but also to be on the field more


easkyrah  asked:

Greetings! I'm an aspiring author, and my main character manipulates dark energy/matter. Only she can see the forms that appear as dark strands and spirals. In how her control over such affects other species arises my main concerns. The power's wide array of usages reduces live Asteroids into pure pebbles and phases through humans, leading to their demise. However, I do would love some advice and facts about the background as I further research and delve into a sci-fi world. Thank you!


When working with dark energy and dark matter (the two are not necessarily interchangeable) you have a lot of freedom because right now that term basically delineates something we don’t fully understand. While theoretical physics is among my favorite fields to study as a hobby, I don’t have much more to offer on the subject than the google machine. Partially because it’s a weird complicated thing that’s hard to understand. Also, it’s still largely a mystery. 

As you delve into writing scifi, I highly suggest reading some of the best-sellers of the genre right now, including Neal Stephenson. Also, as always, read the classics. Know your sci-fi tropes and choose your tropes wisely and with purpose. 

Best of luck!

anonymous asked:

Earth benders have a lot of trouble bending sand, unless they grew up on the deserts tribes, and they also have extreme trouble bending refined materials. Since glass is refined sand, and it's more fragile and brittle than rocks, crayon would be a savant on bending, but on a impratical field. Like an artist ahead of his time. Me likey Also i never qatched korra, so i dont know how it changed.

without spoiling Korra, ‘refined’ bending became more prominent. So it is sliiiiiiightly possibly this donut is just using really powerful bending to make knick knacks no one wants XD

anonymous asked:

hi! Do you have any sources or like references for a sort of governmental spy setting? I'm trying to write a peice that ties into US intelligence agencies (like the FBI or CIA) and was wondering how to make it more accurate.

I think one of the biggest things you can keep in mind to make it more accurate is that there is far more than the FBI and the CIA - http://www.latimes.com/nation/la-na-17-intelligence-agencies-20170112-story.html

Also realize that a lot of spy work these days isn’t done via field work. It’s done with technology. (That is if you’re writing a modern spy story.) I’d research the type of technology that’s used for spy work. There should be a lot of resources for that out there if you do a little searching.

But really, since spy work is so clandestine, you can get away with playing around with things and not being entirely accurate. I’d say keep a few things like the above in mind to add a few accurate details and you can have a bit more fun with the rest.


Trump started an anti-immigrant hotline. People are trolling it with tales of aliens.

  • On Wednesday, Trump administration launched the Victims of Immigrant Crime Engagement Office
  • With the launch of VOICE also came the opening of VOICE’s official hotline, which fields calls from those who allege they are the victim of a crime carried out by a immigrant.
  • According to BuzzFeed, since the hotline’s launch, the phone lines have been tied up with calls about undocumented aliens — from outer space.
  • Given that the launch of the hotline coincided with Alien Day, people put two and two together and launched a plan to inundate the hotline with stories of alien abductions. Read more (4/27/17 10 AM)

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Incoming! We’ve Got Science from Jupiter!

Our Juno spacecraft has just released some exciting new science from its first close flyby of Jupiter! 

In case you don’t know, the Juno spacecraft entered orbit around the gas giant on July 4, 2016…about a year ago. Since then, it has been collecting data and images from this unique vantage point.

Juno is in a polar orbit around Jupiter, which means that the majority of each orbit is spent well away from the gas giant. But once every 53 days its trajectory approaches Jupiter from above its north pole, where it begins a close two-hour transit flying north to south with its eight science instruments collecting data and its JunoCam camera snapping pictures.

Space Fact: The download of six megabytes of data collected during the two-hour transit can take one-and-a-half days!

Juno and her cloud-piercing science instruments are helping us get a better understanding of the processes happening on Jupiter. These new results portray the planet as a complex, gigantic, turbulent world that we still need to study and unravel its mysteries.

So what did this first science flyby tell us? Let’s break it down…

1. Tumultuous Cyclones

Juno’s imager, JunoCam, has showed us that both of Jupiter’s poles are covered in tumultuous cyclones and anticyclone storms, densely clustered and rubbing together. Some of these storms as large as Earth!

These storms are still puzzling. We’re still not exactly sure how they formed or how they interact with each other. Future close flybys will help us better understand these mysterious cyclones. 

Seen above, waves of clouds (at 37.8 degrees latitude) dominate this three-dimensional Jovian cloudscape. JunoCam obtained this enhanced-color picture on May 19, 2017, at 5:50 UTC from an altitude of 5,500 miles (8,900 kilometers). Details as small as 4 miles (6 kilometers) across can be identified in this image.

An even closer view of the same image shows small bright high clouds that are about 16 miles (25 kilometers) across and in some areas appear to form “squall lines” (a narrow band of high winds and storms associated with a cold front). On Jupiter, clouds this high are almost certainly comprised of water and/or ammonia ice.

2. Jupiter’s Atmosphere

Juno’s Microwave Radiometer is an instrument that samples the thermal microwave radiation from Jupiter’s atmosphere from the tops of the ammonia clouds to deep within its atmosphere.

Data from this instrument suggest that the ammonia is quite variable and continues to increase as far down as we can see with MWR, which is a few hundred kilometers. In the cut-out image below, orange signifies high ammonia abundance and blue signifies low ammonia abundance. Jupiter appears to have a band around its equator high in ammonia abundance, with a column shown in orange.

