can we make that a verb

Whenever I see a post on tumblr suggesting aliens don’t have gender, I always think–‘but what if also the reverse. What if aliens also have some fundamental social construct we don’t’.

Like, they come and meet us and they’re like ‘hey this is an awkward question but what’s your gooblebygark?’

And we’re like what.

‘You know, the… the thing. Your goobledygark. The thing that dictates whether you’re gnarfgnoovles or brubledoopes’

What. What. What the fuck, those words don’t even mean anything??? What are you talking about?

‘Look, your ridiculous human languages don’t seem to have the words for these! But they’re totally a thing, they’re like, fundamental aspects of social life for our species, just… just let us lick you so we can know what verb tense to use when we speak to you.’

What does one thing have to do with the other??? That makes no–

‘UGH, nevermind, you’re totally brubledoopes, I can just tell, I don’t even need to taste your bacterial skin colonies.’

And then another alien overhears and is like ‘holy shit, you can’t stereotype like that, that’s SO NOT COOL’

‘yeaH BUT THEY WON’T LET ME LICK THEM’

anonymous asked:

Can you write a post explaining German cases please?

If they could be explained in one post, i’m sure we’d all have less problems lmao but i’ll try! 

1. What cases are there? 

German has four cases: Nominativ, Genitiv, Dativ und Akkusativ. (for any Latin nerds: Same as in Latin minus Ablative and Vocative.) 

2. Why are they necessary? 

Well, for once, you’ll need them if you want native speakers to understand what you’re saying. But let’s go a little deeper and compare German to English: 

In English, the meaning depends on the sentence structure. “The man bit the dog” and “The dog bit the man” have very different meanings even though both sentences use the same words - that’s because of the typical SVO-order. In English, the subject generally comes first, then some kind of verb, then the object (there are more difficult cases of course, but let’s not go into that rn). English has very little morphology, meaning that nouns/pronouns/determiners don’t inflect (a lot) depending on the case they’re in. 

In German, you can switch stuff around until you’re dizzy. “Der Hund biss den Mann” and “Den Mann biss der Hund” both mean the same, because “den” indicates that “Mann” is in the Akkusativ, thus he’s the one being bitten, no matter where you put him in the sentence. The case morphology allows a freer sentence order without leading to possible misunderstandings. 

3. So how do I know which case I need? 

This is the moment where it gets more complicated. You can associate the following questions with each case: 

  • Nominativ = Wer oder was? (Who?. The subject of a sentence is always in the nominative case.)
  • Genitiv = Wessen? (Whose?. Typically describes possession or comes as a rule after certain prepositions like “wegen” or verbs like “gedenken”.)

Okay, we can deal with that. Now on to the more difficult stuff: 

  • Dativ = Wem? 
  • Akkusativ = Wen oder was? 

To understand this, some knowledge of grammar is definitely an advantage. Consider the following sentences: 

  • I have a book. = Ich habe ein Buch. 
  • This is all well and nice. Subject (NOM), Verb, Object (AKK). 
  • In English, you would call “a book” a direct object because the verb “to have” is transitive, meaning it carries one object. “I have.” isn’t generally a full sentence and is expected to be followed by an object.

So apparently all our problems are solved with the Akkusativ/direct object. What now? 

  • I give you a book. = Ich gebe dir ein Buch. 
  • This is the critical moment. Subject (NOM), Verb, Object (DAT), Object (AKK). 
  • Suddenly we have two objects because the verb “to give” makes us expect information about what we’re giving (direct object, AKK) and to whom we’re giving it (indirect object, DAT). 
  • Such verbs are called ditransitive, meaning they can carry two objects. Just saying “I give.” leaves us wondering what you’re talking about because we’re missing key information. 
  • English, as explained above, solves this with sentence order by making the indirect object come first or by indicating it with “to” (“I give a book to you”). German solves it with inflection, putting the indirect object in a different case. 
  • That’s why things like “Ein Buch gebe ich dir” and “Dir gebe ich ein Buch” are both possible in German.
  • There are also intransitive verbs which carry either no object at all or just a dative object (“Ich antworte ihm”). 

4. How do I know which verbs carry which object(s)? 

This list will save you.  At some point (once you’ve gotten to a certain level in German), you’ll have a gut feeling about which object(s) to use just from experience. Give it some time! 

5. What about determiners and pronouns? 

I actually think this is less work because it’s one table of endings each, and once you’ve got that down you should be fine. 

side note: As a native speaker and language nerd who loves grammar, it’s hard for me to judge if this was helpful or just confusing as hell. I hope I still answered your question to some extent! If you need more help or have problems with a specific sentence, let me know and i’ll try my best! :) 

I’m ______ing — -고 있다, -아/어 있다, -는 중이다

ㅈIn English, we use the progressive tense very commonly, and it’s just as useful in Korean. The progressive tense is used any time you want to indicate that an action or state is ongoing. For example:

I’m going to the store.

He is eating an apple.

Of course, it can be used in more than just the present tense. We also have past progressive:

I was doing my homework.

He was reading a book.

And we have future progressive as well:

I will be cooking dinner.

They will be taking a test.

So how do we make these kinds of sentences in Korean? There are a few simple ways.


Simple present tense

Unlike in English, simple present tense in Korean can sometimes be read with a progressive meaning. Simply conjugate your verb in whatever formality level you see fit in the present tense, and you’re done! For example:

A: 뭐 해? (What are you doing?)

B: 난 학교에 . (I’m going to school.)

In this short dialogue, we have two verbs conjugated in low-formality 해체/반말 in the simple present tense, but we can read them as progressive.

A: 뭘 먹어요? (What are you eating?)

B: 사과를 먹어요. (I’m eating an apple.)

Again, we have simple present tense, but in mid-formality 해요체.

Simple present tense as progressive is commonly used when, as seen above, someone asks what someone else is doing.


-고 있다

-고 있다 is the most commonly used way to form progressive sentences to indicate that an action is ongoing. Simply add -고 있다 to the root of the verb and conjugate 있다 as normal. 

PAST: 

그림을 그리고 있었어요. (I was drawing a picture.)

수빈이는 뭘 읽고 있었어요? (What was Subin reading?)

PRESENT:

아기는 울고 있어요. (The baby is crying.)

세원 씨는 일하고 있어요? (Is Sewon working?)

FUTURE:

다음 주 이 때쯤 전 부산으로 운전하고 있을 거예요. (This time next week, I will be driving to Busan.)

수원 씨는 2년 후에 선생님으로 일하고 있을 거예요. (In two years, Suwon will be working as a teacher.)


-아/어 있다

-아/어 있다 is used to indicate that a state is ongoing. Rather than someone or something actively doing something, that person or thing is continuously existing in a particular state.  

PAST

맨 뒷자리에 앉아 있었어요. (I was sitting in the far back seat.)

한 시간 안에 소주 5병을 다 마셔버린 수훈 씨는 밤 내내 엄청 취해 있었어요. (Suhun, who had drunk five bottles of soju within an hour, was extremely drunk all night.

PRESENT

친구는 거기서 서 있어요. (My friend is standing there.)

이웃사람이 이사가서 저 집은 비어 있어요. (My neighbors moved, so that house is empty.)

FUTURE

성수기니까 호텔들이 다 가득 차 있을 거예요. (Because it’s peak season, all the hotels will be packed full.)

10월말까지 저 산촌은 눈으로 덮여 있을 거예요. (That mountain village will be covered by snow by the end of October.)


-는 중이다

This grammatical form literally means “to be in the middle of” something. Simply attach it to the root of your action verb of choice!

PAST

어머니께서 전화하셨을 때 저는 청소하는 중이었어요. (When mother called, I was in the middle of cleaning.)

승진 씨가 저한테 숙제 좀 도와달라고 부탁했는데 저는 이미 다른 친구 만나러 가는 중이었어요. (Seungjin asked me for help with homework, but I was already on my way to meet another friend.)

PRESENT

저는 집에 가는 중이에요. (I am going home [I am in the middle of going home].)

수빈 씨는 숙제를 하는 중이에요. (Subin is in the middle of doing her homework.)

FUTURE

11시니 찬웅이는 오는 중일 거야. (It’s 11, so Chanwoong will be [in the middle of] coming.)

그때쯤 그 사람은 점심을 먹는 중일 거예요. (About that time, that person will be eating lunch.)


