leaf case holds the coin, the certificate of authenticity, and includes optional legs so you can stand it on a table or display shelf. Optional hanging hardware for hanging it on the wall is also included.

As you can see, I bought a number of them to send in to NGC for grading. I plan on keeping the highest graded coin and then selling off the duplicates for a profit now that these have sold out from the Mint. The hope is to have the sales cover the costs of all of the coins, essentially making the one I keep free.

I’ll post updates for all of these raw coins once I get grades back, that should be in a few weeks/towards the end of September. I love how much the Royal Canadian Mint experiments with their commemoratives and special issues. Way more fun than the US Mint’s offerings at the moment.

Substance abuse: a national survey of Canadian residency program directors and site chiefs at university-affiliated anesthesia departments



The abuse of substances available to anesthesiologists in their workspace is a potentially lethal occupational hazard. Our primary objective was to define the prevalence of substance abuse cases among Canadian anesthesiologists at university-affiliated hospitals. Our secondary aim was to describe the current management of confirmed cases, rehabilitation procedures being offered, and preventative strategies being employed.


We conducted a cross-sectional electronic survey of all Canadian anesthesia residency program directors and site chiefs at university-affiliated hospitals. Data analysis was performed using descriptive statistics.


The survey response rate was 54% (53/98). Substance abuse was reported as 1.6% for residents and 0.3% for clinical fellows over a ten-year period ending in June 2014. Fentanyl was abused in nine of 24 reported cases. At present, one of 22 respondents (4.5%) reported a formal education program on substance abuse for faculty members, and 72% described mandatory education for residents. The majority of participants did not perceive substance abuse as a growing problem. Seventy-one percent of respondents indicated that methods for controlled-drug handling had changed in the previous ten years; however, 66% did not think that the incidence of controlled substance abuse could be decreased further by more stringent measures. Only 21% of respondents supported the introduction of random urine drug testing.


The prevalence of substance abuse among Canadian anesthesiologists and the substances abused appear comparable with data from the United States, with residents being the group most often affected. Early recognition and treatment of chemically dependent anesthesiologists remain imperfect.

from Canadian Journal of Anesthesia (journal of the Canadian Anesthesiologists’ Society) Journal canadien d'anesthésie (Société canadienne des anesthésiologistes)
Peter Greste: PM meeting with Egyptian leader 'completely inappropriate'


Peter Greste: PM meeting with Egyptian leader ‘completely inappropriate’

It would be “completely inappropriate” for the Government to host talks with Egyptian president Abdel Fattah al-Sisi later this year after a court in his country sentenced three Al-Jazeera English journalists to three years in prison, one of the reporters said. It was announced in June that there will be bilateral discussions later this year with the former head of Egypt’s armed forces, who led the coup overthrowing Islamist president Mohammed Morsi. But Australian journalist Peter Greste, who was deported from Egypt in February, told Channel 4 News that the planned visit “doesn’t seem compatible with putting him under pressure”.

What we need to do is make it very clear that President Sisi now has an opportunity to right an injustice, and send a message back to the world that Egypt does pay more than just lip service to those principles.

Peter Greste

The case against Mr Greste, Canadian national Mohammed Fahmy, and Egyptian producer Baher Mohammed embroiled their journalism into the wider conflict between Egypt and Qatar following the 2013 military ousting of Mr Morsi. Mostefa Souag, Al-Jazeera English acting director-general, said today’s court decision defied logic and common sense.

The whole case has been heavily politicised and has not been conducted in a free and fair manner.

Islamist president Mohammed Morsi


Siblings endure the best and worst of times. Usually the later haha, this is not the case with the Canadian brother duo who are the masterminds of Herschel Backpacks. Taking flight in 2009, the relatively young operation is stocked across all seven continents. To put it in the simplest of terms, we have heaps of their new shit. Backpacks, laptop cases, toilet bags, hats and beanies, we got it all. Come organise your belongings in store and online today.

Looking With Leasing Companies? Here €™S 5 Steps Remedial of Finding And Dealing Successfully With An Asset Finance Company

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Stan Prokop

am i the only one who finds the canadian stereo types or where are you from funny like all we eat is maple syrup and obessed with beavers and we are all eskimoes who bundle up and live in the artic like its hilarious where do people come up this stuff! i find peoples cluelessly geuinely funny , i feel their pain, america you might be a” mulitcultral place” but your clueless .

anonymous asked:

Pshh Canada deserves yours too. Moose and maple syrup....I've never even seen a moose up close before. And I have maple syrup like once a year. Tsk tsk.

okay… now I know you’re a troll. you cant REALLY be from Canada… you obviously don’t know anything about the country and its traditions and wildlife… who are you

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