Why does this ammonia matter? Well, ammonia is a good tracer of other relatively rare gases and fluids in the atmosphere…like water. Understanding the relative abundances of these materials helps us have a better idea of how and when Jupiter formed in the early solar system.

This instrument has also given us more information about Jupiter’s iconic belts and zones. Data suggest that the belt near Jupiter’s equator penetrates all the way down, while the belts and zones at other latitudes seem to evolve to other structures.

3. Stronger-Than-Expected Magnetic Field

Prior to Juno, it was known that Jupiter had the most intense magnetic field in the solar system…but measurements from Juno’s magnetometer investigation (MAG) indicate that the gas giant’s magnetic field is even stronger than models expected, and more irregular in shape.

At 7.766 Gauss, it is about 10 times stronger than the strongest magnetic field found on Earth! What is Gauss? Magnetic field strengths are measured in units called Gauss or Teslas. A magnetic field with a strength of 10,000 Gauss also has a strength of 1 Tesla.  

Juno is giving us a unique view of the magnetic field close to Jupiter that we’ve never had before. For example, data from the spacecraft (displayed in the graphic above) suggests that the planet’s magnetic field is “lumpy”, meaning its stronger in some places and weaker in others. This uneven distribution suggests that the field might be generated by dynamo action (where the motion of electrically conducting fluid creates a self-sustaining magnetic field) closer to the surface, above the layer of metallic hydrogen. Juno’s orbital track is illustrated with the black curve. 

4. Sounds of Jupiter

Juno also observed plasma wave signals from Jupiter’s ionosphere. This movie shows results from Juno’s radio wave detector that were recorded while it passed close to Jupiter. Waves in the plasma (the charged gas) in the upper atmosphere of Jupiter have different frequencies that depend on the types of ions present, and their densities. 

Mapping out these ions in the jovian system helps us understand how the upper atmosphere works including the aurora. Beyond the visual representation of the data, the data have been made into sounds where the frequencies
and playback speed have been shifted to be audible to human ears.

5. Jovian “Southern Lights”

The complexity and richness of Jupiter’s “southern lights” (also known as auroras) are on display in this animation of false-color maps from our Juno spacecraft. Auroras result when energetic electrons from the magnetosphere crash into the molecular hydrogen in the Jovian upper atmosphere. The data for this animation were obtained by Juno’s Ultraviolet Spectrograph. 

During Juno’s next flyby on July 11, the spacecraft will fly directly over one of the most iconic features in the entire solar system – one that every school kid knows – Jupiter’s Great Red Spot! If anybody is going to get to the bottom of what is going on below those mammoth swirling crimson cloud tops, it’s Juno.

Stay updated on all things Juno and Jupiter by following along on social media:
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Learn more about the Juno spacecraft and its mission at Jupiter HERE.

How To Blend Cultures (Without Making Impossible Mixes)

This is a guide specifically about fantasy worldbuilding. WWC gets a lot of questions around “I’m mixing two cultures together, how do I do that?” and this is to explain both how to do that and when you very much should not.

For starters, you should avoid blending empires with their surrounding properties, especially if there is recent political strife along those lines. This is why Japan/China/Korea (or even China/Tibet) mixes should not be done. For more information on that, take a look at Research:Large to Small Scale, Avoiding Homogenizing East Asian Cultures, & Paralleling Regions Appropriately.

Next up, mixing Greece/Rome with far-flung cultures gets a little bit eyebrow raising. Unless it was a direct trading partner/conquered property, Greek/Roman cultures do not mix with non-European cultures. The Greek empire only went to the Northern regions of India at its very peak, and that is limited to the ancient world. Rome stopped in the Middle East, so, again, you don’t have the cultural backing for a mixing of anything outside of its borders. 

Depictions of Rome and Greece in ancient literature shows other ancient cultures found them quite backwards, and were adverse to mixing with them. By many standards they were very backwards, and it’s only Europe (and, as an extension, America) that revered them to the extent they do. Asia and Africa had no reason to see them as advanced, because they made many more technological advancements than either. North America and Oceanic cultures hardly interacted with either, and had both their own technological advancements+ cultures closer by to borrow advancements from, instead. 

Outside of that, cultures are born out of the environments that made them. As a result, places with wildly dissimilar climates and resources pools will not be able to blend harmoniously unless you’re taking a modern analogue society where globalism has happened. This is plain old because resources only travel so far, and people are more likely to build culture around resources they have easy access to (even well-established trade links can lead to people re-creating things: Han purple and Egyptian blue point to an ancient trade link, but they were made with local materials processed differently).

Roman architecture exists because the Romans had access to copious amounts of concrete materials/marble and lived in the Mediterranean, which got very hot summers, heavy rains, and not a whole lot of cold. As a result they created structures that worked for this, which included open airways, pillars, easy to clean floors, shade, and ventilation. Places that lack these resources will not be able to replicate Rome.

Their resource pool was very specific to their regions, and there’s a reason Rome had the rule that anybody who did’t live like Romans were slaves: it was really hard to live like a Roman, and they wanted their slave pool as large as possible. 

Different cultures with different resources formed in wildly different ways, and might not even have anything similar to Greece or Rome. Because of this, you need to look really close at why culture developed the way it did. If it’s because they had extremely dissimilar resources pools, it’s wise to not blend the cultures (or at least not think they’ll look anything like their original cultures) 

Which brings me to value systems. Cultures put value on different things. Each culture ends up with a base philosophy for what they esteem and how they use resources, which proceeds to influence how it develops. Architecture has meaning to it. So does what colours you use in different applications. Because these things are sacred and/or practical for certain social orders. “Sacred” in cultures ends up becoming a shorthand for “this ritual helps us survive.”