As always, thanks for reading, and happy studying~

internet slang

as promised, some keyboard slang (we stole a lot from you)(sue us). I wrote what is accurate at the moment, a few years ago it was quite popular to write lik this m8 but it became pretty unhip (I could tell you that you can type “aussi” (: too, as well) “O6″ but literally no one has done that since 2008) most people write normally and add some of the following words :


basics :

- jpp (je n’en peux plus) : I can’t stand it anymore, I’m dying from the lols

- osef (on s’en fout) : no one cares

- mdr (mort-e de rire) / ptdr (pété-e de rire) : lol

- cmb / ctb (comme ma bite/comme ta bite) “like my dick/like your dick” : easy punchline to almost anything, ex : “the line was so long!” “cmb” “you have a short memory” (expr ”tu as la mémoire courte”) “ctb”

- cmt (comment) : how / cmb (combien) : how much/many

- slt (salut) / bjr (bonjour) / bsr (bonsoir) : hello

- bn (bonne nuit) : good night

- bcp (beaucoup) : a lot, much, many / tp (trop) : too, too much

- mtnt (maintenant) : now / ajd (aujourd’hui) : today / jms (jamais) : never

- srtt (surtout) : especially, above all / vrmt (vraiment) : really

- jsp (je ne sais pas) : I don’t know / ms (mais) but

- pr (pour) : for / pcq / pq (parce que) : because

- pq / pk (pourquoi) : why

- ss (sans) : without OR (sous) : under / sr (sur) : over, on

- tt (tout) : all, everything OR (tant) : so much, as long

- mn (mon) : my (m) / tn (ton) : your (m) / sn (son) : his/her

- ns (nous) : we OR (nos) : ours / vs (vous) : you (pl) OR (vos) yours (pl) / lr (leur(s)) : their / theirs

- fr (faire) : to do, make

- tmtc (toi-même tu sais) : you know what I’m talking about, private joke

- tkt / tqt (ne t’inquiète pas) : don’t worry

- c (c’est) : it is OR (sais/sait) : know (½/3p sg) / ct (c’était) : it was

- d (des) : some, ex : mange des chips / t (tes) : your (pl for one person)

- h (heure) : time/hour, ex : on se voit à ql h? (at what time do we meet?)

- keske (qu’est-ce que) : what is, ex : qu’est-ce c’est?

- kesta (qu’est-ce que tu as) : what’s up/wrong with you?

- ke / q (que) : that/what, ex : ke ve tu? (what do you want?)

- ql / kel (quel(s)/quelle(s)) : what/which

- askip (à ce qu’il paraît) : from what I’ve heard, apparently…

- oklm (au calme) : relaxed, calm, ex : petite soirée oklm avec les potes #posés


borrowing to english or kids :

- go : to leave (j’y go)

- dodo (beddy byes) : to sleep, sleeping (je vais dodo)

- miam (aka “yum”) : to eat (je vais miam)

- lol, the legendary

- chiller : to go somewhere and have some relaxed time, without doing much

- fat : something big/amazing, ex : cette soirée est trop fat!


dropping the vowels : 

it’s hard to explain but since so many words in french contain “ou”, “an”, “ai” or “on” (…), when we need or want to make verbs (or possessive pronouns as we have already seen) smaller, we drop those letters and the other person guesses what’s missing regarding the context.

a few examples (but you can play with lots of other verbs) :

- vx / vt (veux/veut) : to want, ½/3p sg, ex : tu vx d pom? je ss o magasin (do you want apples? I’m at the store) OR (voit) : to see, meet, 3p sg

- ss / st (sais/sait) : to know, ½/3p sg OR (suis/suit) : to follow, ½/3p sg OR (suis/sont) : to be 1p sg+3p pl, ex : où st t frères? (where are your brothers?)

- cns (connais) : to know someone, 1p sg

- pvs (pouvons) : to can, be able/allowed to, 1p pl


NB : I have used 1/2/3p sg or pl several times in that post, if you have doubts it means that those forms are the conjugated forms - reminder : je / tu / il-elle-on (singulier) ; nous / vous / ils-elles (pluriel).

How to use written accents in Spanish

People who are studying Spanish struggle a lot with written accents, and some even learn them by heart. But that’s not necessary if you know the rules, which are quite simple! Back when I was 8 and learnt them in school, I discovered that I could write anything without making spelling mistakes (then I forgot the rules and know I just know when to write an accent because I read a lot)

What are accents used for?

In Spanish, accents tell you when you should put more emphasis on a syllable. Also the absence of accents shows you which is the stressed syllable. This is super handy when reading a text with words you don’t know, because you’ll know how to pronounce them. When I had a quite basic English level, guessing how to pronounce something was a nightmare.

The syllable where you put more emphasis is called sílaba tónica, and I will be using that term from now on.

Based on the position of la sílaba tónica, Spanish words can be classified in 4 groups: 

  • AGUDAS
  • LLANAS
  • ESDRÚJULAS
  • SOBREESDRÚJULAS (not that common)

AGUDAS

Agudas have the sílaba tónica AT THE END OF THE WORD (1st position). This word can have as many syllables as you want, but the stress must be on the last one. Always.

Example: CA-, CRIS-TAL*. – As you can see, the emphasis is on the last syllable of the word. 

When do we write an accent on the AGUDAS?

The rules are quite simple. You’ll write an accent if:

- the word ends in a vowel: (ca-fé, a-llá, be-bé, en-con-tra-rá )

- the word ends in -n: (sar-tén, a-le-mán, a-cor-de-ón, co-a-li-ción)

-the word ends in -s: (bur-gués, ho-lan-dés, vi-vi-rás)

NOTE: the words that are agudas and end in consonant + S do not have an accent (ex: robots)

NOTE: The words that are agudas and end in “y” do not have an accent (virrey, convoy, and NOT virréy, convóy)

* CRIS-TAL does not have an accent because it ends with -l, so it is telling you that the emphasis is on the last syllable.

TIPS & TRICKS:

It’s cool knowing the rules, but sometimes is faster to know some tricks

  • Words that end in -ión have an accent (coalición, religión, contaminación, destrucción…)
  • A verb in the future simple will carry an accent in every version of the verb, except for the 1 person plural (compraré, comprarás, comprará, compraremos, compraréis, comprarán). As you can see, they all end in a vowel, in -n or -s, and “compraremos” doesn’t have an accent because la sílaba tónica is not the last one.
  • Words that are agudas and end in -ía always have an accent (geología, filosofía, biología, astronomía, gastronomía, tranvía)
  • The infinitives of the verbs are agudas and DO NOT have an accent because they end in -r (dormir, comprar, destrozar, aniquilar, cocer)

LLANAS

Llanas have the sílaba tónica on the penultimate (=next to the last) syllable (2nd position). This word can have as many syllables as you want, but the stress will be on the penultimate one. Always. So, when you pronounce it, you’ll make emphasis on the penultimate syllable.

Example: ÁR-BOL, IN-VE-RO--MIL, CO-CHE. - As you can see, the emphasis is on the penultimate syllable of the word. 

When do we write an accent on the LLANAS?

The rules are quite simple. You’ll write an accent if:

-llanas that end in ANY consonant, except for N OR S: (-piz, -cil, án-gel)

-when the llanas end in two consonants, even if it they are consonant+n // consonant+s (-ceps, fór-ceps)

-when the llanas end in -y, they have an accent (-ney)

ESDRÚJULAS AND SOBREESDRÚJULAS

  • ESDRÚJULAS

Esdrújulas have the sílaba tónica in the antepenultimate (=third to last) syllable (3th position).

Example: ES-DRÚ-JU-LA, Ó-PE-RA, CA-Ó-TI-CO.

When do we write an accent on the ESDRÚJULAS?

The rule is THE EASIEST. You’ll write an accent if:

ALWAYS. ALWAYS. ALWAYS.

  • SOBREESDRÚJULAS

Sobreesdrújulas are really weird, and they are normally verbs with pronouns added to them. Sobreesdrújulas have the sílaba tónica in the syllable before the antepenultimate syllable (4th position)

Example: Á-BRE-ME-LO, -JEN-SE-LA

When do we write an accent on the SOBREESDRÚJULAS?

The rule is THE EASIEST. You’ll write an accent if:

ALWAYS. ALWAYS. ALWAYS.


