For Refinery29’s celebration of Black History Month we put together a list of Black men and women you ought to know. Their legacy in civil rights, feminism, and LGBTQ equality lives on today.
Bayard Rustin — A leading Black figure in the civil rights movement and advisor to Martin Luther King, he was the architect of the 1963 March on Washington and was heavily involved in the first Freedom Rides. He was also gay and a registered communist who went to jail for his sexual orientation. Although widely heralded, he was attacked even by fellow activists for his faith in nonviolence, unapologetic queerness, and attention to income equality. President Obama honored Rustin posthumously with the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2013.
Combaheee River Collective — A seminal Black lesbian feminist group active from 1974-1980. Although officially short lived, its influence has been major. The group is best known for writing the Combaheee River Collective Statement, an important document in promoting the idea that social change must be intersectional — and that Black women’s needs were not being met by mainstream white feminism and therefore must strike out on their own. Members of the collective included Audre Lorde and…Chirlane McCray, now First Lady of New York City and author of the landmark essay “I Am a Lesbian,” published in Essence in 1979.
John Carlos, Tommie Smith, and Peter Norman — The winners of the 1968 Mexico City Olympics 200 Meter Sprint. In one of the proudest and most political moments of sports history, John Carlos and Tommie Smith raised their leather-gloved fists in the Black Power salute. They wore black socks without shoes to represent black poverty and a scarf and necklace to symbolize “those individuals that were lynched, or killed and that no-one said a prayer for, that were hung and tarred. It was for those thrown off the side of the boats in the middle passage.”
We also include in our list Peter Norman, the white Australian silver medalist from that ceremony, to commemorate his solidarity with the two Black athletes. White people are more than indebted to black history, and Norman is an excellent example of a white ally. Although he didn’t perform the black power salute, he publicly supported the duo without regard to personal safety or retribution. Norman was penalized for his alliance with Carlos and Smith and was never again allowed to compete in any Olympics despite repeatedly qualifying. Largely forgotten and barred from major sporting events, he became a gym teacher and worked at a butcher shop. At his funeral in 2006, John Carlos and Tommie Smith were his pallbearers.
The Friendship Nine — This group of nine Black students from Friendship Junior College willingly went to jail without bail in 1961 after staging a sit-in at McCrory’s lunch counter in Rock Hill, South Carolina. They pioneered the civil rights strategy “Jail, No Bail,” which placed the financial burden for racist incarceration back on the state. They’re appreciated today for their bravery and strategic ingenuity. In 2015 their conviction was finally overturned and prosecutor Kevin Brackett personally apologized to the eight living members of the group.
Barbara Jordan — A lawyer and politician, Barbara Jordan was the first Black woman elected to the Texas Senate after Reconstruction, the first southern Black woman to be elected as a US Senator, and the first Black woman to deliver a keynote speech at the Democratic National Convention. Her keynote address is widely considered the greatest of all time, aided by her charismatic and eloquent public speaking skills. She is also remembered as one of the leaders of the impeachment of Richard Nixon. We chose the above quote to illustrate her unique punchy sense of humor.
Pauli Murray — This civil rights activist, feminist, and poet was a hugely successful lawyer who is also recognized as the first Black female Episcopal priest. Like many figures on this list, Murray was acutely aware of the complex relationship between race and gender, and referred to sexism as “Jane Crow,” comparing midcentury treatment of women to that of African Americans in the South. Although she graduated from Howard University first in her class, she was barred from enrolling as a postgraduate at Harvard because she was a woman. Instead, in 1965 she became the first African American to receive a JSD from Yale Law. Once armed with a law degree she became a formidable force in advancing feminist and civil rights. She is a cofounder of the National Organization for Women (NOW). She also identified as having an “inverted sex instinct,” which she used instead of “homosexual” to describe her complicated gender identity and lifelong attraction to women.
Do not turn…away my friend…like a willow…I can bend…
(With Stevie Nicks at the Prudential Center. Photographs by Riff Chorusriff. April 2, 2017….
After finishing “Stand Back,” Nicks interrupted the show. The late Prince Rogers Nelson was on her mind. While she clung to a scarf tied around her mic, a single spotlight stilled the auditorium. She still couldn’t believe he was gone. When she feels nervous before a performance, she admitted that she often calls on him to be with her. And he is.
Nicks met Prince at a party in 1979 where she regretted advising him to be more social. She was grateful he didn’t mention it years later when she had to get in touch with him. Would he mind listening to something she just recorded in the studio? Prince said sure, he’d be right over. As fate would have it, he was only 20 minutes away.
After hearing his “Little Red Corvette” on the radio, Nicks was so inspired she substituted her own lyrics and composed a whole new song. She played it for him. Prince thought it was great. He even added some synth to the verses and a guitar part in the middle–the finishing touches to what became track six on her “Wild Heart” album: “Stand Back.” An hour later, she walked him to his car. As she recalled, it was an appropriately hued purple Camaro.
Over the years, they grew closer. Prince used to call her up when he was worried about her. They’d speak for hours. In the midst of Nicks’ well-chronicled drug addiction, he was there for her. She wishes she could have been there for him too. Continuing to tug at another scarf, she asked the audience to do her a favor. Whenever spinning “Stand Back” or “Little Red Corvette” in the future, notice how they dovetail. And, most importantly, remember her friend.
When she resumed the concert with “Edge of Seventeen,” Nicks honored Prince with a slideshow. It rendered him floating across the stage again like a white-winged dove. The whole thing was bittersweet and transcendent. I snapped the images above from the tribute.)
Zen compilation! (1/?) Photography by knightmare6 and Carlos A. Smith
Oh my god Sakura Matsuri was amazing this year! Not only was the weather gorgeous, but pretty much everything was at peak bloom. :) Sunday of the festival included my (and my sister’s) first attempt at crossplay, which I found to be a lot of fun! More pictures to come!
thatkevinsmith: Making waves on the #imdboat with my @cwtheflash family! I run back to Central City to direct my third episode of #TheFlash in January! I love these people: because of them, I get to make pretend with some of my favorite fictional folks ever created! #KevinSmith #flash #grantgustin#tomcavanagh #jesselmartin #candicepatton#carlosvaldes #keiynanlonsdale #daniellepanabaker#cw
Today seems like a good day to remember the heroism of U.S. Olympic athletes, John Carlos and Tommie Smith. In 1968, they stood up for equality on an international stage. It cost them their places on the national team. They received death threats.
Protest is not convenient. It is not polite. But it is almost always courageous.