There is no such thing as “aesthetic” when you get down to the root of each single item, because that aesthetic has a practical purpose. There is also no such thing as a “solely religious reason” under the same logic. Cows have become sacred in most varieties of Hinduism— because cows (and oxen) have been the main farming animal in the Indian subcontinent for millennia. They provide milk for sustenance, power for ploughing fields, and dung, which can be used as a floor polish and, when dried, a source of fuel for fire that gives off a more even heat than wood. As a single provider for crucial elements of agrarian life, their sacredness developed from their practicality. Having cows roam freely meant absolutely everyone could have access to an efficient cooking fuel.

Chinese brush painting has meaning. Jade sculpture has meaning. Pagodas and sloped roofs and gates have meaning. The philosophy, environment, history, and present circumstances of a culture is built into every. single. little. thing. about that culture, meaning you cannot just change it out.

Unless you learn the very root of culture, their values and stigmas and honours and shames, you cannot modify it accurately. Cultures survive because that was the best way to respond to the world at the time. A long-standing culture such as China’s has to be functional and incredibly well suited for the environment, otherwise it would not have survived. There is something about Chinese culture that works extraordinarily well for it to perpetuate itself, and you cannot disrespect that.

Learn the “why” of culture. Learn how it came to manifest and the reasons behind its manifestations. Study the geography and resources available to the people at hand. Know a culture so well you can explain how it works in real life and how your world’s history parallels the circumstances that created a similar culture in fantasy.

Only then will you be able to pull it off with respect.

~ Mod Lesya

Solar System: Things to Know This Week

Our solar system is a jewel box filled with a glittering variety of beautiful worlds–and not all of them are planets. This week, we present our solar system’s most marvelous moons.

1. Weird Weather: Titan

Saturn’s hazy moon Titan is larger than Mercury, but its size is not the only way it’s like a planet. Titan has a thick atmosphere, complete with its own “water cycle” – except that it’s way too cold on Titan for liquid water. Instead, rains of liquid hydrocarbons like ethane and methane fall onto icy mountains, run into rivers, and gather into great seas. Our Cassini spacecraft mapped the methane seas with radar, and its cameras even caught a glimpse of sunlight reflecting off the seas’ surface. Learn more about Titan: saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/science/titan/

2. Icy Giant: Ganymede

Jupiter’s moon Ganymede is the largest in the solar system. It’s bigger than Mercury and Pluto, and three-quarters the size of Mars. It’s also the only moon known to have its own magnetic field. Details: solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/ganymede/indepth

3. Retrograde Rebel: Triton

Triton is Neptune’s largest moon, and the only one in the solar system to orbit in the opposite direction of its planet’s rotation, a retrograde orbit. It may have been captured from the Kuiper Belt, where Pluto orbits. Despite the frigid temperatures there, Triton has cryovolcanic activity – frozen nitrogen sometimes sublimates directly to gas and erupts from geysers on the surface. More on Triton: solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/triton/indepth

4. Cold Faithful: Enceladus

The most famous geysers in our solar system (outside of those on Earth) belong to Saturn’s moon Enceladus. It’s a small, icy body, but Cassini revealed this world to be one of the solar system’s most scientifically interesting destinations. Geyser-like jets spew water vapor and ice particles from an underground ocean beneath the icy crust of Enceladus. With its global ocean, unique chemistry and internal heat, Enceladus has become a promising lead in our search for worlds where life could exist. Get the details: saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/science/enceladus/

5. Volcano World: Io

Jupiter’s moon Io is subjected to tremendous gravitational forces that cause its surface to bulge up and down by as much as 330 feet (100 m). The result? Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System, with hundreds of volcanoes, some erupting lava fountains dozens of miles high. More on Io’s volcanoes: solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/io/indepth

6. Yin and Yang Moon: Iapetus

When Giovanni Cassini discovered Iapetus in 1671, he observed that one side of this moon of Saturn was bright and the other dark. He noted that he could only see Iapetus on the west side of Saturn, and correctly concluded that Iapetus had one side much darker than the other side. Why? Three centuries later, the Cassini spacecraft solved the puzzle. Dark, reddish dust in Iapetus’s orbital path is swept up and lands on the leading face of the moon. The dark areas absorb energy and become warmer, while uncontaminated areas remain cooler. Learn more: saturn.jpl.nasa.gov/news/2892/cassini-10-years-at-saturn-top-10-discoveries/#nine

7. A Double World: Charon and Pluto

At half the size of Pluto, Charon is the largest of Pluto’s moons and the largest known satellite relative to its parent body. The moon is so big compared to Pluto that Pluto and Charon are sometimes referred to as a double planet system. Charon’s orbit around Pluto takes 6.4 Earth days, and one Pluto rotation (a Pluto day) takes 6.4 Earth days. So from Pluto’s point of view Charon neither rises nor sets, but hovers over the same spot on Pluto’s surface, and the same side of Charon always faces Pluto. Get the details: www.nasa.gov/feature/pluto-and-charon-new-horizons-dynamic-duo