THIS SUMS UP EVERYTHING:

If you have any questions, let me know! I know this can be difficult to grasp at first, but once you master it it is a really simple system.

Noun modifier endings

Today I’ll give you an overview of noun modifier endings. I’m not sure if this is actually the proper term for it, but it’s what my teacher used back in the day!

Noun modifier endings are  actually applied to action verbs and descriptive verbs to change them into forms that can then be used to modify following nouns. More simply, they turn action or descriptive verbs into what we would in English call relative clauses and adjectives respectively

A relative clause is a clause starting with a relative pronoun, such as “that, who, which, etc,” that describes a noun. You can think of it as a long adjective. Let’s check out some examples in English first:

This is the cake that I ate.

In this example, “that I ate” is a relative clause that describes the cake.

The school where I met my friend is over there.

In this example, “where I met my friend” is a relative clause giving more information about the school.

And of course adjectives are simpler:

That pretty girl is my friend.

My brother is a friendly guy.

Now, let’s build some relative clauses and adjectives in Korean!


Action verbs

Present tense: -는 — The present tense noun modifier ending for action verbs is -는. Just slap it onto the root of your verb (keeping in mind any changes with irregular verbs) and you’re good to go!

  • The cake that that person sells is delicious. -> 그 사람이 파는 케이크는 맛있어요.
    • 팔다 - 다 = 팔 —–> 팔 + 는 = 파는 (ㄹ irregular verb- drop ㄹ before ㄴ)
  • The books that she reads are fun. -> 그녀가 읽는 책들은 재미있어요.
    • 읽다 - 다 = 읽 —–> 읽 + 는 = 읽는

Past tense: -(으)ㄴ — For verb roots that end with a consonant, add -은. For roots that end with a vowel, just add -ㄴ. Make sure to keep changes for irregular verbs in mind!

  • The kimbap that I ate was bland. -> 제가 먹은 김밥은 싱거웠어요. 
    • 먹다 - 다 = 먹 —–> 먹 + 은 = 먹은
  • The movie that we saw was boring. -> 우리가 영화는 지루했어요.
    • 보다 - 다 = 보 —–> 보 + ㄴ =

Past habitual: -던 — If you want to refer to an action that was done repeatedly or habitually in the past, attach -던 to the verb root.

  • The school that we attended is gone now. -> 우리가 다니던 학교는 이제 없어요.
    • 다니다 - 다 = 다니 —–> 다니 + 던 = 다니던
  • My mom sings the songs that grandma used to sing. -> 우리 엄마는 외할머니께서 부르시던 노래를 부르세요.
    • 부르다 - 다 = 부르 —–> 부르 + 던 = 부르던

Future tense: -(으)ㄹ —  Again, depending on if the root ends with a consonant (-을) or vowel (-ㄹ), you use a slightly different form.

  • The place I will go is far. -> 제가 곳이 멀어요.
    • 가다 - 다 = 가 —–> 가 + ㄹ =
  • The shoes I will wear tomorrow are new ones. -> 내일 신을 신발은 새 거예요.
    • 신다 - 다 = 신 —–> 신 + 을 = 신을


Descriptive verbs

Present tense: -(으)ㄴ — The present tense noun modifier endings for descriptive verbs look like the past tense noun modifier endings for action verbs. Make sure you use -은 for roots that end with consonants and -ㄴ when the root ends with a vowel.

  • That tall building is Lotte World Tower. -> 저 높은 건물은 롯데월드타워예요.
    • 높다 - 다 = 높 —–> 높 + 은 = 높은
  • That singer is a handsome man. -> 저 가수는 잘생긴 남자예요.
    • 잘생기다 - 다 = 잘생기 —–> 잘생기 + ㄴ = 잘생긴

Past tense: -던; -았/었던 — Just as we can use -던 with action verbs to indicate a habitual past action, we can use it with descriptive verbs to indicate that a state was continuous in the past. Using just -던 on its own gives a feeling of looking back on or reminiscing about something that may still be continuing to the present time. On the other hand, -았/었던 carries a feeling of “was X in the past, but is no longer.”

  • The girl who was pretty when she was young became a beautiful woman. ->어릴 때 예뻤던 소녀는 아름다운 여자가 됐어요.
    • 예쁘다 - 다 = 예쁘 —–> 예쁘 + 던 = 예뻤던
  • Mingyu, who was very diligent, still works hard. -> 부지런하던 민규 씨는 지금도 일을 열심히 해요. 
    • 부지런하다 - 다 = 부지런하 —–> 부지런하 + 던 = 부지런하던

Future tense: -(으)ㄹ — The future tense noun modifier endings for descriptive verbs are the same as for action verbs. As always, make sure that you make any needed changes for irregular verbs. Also, please note that [descriptive verb + -(으)ㄹ NOUN] is not a very commonly used structure unless it’s followed by the noun 것 (thing). However, that starts getting into full future tense, which isn’t the point of this post.

  • I am looking for a gift that will be good to give to my friend. -> 친구에게 주기에 좋을 선물을 찾고 있어요.
    • 좋다 - 다 = 좋 —–> 좋 + 을 = 좋을


Nouns

Nouns on their own can’t take noun modifier endings, but the endings can be attached to 이다 (to be). My notations of the forms the noun modifier endings take will include 이다 and be written as single units, but just be aware that they are actually 이다 plus the actual noun modifier ending.

Present tense: -인 — It’s the same regardless of whether the noun ends with a consonant or a vowel!

  • My friend, who is a teacher, is very smart. -> 선생님인 제 친구가 정말 똑똑해요.
  • That lady, who is an actress, often appears in dramas. -> 배우인 그녀는 드라마에 자주 나와요.

Past tense: -이었/였던 — -던 makes another appearance! This time it appears with 이다 conjugated to the past tense. Add -이었던 if the noun ends with a consonant and -였던 if it ends with a vowel.

  • Jimin, who was a model student, of course ended up attending a good university. -> 모범생이었던 지민이는 역시 좋은 대학교에 가게 됐어요.
  • Seungjin, who was Jimin’s friend, doesn’t contact him anymore. -> 지민 씨의 친구였던 승진 씨는 더 이상 지민 씨랑 연락을 안 해요.

Future tense: It’s sort of weird to use the future noun modifier ending -(으)ㄹ directly on 이다. Rather, you would use [NOUN이/가 될…]. This way, you are using the action verb 되다 to say that something or someone will be come something else. 

  • The man who will become Somin’s husband is very good-looking. -> 소민 씨의 남편이 될 남자는 정말 잘생겼어요.
  • Chanhyeong, who will become a doctor, has studied hard since he was young. -> 의사가 될 찬형이는 어릴 때부터 공부를 열심히 해왔어요.


Happy studying~

anonymous asked:

¡Hola! ¿Puede explicarme la voz activa y la voz pasiva? Muchas gracias :)))

¡Hola!

Voz activa

In Spanish, the most common sentence structure is

subject + action + object

For example:
Yo escribí una carta. - I wrote a letter.

This kind of sentences focus on the person/animal/object who is doing the action.

Voz pasiva

But sometimes, we want to focus on the person/animal/object on which the action is done. This sentence structure is:

object + action + subject

For example:
La carta fue escrita por mí. - The letter was written by me.

Here, what is important is the letter.

How to make “voz pasiva”?

The formula: object + ser + participle + [complement]
Most of the time: object + ser + participle + por + subject

1) ser

We need the verb ser before our participle verb.

The verb ser, can be conjugated to any verb tense: present, past, etc.
But the participle never changes.

Remember to conjugate the verb in the third person singular or plural.
This is: él, ella, ellos, ellas

2) participle

Then you have to know the participle form of the verbs, or participio.

You can find it easily in any conjugation dictionary as:
WordReference
SpanishDict

But I’m also going to explain how to make it.
For regular verbs, the participle always end in -ado, or -ido

AR
hablar → hablado (speak → spoken)
amar → amado (love → loved)

ER
comer → comido (eat → eaten)
leer → leído (read → read)

IR
sentir → sentido (feel → felt)
servir → servido (work → worked / serve → served)

But we have many irregular verbs with different endings.

NOTE: The participle can change to feminine, changing the “o” to an “a”, depending on the object. And can become plural, adding an “s”. Think about it as another kind of adjective.

Los libros fueron escritos. (The books were written)
Las cartas fueron escritas. (The letters were written)

This is ONLY when the participle is used with the verb ser.
When it is used with haber, it never changes to feminine or plural.

