california map

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Scrappy Scrapbook

For about two years I have been working on the same scrapbook. I’ve reached the point where the book is full.  In other words, it is becoming difficult to close the book.

It all started at one of San Francisco’s library book sales where they sell donated and discarded books for $1.  I already owned a guide to London’s National Gallery from a visit I had made. I really had no practical use for a much older version, circa 1960.  Or did I?

My original thought was to cut the images out of the old book for collages.  Instead I started filling the book up.  It began with left over paint on my palette and scraps from other projects.  Collage bits, old postage stamps, maps, chocolate wrappers and other ephemera kept getting added.  The folks at the San Francisco Correspondence Coop contributed many of the artists stamps and some of the rubber stamps.  And finally, some of the random scraps I have received in the mail.  Some of the results are shown here.

1688 map of North America by Venetian mapmaker Coronelli, showing California as an island. This misconception had been disproven as early as 1539 by Spanish explorer Francisco Ulloa (who explored up the Gulf to the end of the Colorado River), but Spain kept secret its discovery that the Baja Peninsula was not an island.

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Latin American Identity Terms Explained

What is Latin America? Who is Latin American?

Geographically, Latin America refers to a set of nations belonging to the regions of North America, South America, Central America, and the Caribbean. Culturally and linguistically, Latin Americans are defined as people from nations in the Americas and the Caribbean whose residents predominantly speak Spanish or Portuguese—two of the many languages descended from Latin.

Who is Hispanic?

The term Hispanic was introduced by the US Census Bureau in 1970, after groups such as the National Council of La Raza advocated for the category as an alternative to classifying Mexican, Cuban, and Puerto Rican immigrants as “white.”

Today Hispanic covers people of a variety of ethnic identities who have origins in Spanish-speaking countries—basically Spain and all of Latin America (minus Brazil, where the official language is Portuguese). The US Census Bureau now counts both Hispanics and Latinos in the same category.

Who is Latino or Latina?

While, Hispanic refers to linguistic origins from a Spanish-speaking country, in particular Spain. Latino/Latina refers to people living in the USA who have ethnic and cultural origins from a country in Latin America.

And what about Latinx?

Spanish, among many other Latin languages, assign genders to nearly everything, including inanimate objects. Masculine words are considered gender neutral, and if one male-identified individual enters a group, the group suddenly becomes referred to by a masculine word. This is problematic for a number of reasons, most glaringly is that masculine words should not be considered gender neutral. The term Latinx is a response to these language constraints, and it provides an option to express gender identity that exist outside the constraints of the binary.

For more on this topic including the Chicanx movement and African and East Asian diaspora in Latin America read a full blog post here. 


Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA is an exploration of Latin American and Latino art in dialogue with Los Angeles. Led by the Getty, Pacific Standard Time: LA/LA is the latest collaborative effort from arts institutions across Southern California.