8. “Death Star” Moon: Mimas

Saturn’s moon Mimas has one feature that draws more attention than any other: the crater Herschel, which formed in an impact that nearly shattered the little world. Herschel gives Mimas a distinctive look that prompts an oft-repeated joke. But, yes, it’s a moon. More: olarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/mimas

9. Don’t Be Afraid, It’s Just Phobos

In mythology, Mars is a the god of war, so it’s fitting that its two small moons are called Phobos, “fear,” and Deimos, “terror.” Our Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter caught this look at Phobos, which is roughly 17 miles (27 km) wide. In recent years, NASA scientists have come to think that Phobos will be torn apart by its host planet’s gravity. Details: www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/phobos-is-falling-apart

Learn more about Phobos: solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/phobos/indepth

10. The Moon We Know Best

Although decades have passed since astronauts last set foot on its surface, Earth’s moon is far from abandoned. Several robotic missions have continued the exploration. For example, this stunning view of the moon’s famous Tycho crater was captured by our Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, which continues to map the surface in fine detail today. More: www.lroc.asu.edu/posts/902

Discover more lists of 10 things to know about our solar system HERE.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

🌿✨ Finnish Midsummer Juhannus spells ✨🌿

Juhannus was originally a celebration for Ukko the supreme god of weather and harvest. It was also a time for making magic since the spirit world was more active at the time of the white nights. A loud feasting and drinking brought luck in love as well as a good harvest and kept the evil spirits at bay.

1. Roll in dew

If you roll around naked in a field, your future spouse will appear in your life within a year. Dew was believed to have a healing effect and rolling in it was supposed to make you beautiful and healthy. Earlier, dew was even collected in cloths and pressed into bottles for the year to come.

2. Put a spell on a field

Find a four-leafed clover from the yard in the evening. Hide the clover under your shirt, next to your bosom. When the clock strikes midnight, let your hair loose and run to the field. Go around the field three times. When the person of your fancy will eat bread made out of the wheat from that specific field, they will fall in love with you.

3. Collect seven flowers

Collect seven different types of flowers from as many meadows. When going to bed, put the bouquet underneath your pillow. You will see “the one” in your dream. Flowers and plants have an important role in Midsummer celebrations. Previously, it was common to scatter tree leaves on the floors and build tree houses in the yards. Even cows were decorated with garlands, so as to secure a good year for the cattle and milk production.

4. Sweep naked

Sweep your bedroom floor naked, just a red thread tied around your waist, and the ghost of your love will greet you.

5. Tie a sauna whisk, vihta

Vihtas are always made for the Midsummer sauna. They are usually made out of birch as its fresh leaves are soft and have a lovely fragrance. For your magic spell, the Midsummer bath whisk should be made out of eight different tree and flower types. After the sauna, throw the whisk on the roof of the sauna. Climb up after it and see whereto the stem of the whisk points. That is the direction from which your future spouse will come.

6. Make a bonfire

The smoke of the bonfire will turn to the person who will find their spouse next. When the flames start to go out, jump over the bonfire to bring luck in love.

7. Look into a mirror

When you put two mirrors opposite each other on a midsummer night, you can see your future spouse in the reflection of the other.

8. Listen to the first sound

In the wee hours of the night, climb up somewhere high – on a hill, on top of a fell or a big rock. To a place where it is easy to hear surrounding sounds. Your future spouse will come from the same direction as the first sound of the morning. If you hear music, it means an approaching wedding. If you hear a child crying, it is a sign of birth. The number of cuckoo sounds tells how many years you have to wait until you find love.

The Moon in the houses

Moon in the 1st house:

Do not think that you can hide or disguise your emotions: they are obvious to everyone. Your well-being depends strangely on your appearance and how people perceive you.

Moon in the 2nd house:

Although you have a lifetime of financial ups and downs, you become increasingly persistent and you learn to manage your money. Perhaps you do not consider yourself a materialistic person; Yet money matters.

Moon in the 3rd house:

You have a curious mind, a strong attachment to your brothers and sisters, and the ability to easily establish emotional ties. You have a sense of communication, both verbal and written.

Moon in the 4th house:

Your parents and the patrimony of the family are very important to you, and the past has a charm that you can hardly resist. You have very strong security needs. It is essential to have a home in which you feel good. In your search for the perfect home, you will most likely change residence.

Moon in the 5th house:

You are romantic, theatrical and emotional, especially with regards to heart stories. You are also creative and talented, perhaps in more than one field. Risk-taker, especially in love, you easily establish contact with children, whether yours or those of others. (That’s why you have to become professors guys)

Moon in the 6th house:

It is likely that you will often change jobs, until you find a job that really satisfies you. It is not enough to work for money; You need to be productive and realize yourself. The professions of service or health will give you great satisfaction. You also worry about your health, which may be affected by your reactions at work.

Moon in the 7th house:

Marriage and other associations play an important role for you, although you may be undecided about relationships. Once you get involved, you run the risk of becoming too dependent. In business, people are looking for you.

Moon in the 8th house:

You have emotions that fluctuate strongly, the ability to heal your emotional wounds yourself, and possibly even those of others. On the emotional level, you are courageous and ready to confront reality in the face. In the financial field, you experience ups and downs, especially through a romantic relationship.

Moon in the 9th house:

The more you push the limits of your life by looking for new experiences, the happier you are. You have an active imagination and a desire for knowledge. You may explore many religions and philosophies before finding the one that will satisfy you. Journeys soothe your soul.