Nosotras hemos comido. - We have eaten.
“comido” remains the same, even if it’s a group of women.

3) por

Most of the time, we need the preposition por, to indicate who or what performed the action on the object.

You can add any noun after por. But if we say “by me” or “by you” we need:

por mí - by me
por ti - by you

The rest can be:
por ella: by her
por él: by him
por nosotros/as: by us
… and so on.

Examples:

Now we can make some examples, remember the formula:
object + ser + participle + [complement]
object + ser + participle + por + subject

  • Esta novela fue escrita por Octavio Paz. - This novel was written by Octavio Paz.
  • Mi billetera fue robada. - My wallet was stolen.
  • Esta casa fue construida por un arquitecto muy famoso. - This house was built by a very famous architect.
  • Esta casa fue construida en 1800. - This house was built in 1800.
  • Las fotografías fueron enviadas el martes. - The pictures were sent on Tuesday.
  • El robo está siendo investigado por la policía. - The robbery is being investigated by the police.
  • El libro fue publicado hace dos años - The book was published two years ago.
  • La prueba tiene que ser completada en 2 horas. - The test has to be completed in 2 hours.
  • El elefante bebé es alimentado por su madre. - The baby elephant is fed by its mother.
  • El ganador será anunciado por el anfitrión. - The winner will be announced by the host.

I hope this was helpful ^^

  • Me, speaking a language to myself: Perfect pronunciation, intonation, I can express myself perfectly, I never struggle to find the right word to convey my most intricate thoughts, natives ain't got nothin on me
  • Me, speaking a language to a non-native speaker: It's going well, we are both making mistakes here and there but nothing major, I occasionally struggle to find the word but it's okay, I'm not self-conscious at all
  • Me, speaking a language to a native speaker: How do you even compose a sentence oh my gOd my accent is horrible they must think I was dropped as a child oh no I just conjugated a verb wrong Lord please smite me down
bad sides of the moon signs

from our personal experience

aries moon: do you have any other emotion than rage? you are such a primitive human, your instinct to everything is HULK DESTROY. youre childish and probably once tried to murder your friend because they said you dont look good in your shirt. your anger levels are unreal, you go berserk because of everything, you have serious anger issues. also, stop expecting everyone to get over their bad mood in 5 seconds like you do.

taurus moon: no, you are not always right. no, your opinions arent automatically the right ones. stop assuming you know better than everyone and consider everyone elses opinion for once. youre way too stubborn and hide your feelings so you can seem mature.

gemini moon: i hope youre proud of setting the world record of how many emotions one human can go through in one minute. seriously, youre crazy. you either completely hide your feelings from everyone and put up a happy front or feel every emotion possible in a span of a minute. no wonder no one can put up with your moods. and no, youre not as intellectual as you think.

cancer moon: stop hiding your goddamn feelings. you hide them and build up anger until you explode and blow up on everyone in sight and lash out. your victim complex is strong, you blame everyone except yourself. you probably make everyone think youre tough but cry 5 hours a day in your room at home.

leo moon: did you know you are not special? shocking, right? you think youre so special and your emotions are the most important thing in the world, you demand attention and admiration from all of your friends at once and throw a tantrum if you dont get attention for 5 minutes. youre so easily hurt too, you make everyone think you have no feelings but in reality youre hurt because one of your friends doesnt talk to you for 5 seconds.

virgo moon: jesus christ, cut yourself some slack. youre constantly criticising yourself and hate yourself if youre not perfect in everything you do. you hold others to high standards as well and get mad if they dont live up to them. you also think you know better than everyone.

libra moon: stop trying to please everyone, its not that important to be well liked. you steal traits from others and try to get everyone to like you and be your friend, even though inside youre just hollow. you have no clue how to deal with emotions either.

scorpio moon: youre so god damn dramatic, you probably write poetry about how life is so hard and how youre not sure how youll manage because you accidentally broke a glass. you know exactly how to read others and use this to your advantage to manipulate people and get them to do exactly what you want. also can you open up for once? yes blah blah trust issues bad past youve been hurt blah blah but you cant get mad at other people if you can hide your emotions like a master and then they dont know how to tell what youre feeling.

sagittarius moon: honestly? you just being yourself is enough to roast you, i dont even have to write anything. no matter how old you are, you act like an immature reckless teenager, you run away from everything, feelings, problems, responsibilites and just go out and have fun. learn how to be mature. if youre in a depressed mood you instantly show escapist behavior and want to get drunk to run away from your feelings. your responsibilities will catch up to you one day and itll bite you in the ass.

capricorn moon: you want to make everyone think you have no emotions and probably think of yourself as stoic and tough but inside youre just weak. you get hurt by the smallest things. your front isnt convincing either, everyone can tell what youre feeling. also, have you ever heard of the verb “enjoy”? i dont think so since you criticize every damn thing, you literally cant enjoy something without pointing out its flaws.

aquarius moon: yes we get it, youre special and logical and above others. so unique, wow. you act like 30 year old virgins who think theyre hot shit, you think youre better than others and constantly look down on others while you also think youre some sort of god who has acquired all knowledge. newsflash asshole, youre nothing special. just shut the fuck up, no one wants to listen to you. no matter your gender, you constantly mansplain shit. your social media username is probably something like “HypergodOfDeath”.

pisces moon: i have to admit, your acting and manipulation skills are impressive. you act like an innocent little lamb, make everyone love you and as soon as someone dares to cross you you turn everyone against them because someone as sweet as you cant hurt anyone, right? there are two types of you, one that pretends to act emotional to gain sympathy and is secretly the devil in disguise and theres the other one, the one whos constantly wallowing in self pity and thinks the world is sooo cruel and against them. i hate both of you.

POC!Series

hello! this is the first installment of my POC series and it includes small blurbs with tom, sam, harry and harrison! i’m going to try to make them gender neutral too (i try really hard to be inclusive i’m sorry if i slip up sometimes). as a woman of color in the fandom, i see the lack of diversity in fandoms (also, saw @tomhollandcouk‘s post ((which you can find here)) and it inspired me, i love u shu) and i want to try to remind others to be diverse/contribute to being more diverse as well! so let me know what you think :)

Dating someone who is Mexican:

Keep reading

annahray  asked:

Hi there, I'm taking college level Spanish this fall and I wanted to know if you had any recommendations on note taking and studying? I really want to do well.

¡Hola!

These are some things that I use when learning a new language.

Notes

Classify the new information

You can take the last pages of your notebook or have a separare notebook for this. You can classify all the new words by grammatical use, for example, nouns, adjectives, verbs, adverbs, etc. I do this classification because I’m very meticulous, but you can make your own classifications. For example:

  • words (nouns)
  • describing (adjectives & adverbs)
  • actions (verbs)
  • connectors (prepositions & conjunctions)
  • phrases
  • others

You can label your classifications however you like as long as it makes sense to you. This is just to keep the new knowledge organized.

Also make another classification for grammar. For example:

  • patterns (Tener + que + [verb] - Tengo que estudiar)
  • conjugations (regular verbs and main irregular verbs)
  • rules (things like “más …. qué (more …. than)”, about indirect object  pronouns, etc.)
  • don’t forget (for example “a” before people “Conozco a Mariana [I know Mariana], “Saludé al profesor” [I greeted the profesor]”).
  • And any other classification you need.

Quick notes

I know sometimes teachers speak too fast and you have to write down everything very quick. If the teacher writes on the board or says something new that you consider important, write it in a post-it or make a notes box in a corner of your book or notebook, so when you have more time you can classify the new knowledge, and later you don’t have to be like “where did I write it? I’m sure it was somewhere here”.

Long and difficult explanations

First, don’t use your pretty notebook for this, just use any paper or recycled paper. Then find all key points and key words, then you can make bullet lists, tables, mind maps or diagrams to organize the information. Use colors, drawings, arrows, boxes or anything that helps you understand the explanation. Don’t try to make it look pretty in the beginning because you will find yourself starting over and over again. Just try to find logic on the topic. Then, when you feel you finally understood you can write it again clean and neat, if you want. Try to make your notes as simple as you can :)

Make your notes look good

I’m sure you have seen all those beautiful notes out there in the studyblrs, but not all of us can make such pretty notes. However, there’s a video of @studyquill which I found very useful and easy to help you make your notes look better. You can take a look here.

