DONE IM DONE I CAN SLEEP NOW YEAH, AND NOW TO ONLY WAKE UP TO DO THE DAMN THING FUCK ME
This is all the shit i fucking did
bacillus bacteria looks like multiple little nubs things that look like rabit food
Virus is made up of proteins, nucleic acuds, and some lipids that can reporduce only by infecting living cells.
The body of a virus is called capsid.
I group of virues that contrain RNA in their genetic information is the Retrovirus.
Capsid proteins bind to receptor proteins on the host cell to trick the cell into taking in the virus or its genetic material.
In a lytic infection, a virus enters a cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the cell to burst, releasing many copies of the virus.
A prophage is bacteriophage DNA that is embedded in the bacterial host’s DNA.
Viruses usually cause disease by infecting and destroying cells.
Antiboidtics fight against viruses.
Prokaryotes are differnert from other organisms because they lack nuclei. (also they are unicellual)
Prokaryotes that thrive in oxygen-free places are called Anaerobes.
Prokaryotes produce asexual by Binary fission.
Converting nitrogen into a form plants can use is known as nitrogen fixation
Plant cells do not contain chitin
Land plants most likly evloved from green algea
The term is alternation of generations, which refers to the two alternating phases of a plant’s life cycle: the gametophyte, or haploid phase, and the sporophyte, or diploid phase.
under unfavorable conditions Chlamydomonas forms a diploid zygote
the dominate state in moss is gametophyte
water is cared from the roots by xylem
fronds are the leaves of ferns
Tracheids are hollow cells with thick cell walls that make up xylem. Their function is to transport water through a plant.
The evolution of lignin made the cell walls of plants rigid. This enabled plants to grow upright and reach great heights.
gymno-sperms do not have flowers
the male reproductive structures of seed plants are called pollen grains.
Similarities: reproduce without requiring open water, produce seeds; Differences: Gymnosperms produce seeds in cones, the seeds are not encased in fruit, and wind carries pollen. Angiosperms produce seeds in flowers, the seeds are protected within a fruit, and animals play a large role in pollination.
Angiosperms, the mature seed is surrounded by fruit.
Meristem tissue is found in the tip of the plant, the steam where a leaf is growing out of and root cap.
tracheids + vessels = Xylem
Pholoem mainly transports functions of photosynthesis
Mature xylem cells have died, leaving behind only their cell walls. Mature phloem cells contain living cells.
most photosythesis from leafs come from palisade and spongy mesophyll
The epidermis and cuticle layers of dermal tissue, which form the outer covering of a leaf, protect tissues and limit water loss.
Stomata open when the air is cool and moist because the transpiration rate is low. In hot, dry air, stomata close to prevent excessive water loss from higher rates of transpiration.
The rise of water in a tall plant depends on capillart action and transportation pull.
Pressure-flow hypothesis explains water and nutrient movement in phloem
Adehesion is the attraction between wather molecules and other substances.
Phloems main job is to transport sugar
A leaf is flat and thin to maximize its surface area for light absorption. The tough, waxy dermal layer prevents physical damage and water loss. The mesophyll performs photosynthesis to make sugars for the plant’s food. The vascular tissue transports water to the leaf and sugars away from the leaf.
anthers is the part that produces the male gametophyte sperm (for angiosperms)
pollination happens when pollen lands on the stigma
vegetative reporduction is the process in which a single plant produces many offspring identicle
The carpel is a specialized leaf that produces and shelters the female gametophytes and, later, seeds. It is located in the innermost part of the flower.
dormancy is when the embryo is alive but not growing
substances that stimulate cell division and cause dormant seeds to sprout is gibberellins
photoperiod is mesured by day length
Auxins stimulate the initiation of new roots and inhibit the growth of new shoot tips. Cytokinins stimulate the initiation of new shoots and inhibit the growth of new roots.
A tropism is a growth response to a stimulus. Stems show phototropism when they grow toward light. Roots show gravitropism when they grow downward.
Disease causing organismas are known as Pathogens.
Many protists do not fit in the catogory of Animal-like/Plant-like/Fungus-like
Protists can reproduce rapidly through asexual reproduction in a favorable environment. If conditions become unfavorable, protists reproduce sexually, which results in new traits that may help the population survive.
cat turd looking protist moves by cilia
Amoebas do not have a rigid cell membrane
Alternation of generations is the process of alternating between diploid and haploid phases.
Cilia and flagella are the organs of movement in the ciliates and flagellates. The structures are nearly identical, but produce motion differently. In general, cilia are comparatively shorter than flagella. Cilia move somewhat like side oars on a boat. Flagella are located at an end of an organism and move back and forth.
Small photosynthetic organisms near the ocean’s surface are called photoplankton
Slime molds are found mainly in decaying organic matter
Slime molds produce sporangia and spores when food is scarce for greater mobility and increased genetic diversity. Greater spore mobility increases the organism’s chances of finding another source of food. Greater diversity helps it adapt to changes in environmental conditions.
Not all fungi is unicellular.
Fungi has a symbiotic relationship between green algea or cyanobacterium known as Lichen