Moon in the 10th house:

The peace of your mind goes hand in hand with your professional success. Career plays an essential role for you, but you may change professionally often before finding the right field. Once you have found it, you will immerse yourself in it. Your privacy suffers. Fortunately, if you like what you do, it does not matter to you.

Moon in the 11th house:

On the social level, you are popular and at ease, with a great aptitude for friendship. You possess an instinctive understanding of other people, and friends play a central role in your life. It’s possible that your goals and aspirations change often, so your circle of friends may change.

Moon in the 12th house:

It is not easy to update your secrets. You are in a changing, sensitive mood, and attracted by the secret side of life. Your mode is that of withdrawal. You prefer to conceal your emotions. You might be engaged in institutions like hospitals or prisons. Clandestine relationships may offer you a form of emotional food that you can not find elsewhere.

The Great Carina Nebula : A jewel of the southern sky, the Great Carina Nebula, also known as NGC 3372, spans over 300 light-years, one of our galaxys largest star forming regions. Like the smaller, more northerly Great Orion Nebula, the Carina Nebula is easily visible to the unaided eye, though at a distance of 7,500 light-years it is some 5 times farther away. This gorgeous telescopic close-up reveals remarkable details of the regions central glowing filaments of interstellar gas and obscuring cosmic dust clouds. The field of view is over 50 light-years across. The Carina Nebula is home to young, extremely massive stars, including the stars of open cluster Trumpler 14 . While Eta Carinae itself maybe on the verge of a supernova explosion, X-ray images indicate that the Great Carina Nebula has been a veritable supernova factory. via NASA

1,000 Days in Orbit: MAVEN’s Top 10 Discoveries at Mars

On June 17, our MAVEN (Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission) will celebrate 1,000 Earth days in orbit around the Red Planet.

Since its launch in November 2013 and its orbit insertion in September 2014, MAVEN has been exploring the upper atmosphere of Mars. MAVEN is bringing insight to how the sun stripped Mars of most of its atmosphere, turning a planet once possibly habitable to microbial life into a barren desert world.

Here’s a countdown of the top 10 discoveries from the mission so far:

10. Unprecedented Ultraviolet View of Mars

Revealing dynamic, previously invisible behavior, MAVEN was able to show the ultraviolet glow from the Martian atmosphere in unprecedented detail. Nightside images showed ultraviolet “nightglow” emission from nitric oxide. Nightglow is a common planetary phenomenon in which the sky faintly glows even in the complete absence of eternal light.

9. Key Features on the Loss of Atmosphere

Some particles from the solar wind are able to penetrate unexpectedly deep into the upper atmosphere, rather than being diverted around the planet by the Martian ionosphere. This penetration is allowed by chemical reactions in the ionosphere that turn the charged particles of the solar wind into neutral atoms that are then able to penetrate deeply.

8. Metal Ions

MAVEN made the first direct observations of a layer of metal ions in the Martian ionosphere, resulting from incoming interplanetary dust hitting the atmosphere. This layer is always present, but was enhanced dramatically by the close passage to Mars of Comet Siding Spring in October 2014.

7. Two New Types of Aurora

MAVEN has identified two new types of aurora, termed “diffuse” and “proton” aurora. Unlike how we think of most aurorae on Earth, these aurorae are unrelated to either a global or local magnetic field.

6. Cause of the Aurorae

These aurorae are caused by an influx of particles from the sun ejected by different types of solar storms. When particles from these storms hit the Martian atmosphere, they can also increase the rate of loss of gas to space, by a factor of ten or more.

5. Complex Interactions with Solar Wind

The interactions between the solar wind and the planet are unexpectedly complex. This results due to the lack of an intrinsic Martian magnetic field and the occurrence of small regions of magnetized crust that can affect the incoming solar wind on local and regional scales. The magnetosphere that results from the interactions varies on short timescales and is remarkably “lumpy” as a result.

4. Seasonal Hydrogen

After investigating the upper atmosphere of the Red Planet for a full Martian year, MAVEN determined that the escaping water does not always go gently into space. The spacecraft observed the full seasonal variation of hydrogen in the upper atmosphere, confirming that it varies by a factor of 10 throughout the year. The escape rate peaked when Mars was at its closest point to the sun and dropped off when the planet was farthest from the sun.

3. Gas Lost to Space

MAVEN has used measurements of the isotopes in the upper atmosphere (atoms of the same composition but having different mass) to determine how much gas has been lost through time. These measurements suggest that 2/3 or more of the gas has been lost to space.

2. Speed of Solar Wind Stripping Martian Atmosphere

MAVEN has measured the rate at which the sun and the solar wind are stripping gas from the top of the atmosphere to space today, along with details of the removal process. Extrapolation of the loss rates into the ancient past – when the solar ultraviolet light and the solar wind were more intense – indicates that large amounts of gas have been lost to space through time.

1. Martian Atmosphere Lost to Space

The Mars atmosphere has been stripped away by the sun and the solar wind over time, changing the climate from a warmer and wetter environment early in history to the cold, dry climate that we see today.

Maven will continue its observations and is now observing a second Martian year, looking at the ways that the seasonal cycles and the solar cycle affect the system.

For more information about MAVEN, visit: www.nasa.gov/maven

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

anonymous asked:

Do you have anything spell wise or ritual that could be done for fun but to also get into with energy and get stronger with magic?