Memorization

There are many memorization techniques, but I highly recommend mnemonics and memory palace. You can learn about it here.

Mnemonics

Sometimes it’s difficult to find words to create mnemonics, but you can use websites to help you out. If your native language is English you can try Wordplays or RhymeZone. I’m sure there are websites like these in many languages.

So, for example you want to learn the word “jugar” (to play).

  1. First, you have to know how it sounds. You can use forvo for this.
  2. Look for words that have the letters or rhyme with “hoo” and “gar”
  3. We have for example “hoop” and “garden”
  4. Now try to make a story with these words. The funnier or weirder the better.
  5. We have for example. “I PLAY with a hoop in the garden.” Now you have to make it look weird or funny so your brain doesn’t forget it. Remember if the mnemonic is too obvious or natural your brain just will throw it away because it will think it’s not important. So maybe you can imagine that you are playing not with just one hoop, but with 20! and the garden is super big, or like a jungle or has your favorite flowers. Try to exaggerate everything you can. I recommend you to close your eyes and feel it while repeating the little story you just created.
  6. Done!

I know it sounds silly and weird, but trust me, it works. Remember mnemonics work better if you create them. This takes time at the beginning, but it will help you retain better the information for a longer time. If you keep practicing it will get easier.

You can also make flashcards to keep remembering the words, only the Spanish word and the translation! You can write your mnemonics in a notebook or a document. You can try Anki to make your flashcards, or you can make your own decks on Memrise, too.

You can use it with everything you want, like irregular verbs.
For example we have the verb “poder” (can) but when you conjugate it, it becomes “yo puedo”. So you can imagine that you CAN swim in a pool with an elephant and you can add some dogs if you want. Again, make it look funny, maybe the pool has a weird shape or the water is pink or green. Maybe the elephant is wearing a swimsuit and the dogs are swimming with floating boards. You can create whatever helps you remember difficult stuff.

Memory Palace

For regular verbs, we can make a longer story. For example, AR verbs as hablar, in present is: Yo hablo; Tú hablas; Él, Ella, Usted habla; Nosotros/as hablamos; Ustedes, Ellos hablan. So we have to remember the endings -o, -as, -a, -amos, -an. Here we can use the memory palace.

  1. Choose any location that you remember very well, like your house, your school, your town’s park, your room, your car etc. (I will use my house for this example).
  2. Choose 5 places in that location, like living room, bathroom, dining room, kitchen, garden. Try to make a linear journey from point A to B, C, D and F.
  3. Here comes the story. First I place myself in the living room and wow! I’m covered with oil, but why? At least is an aromatic oil, it smells like fruits. Then I go to the bathroom and omg! I’m sorry you were there asking the mirror about your future, I thought that was only on fairytales. Then I go to the dining room and I see my brother (he) and sister (she) with an important business man (usted) at the table, and wait a minute, that man is Abraham Lincoln in person! in my house? This is weird. Then I go to the kitchen and I find my friends, mis amigos, but there are so many big mosquitos we have to kill them all! When we finish I go to the garden where there are many scientist and they are looking for an antidote in the weird flowers I have in the garden, I think it’s an antidote for mutant ants.
  4. Now remember the key words: yo-oil; tú- asking the mirror; él, ella, usted- Abraham Lincoln;  nosotros - amigos, mosquitos; ustedes, ellos - antidote. So the endings are yo -o; tú -as; él, ella, usted -a; nosotros -amos; ustedes, ellos -an.
  5. Done!

Also try to remember your story backwards and without order, for better retention. So, what’s the ending for “nosotros”? You just have to remember the kitchen where, me and my amigos had to kill big mosquitos. So the ending is -amos. Now, the verb cantar (sing) is regular too. How would you say “they sing”?, just remember the scientists in your garden looking for an antidote, so the answer is “ellos cantan”.

You can make this with anything you want. I recommend you a book, it’s called Unlimited Memory by Kevin Horsley. It explains many memory techniques for beginners.

I hope this has helped you! Happy learning! :)

Low-formality conjugation (해체)

This is my last post in my conjugation series covering three of the most common forms you can expect to see, 하십시오체, 해요체, and now finally 해체, which is often referred to as 반말! There are other forms to be covered later, but if you at least know these three, you’ll be set for pretty much any social interaction in Korean. While the previous two posts were a bit heavy, this one will be a lot more short and sweet because… we more or less learned it all in the 해요체 post! 

Once more, I will leave irregular verbs out of this post for the sake of simplification (irregulars are for another post!).

Function

해체 is a low-formality high-closeness conjugation that is used when you speak with close family members* and friends, and when you speak to people who are below you in the social hierarchy (below you in rank, age, etc.). In addition, this is used in more relaxed social settings, where you do not need to worry about strict decorum. As such, you run the risk of coming off rude if you use this with someone older than you, higher in rank than you, or someone that you are not very close with, like a stranger you’re meeting for the first time or a recent acquaintance. If you want to know a bit more about the workings of social formality and closeness in Korean conjugation, you can check out this post and skip down to the “Formality levels” section (and I highly recommend you do so, as it’s very important in Korean society and thus, in the Korean language!).

When using 해체, you can use the informal words for “I” and “you,” which are “나” and “너” respectively. However, one caveat to using “너” is that you should not use it toward someone who is older than you. In that case, you would refer to the person by their name or title.

*NOTE: Using 해체 with your siblings is very normal, and many people use it with their parents as well (though some do switch to speaking to their parents with 해요체 as they get older). There are also those that use 해체 with their grandparents, though this is fairly unusual.

Usage

The conjugation of 해체 is very similar to that of 해요체. In fact, you can often just remove the -요 from 해요체 to make 해체 sentences! There are a few exceptions to this, and a few special endings that you can use with 해체, and of course I’ll cover those a bit later in this post. Anyway, if you are not familiar with the formation of 해요체, please read that post first and then come back!

…okay, done reading up on 해요체? So, in the 해요체 post, we saw that regular conjugation involves adding -아요 to verb roots where the final vowel is 아 or 오 and -어요 to verb roots with a final vowel of anything that is not 아 or 오. Regular conjugation of 해체 is the same—just add -아 or -어 depending on the final vowel of the root:

먹다 - 다 -> 먹 + -어 = 먹어

  • 남친은 채소를 안 먹어. (My boyfriend doesn’t eat vegetables.)

좁다 - 다 -> 좁 + -아 = 좁아

  • 우리 집은 좀 좁아. (My house is a bit narrow. <–NOTE: Korean uses “우리” instead of  “나의[내]/저의[제]” to mean “my” when talking about things like family members, homes, schools, etc.)

Let’s check the little exceptions that we saw in the 해요체 post and see how they turn out in 해체 (hint: pretty much the same!).

First, if the verb root ends with either 아 or 어, you don’t double up and add -아 or -어. The vowels simply overlap.

가다 - 다 -> 가 + -아 =  (NOT 가아)

  • 난 학교에 . (I go/am going to school.)

서다 - 다 -> 서 + -어 =  (NOT 서어)

  • 거기 . (Stand there.)

하다 is a bit of a special case. We saw last time that in 해요체, it becomes “해요” instead of the expected “하요”. Again, we do the same thing but just leave off the -요.

심심해. (I’m bored.)

코끼리는 강해. (Elephants are strong.)

수미는 매일 수영해. (Sumi swims every day.)

되다 is also special. Going by the regular rule, it would be 되어. However, it is far more natural to contract it to 돼. Let’s check it out:

되다 - 다 -> 되 + -어 =

  • 난 좀 걱정이 돼. (I’m a little worried.)

And yet another special case, 이다. When following a noun that ends with a consonant, it will be -이야. When following a noun that ends with a vowel, it will just be -야.

가방이야. (It’s a bag.)

학교. (It’s a school.)

Other special cases occur with roots ending in the vowels 이, 우, and 오. In these cases, the final vowel merges with -어  (or -아  in the case of roots ending with 오) to make a compound vowel sound

시다 - 다 -> 시 + -어요 =

  • 맛이 너무 . (The taste is too sour.)

춤을 추다 - 다 = 춤을 추 + -어요 = 춤을

  • 미나 씨는 춤을 . (Mina dances/Mina is dancing.)

오다 - 다 -> 오 + -아요 =

  • 세빈 씨도 . (Sebin is coming too.)

NOTE: I mentioned in the 해요체 post that the honorific infix -(으)시- is an exception to the above rule. In 해요체, the 시 becomes “세” instead of the expected “셔.” However, in 해체—Yes, you can use honorifics with 해체/반말! Read more about its usage here!—the 시 does become “셔”!

좋아하다 - 다 -> 좋아하 + 시 + -어 = 좋아하

  • 우리 엄마는 꽃을 좋아하셔. (My mom likes flowers.)

앉다 - 다 -> 앉 + 시 + -어요 = 앉으셔

  • 할머니는 거기 앉으셔. (Grandma sits/is sitting there.)


Special endings

We’re done with the conjugation rules! However, there are a few special endings we can use with 해체 that we didn’t have with 해요체.

There are three common ones I want to introduce here, interrogative -니, imperative -아/어라, and propositive -자. Please NOTE that -아/어라 and -자 technically fall under 해라체, another kind of conjugation, but they are commonly used with 해체.

When you are asking a question to someone younger than you, you can end your sentences with “-니?” instead of the normal 해체 conjugations:

어디 가니? (Where are you going?)

케이크를 좋아하니? (Do you like cake?)

넌 학생이니? (Are you a student?)

You can form commands by adding -아/어라 to the root, keeping in mind the rules laid out previously. Don’t use this one toward someone older than you, even if you do speak in 해체/반말 together! You can just use plain 해체 for commands also, of course.

빨리 해라! (Do it quickly!)

가라! (Go!)

앉아라!

When you want to suggest something, you can add -자 directly to the root instead of the normal 해체 conjugation. It’s not necessary to use it—you can just stick with plain 해체— but the option is there:

같이 먹자! (Let’s eat together!)

공부하자. (Let’s study.)

책을 사자. (Let’s buy books.)


More examples

Let’s check out some more examples using a variety of sentences types.

가다

  • Declarative: 오늘 우체국에 . (Today I am going to the post office.)
  • Interrogative: 어디 가/가니? (Where are you going?)
  • Imperative: 시장에 빨리 가/가라. (Go to the market quickly.)
  • Propositive: 학교에 같이 가자. (Let’s go to school together.)

먹다

  • Declarative: 난 채소를 많이 먹어. (I eat a lot of vegetables.)
  • Interrogative: 고기를 먹어/먹니? (Do you eat meat?)
  • Imperative: 이거 먹어/먹어라. (Eat this.)
  • Propositive: 이거 먹자. (Let’s eat this.)

하다

  • Declarative: 그 남자는 축구를 . (That man plays soccer/is playing soccer.)
  • Interrogative: 민지 씨는 공부해/하니? (Is Minji studying?)
  • Imperative: 그만 해/해라! (Stop doing that!)
  • Propositive: 우리 게임을 하자! (Let’s play games!)

되다

  • Declarative: 이 것을 만지면 안 . (It’s not okay if you touch this thing [More natural translation would be “Don’t touch this thing,” but in Korean, it’s a declarative sentence, not imperative].)
  • Interrogative: 시간이 ? (Do you have time?)
  • Imperative: 돼라, 제발! (Please work!)
  • Propositive: 우리 좋은 학생이 되자! (Let’s become good students!)

꿈을 꾸다

  • Declarative: 에린 씨는 매일 밤 꿈을 . (Erin dreams every night.)
  • Interrogative: 어떤 꿈을 꿔/꾸니? (What kinds of dreams do you have/dream?)
  • Imperative: 돼지 꿈을 꿔/꾸라! (Dream of pigs! [In Korean culture, a dream of pigs is said to indicate wealth.])
  • Propositive: 재미있는 꿈을 꾸자! (Let’s have fun dreams!)


With this, we’re done learning about the three conjugation types that you will most often use, 하십시오체, 해요체, and 해체! Make sure to practice a lot~

Happy studying~

Witchcraft Terms for the Modern Practitioner (WTMP): Smudging vs. Smoke Cleansing

Originally posted by limoniume

Witch Haven Community is all about inclusivity and progress, which is why we wanted to start a series of small posts covering outdated terms used in the witchcraft community and offer modern alternatives.  We are calling this project “Witchcraft Terms for the Modern Practitioner” or, more informally, WTMP.  It is our hope that these substitutes will promote more understanding and openness within our diverse community.  Of course, these are just suggestions, and we try to highlight the differing opinions covering each of these terms.  

The term of the week is:

“SMUDGING”

Definition:  “Smudge” has a broad range of definitions, and as a noun or regular verb, it can simply mean to make something dirty by marking it, or making it messier. This definition is not the one we’re talking about, however. Collins English Dictionary defines our particular use of “smudging” in question as: “a traditional Native American method of using smoke from burning herbs to purify a space.” Canada’s Indigenous Corporate Training blog elaborates further upon this, explaining in general terms what smudging is, and its place in modern-day Native American culture. White Sage is the herb most commonly associated with smudging, though other plants such as sweetgrass and tobacco may be used. A smudging ritual may be done to oneself, but it may also be conducted upon others, as well as upon spaces.

Is it problematic?  The ritual of “smudging” has existed far longer than the term, however over time the term “smudging” has come to specifically mean Native American purification methods. The methods themselves are sacred to Native American tribes, whose practices are often either entirely closed or initiatory, and feature particular - sometimes regional - details that make a proper smudging ritual far more involved than simply burning herbs. As modern witchcraft has sought effective cleansing techniques, this method has been removed from its historical and cultural context, and “witchy” uses of “smudging” are often devoid of the meaning and symbolism that true smudging involves.

Additionally, the most commonly associated herb with “smudging”, White Sage, is highly endangered in North America, and its cultivation and production is often poorly regulated. This results in it being harder to obtain for Native American individuals, as well as granting opportunities for counterfeit White Sage to be sold. Overcultivation also threatens the extinction of the herb. 

Or is it not problematic?  Using burning herbs to cleanse and purify a person or a space is hardly restricted to Native American practices only, and examples of similar practices occur in a wide range of native cultures from across the world. The particulars of these practices often vary wildly, as does their availability to learn and conduct, and the terms for these practices are often just as varied.

Alternative Terms:  The most common alternative term modern practitioners will find is “Smoke Cleansing”, which is a term that avoids having any sort of cultural connotation. Consider synonyms for these two words as well. I couldn’t come up with any good sort of combination, but something like “Mist sanitation” might work for you! You may also look at your own cultural heritage for terms and practices that are accessible to you, and contact any elders or respected authorities to pursue learning and using those appropriately. Remember to ask yourself why you wish to use a particular term in lieu of something more neutral and acceptable.

Happy Casting, Nerds!
Sam
Witch Haven Community Manager, The One True Birb, Screm Queen.
@auroraliferous


With all this being said, we hope that these Witchcraft Terms for the Modern Practitioner (WTMP) blog posts promote educated, CALM discussions between fellow witches.  As always, Witch Haven is an inclusive community that acts as a safe haven and educational platform for witches from all branches of paganism.  Our intention is to promote research, discovery, and exploration within our vast and diverse sodality.  We aren’t just friends and fellow witches on Witch Haven; we are a #WAMILY (a term coined by Salt meaning “witch family.”)

We invite everyone to comment, reblog, and share their opinions on this term.  We look forward to the discussion and, as always, have a wonderfully witchy day!

Not only... but also... -거니와

Welcome to another grammar post! I enjoy writing these, and I hope you guys get something out of reading them also. Today, let’s look at the grammar -거니와.

Function:

-거니와 has two meanings, the first and most common of the two being to add in the following clause information that goes along with the information presented in antecedent (preceding) clause. Simply put, we can get meanings, depending on how you choose to translate them, along the lines of “Not only… but also…” and “In addition to…”

Similar meanings can be expressed more simply with the grammar forms “-(을) 뿐만 아니라” (for the “Not only… but also” meaning) and “-(으)ㄴ/는데다가” or “N-에다가” (for the “In addition to…” meaning).

The second meaning is to emphasize information that is being repeated. Let’s check them out.

Usage:

The first meaning of this grammar can be used with action verbs, descriptive verbs, and nouns in the past, present, and future tenses. You must make sure that your preceding and following clauses line up with each other in terms of positivity and negativity— that is, if your preceding clause’s content is positive, the following clause’s content must also be positive, and if the preceding clause’s content is negative, the content of the following clause must also be negative. With the second, emphasis-adding usage, the present tense form is used with action verbs.