Just randomly charge shit. Take that energy, and reprogram it for other purposes. Remove that energy from one object and put it into another. Take it out and put it back in yourself. Take it and throw it away.

Even just getting into the habit of grounding regularly can be a good way to practice energy work. Draw in “good,” clean energy; release “bad,” “negative” energy. As you do that, you get used to different feels of energy, drawing it onto yourself (which is always useful in magic), and sending it out again.

Anime vs Manga: Two different portrayals of Erwin Smith

SPOILER WARNING!! spoilers from the last episode and major ones from the manga.

This post will focus on ep12 s2, “Scream” and ch51

Erwin Smith, 13th Commander of the Survey Corps. Hope of Mankind. The man who caught the Female Titan, saved Eren from Reiner and Bertolt, tore down a corrupt government, lead a suicide charge against the Beast Titan and eventually cleared the path to the truth about the World. Determined, creating hope for a better World free from the Titans.

That’s the Commander we know him as. A true badass, not hesitating to sacrifice himself and his own goals for the greater good. And that’s the man we see in the anime adaption. But in the manga, we also see another side. The man Erwin, who jokes around and enjoy spending time with his friends. A man who can feel despare and is dealing with depression and suicidal thoughts, but keeps it secret from his dearest not to worry them. A man who feels a great guilt for the lives lost under his command.

The anime has chosen to change and cut some scenes showing the man Erwin is when he is not on the battle field shouting orders. This is especially seen in the last episode of season 2, “Scream”. We are talking about the last scene, where Erwin is lying in bed after losing his arm. In the manga, we get to see Levi, Erwin and Pixis having a relaxed conversation, joking around with each other. Also we here see the personal relationship between Levi and Erwin. They are not only colleges, but also close friends (remember that Erwin is to Levi what Eren is to Mikasa, but their relationship is a whole other post). Again, Erwin is more than a Commander, he is a normal human being with loved ones.

A moment that wasn’t cut, but changed, is when Erwin smiles after Hange telling their theory about titans being humans. The first part is the same; Levi asks why in hell Erwin is smiling, but Erwin’s answer is quite different from manga to anime… Look at these screencaps from “Scream”:

He is in his Commander mode, preaching hope to the people around them, promising them that the people lost will not have died in vain. But in the manga, he never has this speech:

In the manga, Erwin totally avoids answering and brushes it off with jokes. He isn’t the Commander at that moment. He is himself. The semi-creepy smile is often understood as coming from Erwin realising that his father’s theories about the titans are probably true (this hasn’t been in the anime yet, but we learn about Erwin’s motivation to join the Corps). His smile stems from a personal dream. Again this is Erwin as a person, not the Commander he is professionally. 

I am not sure why they changed this scene, because I see it as an important part for Levi and Erwin’s relationship and therefore also them as characters. Levi is starting to see sides of Erwin that he tries to hide. Erwin feels bad for having a dream for himself where he just wants to know if his father was right about the World. He feels as if he has had to devote his life to that because he was the one indirectly getting his father killed. He had to develop the theories further. All this about Erwin’s character is explained throughout the chapters after this, especially when he tells us about his childhood and when he thinks back on his life before sacrificing himself and the young soldiers. These moments has not been in the anime yet, so I cannot discuss about how they are gonna portray him then. But as an Erwin fan, I can only hope they will let us see more of him as a person.

Okay what is the conclusion? Erwin has more sides than being the Commander of the Survey Corps, an excellent leader whose vision of Freedom has inspired hundreds if not more to take action against the government and join the fight against the titans. But he is also a human with feelings of happiness, despare, guilt, hope. A man with emotions, who worries for his friends and does everything in his power not to let people die in vain. Erwin is complex. He is an interesting character with more sides than what most people in the series see. And I hope the anime will try and show the man he is in private, behind the facade.

posted by a zookeeper friend on facebook

As someone in the zoo/aquarium field, I want to say something to everyone who is not…

It is not appropriate or respectful for you to publicly question the death of any animal under the care of zoo professionals. It is also not appropriate to say things that suggest you are more heartbroken than the people who cared for that animal. In case you weren’t aware, all living things must die. Sometimes it’s unexpected, sometimes it’s tragic, and sometimes it’s peaceful and planned for in a humane way.

When a human dies, the health care professionals who took care of that person are not typically questioned or accused of wrong doing. The same should be true for animal care professionals. I can assure you, with all my heart, that no one is more upset about the death than the people who personally knew that animal.

Wild animals die, captive animals die, and human beings die. It’s the natural order of things. I promise you, zoo animals have teams of caring, educated people looking after their well being from day 1 until the very end (and beyond, since every zoo animal gets a full post-mortem examination).

So please, next time you read a press release about the death of a zoo animal, think twice before you assume the worst and make any comments that imply something could have been done to avoid the situation. Zoos don’t intend to cover up the truth. But sometimes it takes weeks or even months to learn the whole story. Feel free to express your condolences and support. Send flowers or cards to the staff if you’d like. But please be patient and respectful. If the health care staff can figure out the cause of death, have faith that they will tell the public… But also understand that sometimes there are questions that may never be answered, due to the great amounts of unknown when caring for wild animals.

Thanks for listening.