MEANING 1:

  • Action verbs:
    • PAST: -았/었거니와 — 대학교 때 민지 씨는 공부도 열심히 했거니와 다양한 봉사 활동에 적극적으로 참여했어요. (When she was in univeristy, Minji not only studied hard but also actively participated in various volunteer activities.)
    • PRESENT: -거니와 — 요한 씨는 밥을 먹을 때 거의 기름진 것밖에 안 먹거니와 엄청 빨리 먹으니까 배탈이 자주 나요. (When Yohan eats, he not only eats almost nothing but greasy foods but also eats very quickly, so he often gets stomachaches.)
    • FUTURE: -겠거니와 — 벚꽃 축제 때면 여의나루 공원은 커플로 북적거리겠거니와 너무 시끄러워서 거기에 가는 것보다 차라리 다른 곳에 가서 벚꽃 구경을 하는 게 나아요. (Around the time of the cherry blossom festival, Yeouido Park will be crowded with couples and too noisy, so rather than going there, it’s better to go somewhere else to see the cherry blossoms.) 
  • Descriptive verbs:
    • PAST: -았/었거니와 — 매우 피곤했거니와 집중도 잘 안 돼서 공부를 포기하고 TV를 봤어요. (In addition to being really tired I couldn’t concentrate, so I gave up on studying and watched TV.)
    • PRESENT: -거니와 — 교통도 복잡하거니와 사람들이 운전을 너무 위험하게 해서 전 서울에서 운전을 절대로 안 해요. (In addition to traffic being congested, people drive too dangerously, so I never drive in Seoul.)
    • FUTURE: -겠거니와 — 저 아이가 어른이 되면 예쁘겠거니와 매력이 넘치는 여자가 될 것 같아요. (When that child becomes an adult, she will be a beautiful and charming lady.)
  • Nouns:
    • PAST: -이었/였거니와 — 저 할아버지는 명예로운 군이이었거니와 유명한 화가였어요. (In addition to being an honorable soldier, that old man was also a famous painter.)
    • PRESENT: -(이)거니와 — 그 영화는 영상미도 영상미이거니와 배우의 연기력도 뛰어나요. (Not only the visuals but also the acting in that movie are spectacular.)
    • FUTURE: -(이)겠거니와 — 외국에서 살게 되면 가족도 가족이겠거니와  문화도 그리워질 것 같아요.(If I end up living in another country, I think I’ll miss the culture in addition to my family.)

MEANING 2:

  • 다시 한 번 말하거니와 보고서를 내일 오후 3시까지 제출해야 합니다. (Again, you must submit your report by 3 PM tomorrow.)
  • 거듭 강조하거니와 수능은 대학 입학에 중요한 시험이니만큼 공부를 열심히 해야 돼요. (To stress it again, to the extent that the KSAT is important to university admission, you must study hard.)


As always, happy studying~

OBJECT PARTICLE. (~을/~를)

~을 if the word ends with a consonant
~를 if the word ends with a vowel

/first, if you didn’t, check my post about subject particles before gettinf into this one!/

♡ object particle are basically used to show the thing or person that is affected by the action of the verb you are using if that makes sense. let’s start with some examples, they seem kind of weird at first but i hope you will understand :

here you can see where they are placed :)
-> i는 love bananas을
-> we는 ate a pizza를
-> my sister은 bough a dress을

we는 ate a pizza를
-> 우리는 피자를 먹었어요
우리+는 - we
피자+를 - pizza
먹었어요 - ate

♡ now that you understood a little (i hope you did), let’s use them in korean!

라면을 먹어요 = eat ramen
what do you eat? ramen을
라면 - ramen
먹다 - to eat

똑볶이를 요리해요 = cook tteokbokki
what do you cook? tteokbokki를
뜍볶이 - tteokbokki (korean dish)
요리하다 - to cook

TV를 봐요 = watch TV
what do you watch? TV를
보다 - to watch

숙제를 해요 = do homework
what do you do? homework를
숙제 - homework
하다 - to do

사진을 찍어요 = take picture
what do you take? picture을
사진 - picture
찍다 - to take (a picture)

i hope this will be helpful! good luck. dont hesitate to message me if you want more examples :)

Lesson 9: Past tense 았/었어요, irregular verbs/adjectives, “also”, and making negative sentences.

In lesson 8 we had a look at conjugating sentences in the informal polite present tense. Today we’re going to have a quick look at the informal polite past tense. The informal polite past tense can indicate an action as well as a state of being. The rules for past tense conjugation are the same as for the present tense.

If the final vowel in a verb stem is 아 or 오, then 았어요 is added to the verb stem.

살다 (to live) → 살 + 았어요 = 살았어요
오다 (to come) → 오 + 았어요 = 왔어요 (오 + 았 = 왔)
가다 (to go) →  가 + 았어요 = 갔어요 (가 + 았 = 갔)

If the final vowel in a verb stem is a vowel other than 아 or 오 then 었어요 is added to the verb stem.

먹다 (to eat) → 먹 + 었어요 = 먹었어요
읽다 (to read) →  읽 + 었어요 = 읽었어요
마시다 (to drink) → 마시 + 었어요 = 마셨어요 (마시 + 었 = 마셨 )

 Any verb or adjective that ends in 하다 becomes 했어요 in the past tense.

말하다 (to speak) → 말했어요
공부하다 (to study) → 공부했어요
피곤하다 (to be tired) → 피곤했어요

Now let’s take a look at some irregular verbs/adjectives. Some verbs and adjectives change their stem spelling when certain endings (such as 아/어요) or conjugations are applied to them. Some verbs and adjectives that have irregular forms are ones with stems ending in ㄷ, ㄹ, ㅂ, ㅅ, 으, and 르. Today we’re going to have a look at 으 verbs/adjectives only. Other irregular verbs will be covered in a later lesson.

If the final vowel of a verb stem is 으, the 으 is dropped entirely when the verb is conjugated, and the next to last vowel is used to determine spelling instead.

If the vowel before 으 is 아 or 오 then 아요 is added.

바쁘다 (to be busy) →  바쁘 + 아요 = 바빠요 →  레오 씨가 바빠요. (Leo is busy.)

If the vowel before 으 is a vowel other than 아 or 오 then 어요 is added.

예쁘다 (to be pretty) →  예쁘 + 어요 = 예뻐요 →  채연 씨가 예뻐요. (Chaeyeon is pretty.)

If the verb stem is monosyllabic, 어요 is added.

쓰다 (to write) →  쓰 + 어요 = 써요 →  켄 씨가 버스 번호를 써요. (Ken writes the bus number.)

What if you wanted to make a negative sentence? There are numerous ways in Korean to make a sentence with a negative connotation, but in this lesson we’re going to be looking at one of the easiest and most common ways a sentence can be made negative using the adverb 안 (not).

Placed directly before a verb or adjective, 안 is used to express negation.

안 + verb = 레오 씨가 오늘 회사에 안 가요. (Leo isn’t going to the office today.)
안 + adjective = 그 옷이 안 예뻐요. (Those clothes aren’t pretty.)

For verbs that end with 하다, the 안 is placed between the noun and 하다.

noun + 안 + 하다 = 홍빈 씨가 공부 안 해요. (Hongbin doesn’t study.)

Now let’s take a look at how to express similarity using the subject/object marker 도 (also, too). There are multiple ways to do this, but using 도 is one of the easiest.

Original sentences:
켄 씨가 치킨을 좋아해요. 레오 씨가 치킨을 좋아해요. (Ken likes chicken. Leo likes chicken.) While these sentences are grammatically correct, it is much more natural when speaking this way to say that Leo likes chicken too.

Using 도:
켄 씨가 치킨을 좋아해요. 레오 씨도 치킨을 좋아해요. (Ken likes chicken. Leo also likes chicken).

Keeping everything we covered today in mind, can you understand the following? :)

켄 씨가 피곤해요. 학교에 안 갔어요. 켄 씨가 공부 아 해요. 오늘 레오 씨도 학교에 안 갔어요. 레오 씨가 바빴어요.
Ken is tired. He didn’t go to school. Ken doesn’t study. Today Leo also didn’t go to school. Leo was busy.