Aight here we gooo

  1. Don’t think about when it’s due, think about when you can get it done by. Always try to get work done as soon as you get it, because the information/motivation is a lot more likely to make you productive immediately after. Don’t backward plan and leave things to the last minute.
  2. Research your course. Find out about the electives you have to take, the ideal course load and the progression requirements. Don’t graduate a semester late because you forgot to take one 1000 level English course.
  3.  Make a nice schedule! You’re going to be stuck with this for a year, so definitely invest a couple hours into making a good one. (Separate post on drafting a schedule coming up.)
  4. Try to live on campus, preferably in a traditional dorm set up. Not only does it improve the ‘college experience’ but also really helps with networking. 
  5. Do not invest in a loooot of expensive stationery. I know, I know, ironic to say as a studyblr. But coming out of high school where we all took notes on paper, a huge stationery haul might be obvious. But definitely wait a couple weeks into school to see if you want to stick to paper notes or if you’re more comfortable with the laptop. 
  6. Sit. At. The. Front. Beginning in the first week. Freshman year, it’s super tempting to abuse your freedom and just not show up to class. It is imperative that you put yourself in the field of vision with the teacher, not only to make a good impression but also to hold yourself accountable to actually show up to class, because the professor will probably notice your absence and might discount you a little bit. It also helps with the ‘halo effect’, where you stand out right in the beginning, and that’ll tide you over. 
  7. Don’t just show up to office hours, take your notes/solve a mock paper, and get feedback. Doing this a couple times before the exam will help you put together the perfect rubric for answering just about any style of question. If it’s an essay course, the teacher will often make corrections and even send you helpful resources to improve. 
  8. Create/join a Facebook group for your subject, and exchange notes with people over there. It’s reassuring to know you have a backup if you skip class.
  9. Try to inform your professor before hand if you’re skipping class. This policy might be different for different schools, but telling your professor ahead of time that you won’t be attending, or even just shooting them an email at the time of class might help with making up for lost time, extra credit, and being able to skip with more ease in the future, since the prof thinks you’re serious about this class.
  10. Spend the summer before college chilling, yes (I’ve written a post about it here). But also check this out to make it a little more productive, and learn a few handy day to day skills. 

Pt. 2 about college scheduling will be up tomorrow!


Home. (I see you)

Checking and cleaning gear and recallibrating things. Saving space by hanging everything (Also makes it easier to locate) Window has a solid shutter that can be locked into place.

Chirrut is  recallibrating his echo box using Baze as a distance judge.

Also- he’s been Parked in that corner til everything has been cleaned and put back together. He’s not clumsy (far from it)- but Baze can’t be bothered to field him when the gun’s scattered across the whole floor of the room and most of the bed. It’s much more for Baze’s peace of mind about his gun than Chirrut faceplanting if he trips.

On pricing your artwork:

I wrote this originally for Artist Alley Network International, but it struck a chord with a lot of people, so re-posting here!


Your artwork, and your merchandise, is WORTH SOMETHING!

1. You are producing something no one else can.  Even if there are a hundred other similar items, only you are making artwork like you.  That is worth something even if you don’t immediately see it.

2. You aren’t walmart.  You are a small business owner and need to charge what you’re worth rather than race to the bottom to see who’s the cheapest.   This ties into #1… so what if someone else has acrylic charms for $3. You are the only one selling YOUR art, so price it at it’s worth.

3. Shipping, storage, packaging, presentation, and protection are all worth extra.  Your item may only cost $1.50 to produce, but you also spent .10 to upgrade the quality.  You spent .50 cents to ship it.  You spent another $1 on packaging, and you spent $30 on the display it’s on.  You rent your apartment or garage for $500-1500/mo.  Your table cost you $300 to rent.  Your online store charges you .20 cents per sale plus a transaction fee. Your item will sell at a loss if you sell it for $2 or $3, even if production was less than that.  Factor in all these costs when you sell your item.  PLUS, your worth.  If you spent hours making the design, you deserve some of that in compensation!

4. Perceived value is actual value.  Customers who see an artist where everything is $2-3 probably will perceive it as less valuable than the artist who sells everything from $20-30, even if the artist selling cheaper actually puts more time into their work.  Perceived value also will change the way a customer approaches your artwork.  Will they cherish it and save it and frame it, or will they punch holes through it with a thumbtack, or will they forget it’s in their bag and find it bent up hours later?  Sometimes pricing your art higher actually creates DEMAND, because it now looks like it’s worth something.

5. fast sketch does not necessarily = cheap price.  Did you spend money on your art education?  Are you experienced in your field?  Is there a lot of demand for your artwork?  Do you work professionally with many clients? Did it take you years and hours to develop your style and speed?  All of these are separate from how long it takes you to draw.  Which is why a 10 minute sketch might be worth $40 rather than minimum wage x time spent drawing.

6. We are all in this together.  If you fight with your neighbors on who can price art the cheapest to get the fastest sales, you are fighting a downhill battle which will ultimately make ALL of your artwork worth far less.  Instead, look at an artist and go “Wait a minute? They charge HOW MUCH?  That means I can charge that much, too”  When I sit in a row of artists charging what they’re worth, I notice that ALL of us make far more sales than if we underprice one another.
This also reflects in the market, too.  If a client who wants to charge $1000 for 24 illustrations is turned down by countless artists they’ll realize they have unrealistic expectations.  When people start seeing the $ sign, instead of factoring in their time and energy and take these low paying jobs, these clients will become upset when they see the artist they really wanted turning them down.  Obviously artists from different countries will price differently, BUT, if you’re selling to someone in a different country with a higher dollar value, ask for that higher value!  You’re competing against THEIR dollar rather than your country’s dollar at that point.  Same goes for pricing commissions online.