2

This simple challenge is for anyone who is trying to learn a language. Every day of November, try to write a sentence or small paragraph containing all of the words for that day! You may conjugate all you want, you may use several more nouns/verbs/adjectives, as long as the prompted words are there and recognizable.

Post to tumblr or write for yourself! And don’t forget to tag with your language and #NVA November, so that others may help and correct you, and so we can see if it’s possible to make weirder sentences than Duolingo.

Vocabulary list below.

Keep reading

killerfig  asked:

Whenever I write dialogue I find that it normally goes something like this. "Xander, I can't even believe you," he said, grinning. "Well, I have my ways," she said, smirking. Do you have any suggestions for dialogue writing and then showing facial emotions? [if that makes since eek]

Dialogue with facial expression, or any sort of movement, can be tricky to capture. One of the reasons I think it’s difficult is because we, as authors, need to capture near simultaneous actions. With that said, it isn’t impossible. It takes a bit of practice, and the willingness to think things through. If you do, you’ll end up with more realistic dialogue and not just a list of tags with -ing verbs. Here are my tips.

  • Think things through. No really. What is your character feeling? What are their motives? Are they interacting with anyone else? Think about the order of their actions, too. Do they move, speak, and then have a secondary action?
  • Moar detail. Capture more detail in their facial expression. Do they wrinkle their nose? Squint? Stare in wide-eyed wonder? For your example, What kind of grin? Smug? Lecherous? Broad? Provide this information to your reader.

“Xander, I can’t even believe you,” he said as a broad grin spread across his face.

  • Moar detail, (part deux) Use more descriptive words to capture the movement or facial expression. A smile can play or dance across a face if someone is happy or flirting. Or if they’re angry or sad, their face can contort, warp, or twist. Getting this level of detail adds another layer of depth. For example:

A smirk danced across Xander’s face as she glanced up at him. “Well, I have my ways.”

  • Body language. People speak with their entire body. So you need to capture not only the words, but what their body is doing, too. The phrase, “That sounds fine,” said with arms crossed and brows furrowed is going to convey a very different message than the same phrase accompanied by an approving nod. 
  • Split the movement and the dialogue into their own sentences, like I did in that above example. Not only will you give yourself a bit of breathing room to capture the expression fully, but you’ll vary your sentence structure– which is a good thing. Monotony sucks. 
  • Vary your ‘saying’ tags. Did your character mumble, groan, yell, stutter, gasp, offer, or rage? Instead of hunting down a word frequency calculator, CTRL-F (or CMD-F if you’re on a Mac) and type in those verbal tags, and your machine will find every instance of that word being used. Be wary of using any one word too many times. Switch things up.
  • Secondary effects. Think about accompanying effects, too. If someone is really yelling, is spit flying from their mouth? Are their cheeks red from a stream of tears? Again, think things through a couple steps.
  • Use markup sparingly. Markup referring to bold, italics, and underlining in dialogue. While some markup does have a place- capturing an inflection or tone change in a character’s voice without a tag, for example- it’s a frequent mistake for new writers to rely on markup instead of using their words. Don’t take the easy way out. 
  • No interruptions. Throw most of this out the window for quick exchanges or arguments between two characters. You don’t want to tags slow things down…
  • Unless another character joins in. Then you’ll want to reintroduce tags to make things clear…
  • Or it goes on for awhile. All conversations, even hours long arguments, have an ebb and flow to them. If you see a long bit of dialogue, it’s time to break it up and get some info about how and why they’re saying things. 

Those are just the ones I can think of off the top of my head. To show you these principles in action, here’s a (draft) snippet from one of my latest chapters in my WIP, Sirens. I’ll put my thoughts in square brackets –> [   ]. 

“Don’t start,” the Catwoman warned. After the past twenty four hours, she was in no mood to rehash another unpleasant memory. [Instead of just ‘said’, I picked ‘warned’ to better capture her tone. I also provided a snippet of why that tone is relevant.]

“Selina took her hood off after a job,” Harley tattled and shoved a tart in her mouth. [Said would’ve worked, but I knew I could do better. I was debating between ‘interrupted’ and ‘tattled’, but went with ‘tattled’ because it captures her intent. Also, Harley shoving food in her mouth as she’s tattling serves two purposes. One, it reinforces that she’s a chow-hound, but that she doesn’t think twice about throwing Selina under the bus. Tattling is a casual action for her.]

“You take that masterpiece off your head?!” Stytch thundered. [Stytch has a bombastic voice, so thundered works. I also use ‘thundered’ for her character foil, so that’s one way I tie them together.]

“Gordon trapped me in a ninety degree air duct for an hour!” [no tag needed. It’s clear Selina is responding to Stytch]

I didn’t tell you to wrap yourself in indigo leather.” [again, no tag, because the exchange is continuing. I chose to use the italics to show Stytch’s inflection without adding a tag because I didn’t want to break the flow. Also, that’s the only italics in the whole 4,000+ word chapter]

“She’s not wrong,” Harley sputtered as bits of crust sprinkled on the table. [Harley butted in so you need a tag here to make it clear. Also, I want to reference she food in her mouth, so sputter instead of said makes sense here. I reinforced it by adding secondary action with the crumbs flying.]

Selina glowered and sank back into the chair. Arguing with Stytch and Harley at the same time was as productive as spitting in the wind. [No need for dialogue because Selina’s body language makes it clear she’s peeved, but doesn’t want to continue the argument.]

“Anyway,“ Stytch pivoted the conversation and swept the crumbs to the floor. "He said (scene continues)…” [There’s a lot going on here. First, I thought about how Stytch would move as she swept the crumbs off the table. She’d have to pivot at the waist to get the right sweeping movement. Since she’s changing the subject, she’s also pivoting the conversation so that verb does double duty. Second, it was time to get some different sentence structure in there, and I wanted Stytch to have a slight pause, so I put the tag where it is to capture it.]

One last tip. You’ll need a strong grasp of your character’s motives, personalities, and what is going on in a scene to pull off dialogue like this. If you have weak characters or plot, the dialogue will suffer. 

Hope this helps,

-Graphei

murphy season 1: mustache twirling villian, if he talks you wish he would shut up, the dumbest of the group at all times, incapable of sassy lines because he’s an idiot, spells dye wrong, revenge and murder are his passion, hard to love but harder to ignore because he makes his presence felt

murphy season 2: golden era murphy, some sassy lines but it’s not forced, smart enough to realize right from wrong but not mature enough to give much of a shit, just the right amount of guilt and development to make sense in a timeframe that small, outer storyline complements his internal journey

murphy season 3: the writers decide to fast track his hero story at the expense of his internal journey, sassy lines are out of control, “the ABCs of me” and other cringy ass lines, fake deep, uses the verb “to survive” twice a day, sass sass sass did i mention he’s sassy?, writers decide to make him likeable at all costs, guest in other people’s storylines until shit happens to him

murphy season 4: tame as shit, while there is a lot of meaningful development (especially with raven) there’s no trace left of the kid we knew, sass and E D G Y lines reach critical level (”darkness can kiss worthless my ass”), the word “survivor” loses all meaning as it’s blurted out 34 times a day by him and everyone around him, ready to settle down with his gf and open a vegan coffee shop, suddenly not angry or immature anymore

murphy season 5, probably: has a mortgage, first signs of baldness, everyone loves him because he’s the most level headed and peaceful of the group, hosts a book club, doesn’t even mention the bad shit he did anymore, only opens his mouth to blurt a sassy line to complement one of bellamy’s speeches, “survivor” tattoo on his chest so we don’t forget he survived survivally, 

1.Of the

“Of the” is almost always unnecessary and can be simplified.

Examples:

The owner of the restaurant.

The restaurant owner.

The wheels of the skateboard.

The skateboard’s wheels.

One of the nails came loose.

A nail came loose.

2. That

This one seems innocent enough, but again it can almost always be cut without any damage. If you have “that” in a sentence remove it, and if what’s left still makes sense then it’s unnecessary.

He said that he was coming.

He said he was coming.

Our teacher promised that there wouldn’t be any homework.

Our teacher promised there wouldn’t be any homework.

3. Adverbs

Most adverbs are either redundant or superfluous. For example:

“I have to go,” she whispered quietly.

Whispering implies being quiet, so “quietly” is redundant and can be cut.

He moved quickly across the lawn.

If we choose a strong verb the adverb becomes unnecessary and the writing becomes tighter and punchier:

He dashed across the lawn.

Keep reading