Good luck everyone.  We’re all in this together!

keycrash  asked:

I HAVE A LOT OF IDEAS FOR THE BRUSH MEME SO U CAN JUST CHOOSE WHAT YOU WANNA DO MOST: christmas aoi, snow akane, starry phi, cloud light, or plushie with one of them birdies

TWO OF YOU WANTED CLOUD LIGHT…I also had to do starry phi and these ones are a bit fancier than the others bc they wouldn’t leave me alone lmao

eerily beautiful psychics

Surprise - you get a bonus Hiveswap developer interview today!

Hello there Hiveswap and Homestuck fans, Ash here! Now, I know what you’re thinking: “What madness is this? Ash said there’d only be *one* Hiveswap development team interview per week going forward! And he said they would be on WEDNESDAYS! This isn’t a Wednesday!”

Right you are, and that’s exactly why surprises are so much fun! Now, last week I mentioned that the next interviewee would be our superstar UI designer and all-around graphics guy Tauhid. Our interview with him will still be going live this week on Thursday, so definitely look forward to that, but today we’ve got another talented team member in the hot seat: Tom Hunt, our lead programmer and the prime coding whiz in charge of things on the technical side of things! Take it away, Tom!

Introduce yourself to the fans! What is your specific role on the Hiveswap team?

Hi, I’m Tom. I make stuff in Unity, which is a cross-platform 3D game engine and editor that can make all kinds of things - including the very 2D game you’re here to read about! My company neocade and I are working freelance on Hiveswap, with me as the lead programmer. Mostly, I direct and coordinate the team of programmers and quality assurance (QA) testers that are putting this game together. Sometimes I also write code.

When and how did you get your start on the Hiveswap project?

Sometime late last year, I was looking for a gig. At the time, What Pumpkin Games was looking for an additional Unity programmer. A mutual business contact introduced us via email, and we went from there.

Tell us a little bit about your career background! How did you get your start in programming? Do you have any advice for others looking to enter this field?

I’ve been programming computers since I was a little kid. I got my first actual programming job about a month after graduating high school, and did that for a bit during breaks while I was in college. It wasn’t very exciting, had nothing to do with video games, and didn’t pay a whole lot, but it sure beat taping up boxes of hot dogs in a factory all day.

The only advice I can really give to someone looking to enter the video games field is to just start making video games. Game development tools are more readily available now than they’ve ever been.

Also make lots of friends, especially with people who can draw or write or anything. If you live near a city, there is probably at least one game dev meetup somewhere - go to those and meet people. Get over whatever shyness you have, because almost every game that ever gets made is the result of a lot of teamwork.

We’re making a video game, so of course the question must be asked: what’s your favorite game of all time?

I played the heck out of Super Metroid back in the day. There’s something about that game. I would do speedruns of it - so now, every time I go back and play it, it all just feels so fluid. There’s a fairly robust set of inputs mapped out in a way that makes sense to my fingers. The entire game itself is fairly tightly bounded - a complete playthrough can take less than 90 minutes - so in a way, this beautifully detailed, explorable world is also actually kind of respectful of my time (more so than, say, a game like Skyrim, which is almost always a multi-hour/day/week commitment).

What games are you playing currently (if any)?

To be perfectly honest, I have not been playing NEARLY enough video games lately. That being said, aside from Hiveswap, I am currently into little mobile action puzzlers that I can play on the bus. Super Hexagon and Desert Golf are great. Just tried Polyforge this morning, too; that was pretty fun.

A lot of my friends are playing Breath of the Wild. I really want to just go get a Switch and play that, but I’m afraid of that eating up my time like Skyrim did.

Are there any games that you currently use or have used as inspiration for your own programming work here on Hiveswap, or just in general?

Not really - I tend to look at each technical problem on its own merits. The creative side of things is all handled by the What Pumpkin folks. I don’t really get involved with that too much. I just work to make sure their vision is implemented, however that needs to be done.

Imagine you’ve been given an unlimited budget and time frame to make your dream game. Tell us (briefly!) about that game in terms of genre, style, platforms, etc. Is it an original game or a long-desired sequel to an existing game? Go crazy!

Given an unlimited budget and time to work on a “dream game,” I’d have to go with some kind of deeply-simulated, massively multiplayer VR thing.

What’s your workstation like?

As a programmer, I like my workstations to be fast, reliable, and quiet. I always max out the RAM on a new machine if I can, because disk thrashing is just annoying as all hell. I’ve been really digging M.2 drives lately. Also, having extra monitors is always nice.

Do you like to listen to any particular kinds of music while you work? If so, tell us about it!

Mostly instrumental electronic music. Sometimes I’ll throw on some classical. Video game soundtracks are usually a pretty good bet. I can’t listen to anything with spoken words in it, though - too distracting.

Do you have a personal message you’d like to relay to all the Homestuck and Hiveswap fans out there?

Thank you all for being so patient with this project!

Thank you, Tom! Well folks, I hope you’ve enjoyed this week’s surprise bonus interview, and remember to check back on Thursday for yet another behind-the-scenes peek into Hiveswap’s development! As I teased last week, our very own Tauhid Bondia will be on hand to talk about his indispensable (my word, not his!) graphics and user interface design work on Hiveswap. See you then, everyone!