Imagine living in a city where there are no monuments, no buildings from before 1970, no proof that you had grandparents or parents, no history at all. Wouldn’t that make you feel like you were just a passing fad, that you could be blown away like leaves?… for any community to feel substantial and able to change without losing themselves, a history is absolutely crucial.
Emma Donoghue, talking about LGBT history and LGBT historical fiction
In order to strengthen its cultural profile and to make the city centre even more attractive, Leiden city council decided it needed a modern pop venue. Over the years, the city council bought a number of buildings in a block on the 19th century ring around the city centre, between the Lakenhal Museum and the Scheltema culture complex. There were a number of charming houses in the block, but the real pearl was the 19th century, brick factory building on Marktsteeg, unusual for Leiden, originally built for making cement. Ector Hoogstad Architecten were asked to design a pop centre within the area of the block and to make use of as much of the monumental buildings as possible. With some improvisation, the designs resulted in a plan where old and new, atmosphere and functionality, complement each other perfectly.
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Aries: Takes it easy and hangs out with friends during the days, making everyone believe that they are a laid back rebel. But secretly studies all night and achieves best results possible (apart from their serious lack of sleep).
Taurus: Goes to all the cafés and restaurants in town with friends to relax after intense study periods.
Gemini: Gets along with everyone and meets a beautiful special-someone either from class or from a party. The two goes out often for romantic dates in local places.
Cancer: Calls home at every given opportunity due to homesickness. But still toughens through the entire school period with help of friends and family.
Leo: Makes friends immediately and has a huge crowd of diverse friends that helps them with different subjects.
Virgo: Spends all their spare time at the local market. Traditional parades, parties and gatherings are their favorites, and they’d never miss it for anything in the world.
Libra: Relaxes by sightseeing all the infamous buildings and historical monuments.
Scorpio: Balances free time with studying very well. Returns home with both friends and knowledge.
Sagittarius: Has a knack for linguistics, manages to learn the foreign language in a short period of time and can converse with locals and native speakers.
Capricorn: At their dorm the majority of their time buried in books and notes, learns everything they can manage with the time on their hands. Respected by every teacher and student.
Aquarius: Photographs all the tiny but vital details in study life. Piles of books, cup of coffee, a neat classroom, the view from the window; you name it.
Pisces: Goes out for afternoon jogs to both relax and to get a closer look of the average day for locals.
I had to do this one late because of other commitments. Only used prompt 2. A little warning. There are no section breaks in this story. There are also no characters. There is also no plot.
Usually people though their preferred method of payment was money. Typically they thought this only once. You could only go to Goblin Market once before it would become clear that The Goblins were not interested in money.
No. Money was only worth what people said it was worth. And people tended to disagree. Factor in the travelling between universes and money would would be so different in one place than another that it might not even be recognised as money.
Instead The Goblins wanted one simple payment which was always worth exactly what they wanted it to be worth. The Goblins preferred payment was spoons.
When one of them, especially Annabeth, has nightmares about Tartarus (or anything else, for that matter), Percy would pour some water into glass or something and would start manipulating it, bending the water into shapes like her favorite monuments or buildings, or just some silly things like a cat or something, just to calm her down.
The moment I saw the prompt, I thought of the song Kiss it Better by He is We, which is a straight shot to the feels and I’d definitely recommend it as background music if you ever need to write an angsty scene.
TW: Blood and Character death. Don’t say I didn’t warn you. See the tags for more thoughts.
Paris lay in ruins.
Paris lay in ruins and Chat Noir was alone.
He had split away from Ladybug nearly ten minutes
ago so she could recharge her kwami. The akuma, a vastly destructive force that
went by the name of Dévastateur, had spent the better part of the past hour
turning the streets to rubble and carving chunks out of buildings. Monuments
were crushed beneath his power – and for once, Chat wondered if Hawkmoth
regretted releasing a power like that into the world.
The akuma wasn’t anything special, really. He was
granted power, great power, which gave him strength beyond imagination. It was
his heart, however, that had darkened to a point that no mortal should ever
Chat didn’t know why the victim had turned so
cold. He wasn’t sure he cared – not when Ladybug was still missing in action
and Paris was a bona fide mess. But he did know that the damage wasn’t entirely
Hawkmoth’s fault. No. This was personal on some level. The man beneath the mask
wanted to tear the world apart on his own terms.
In Ladybug’s absence, Chat had reverted to a new
plan – evacuating as many civilians as he could as quickly as he could. There
were times for showy heroics, and there were times when all that mattered was
preventing a bloodbath. This happened to be one of the latter.
Destruction of Islamic Heritage in the
Kosovo War, 1998-1999
More than two-thirds of the 560 active mosques in Kosovo on the eve of the
1998-1999 war were buildings dating from the Ottoman era. Many of these were
monuments of historical and architectural significance. However, this part of
Kosovo’s cultural and religious heritage received relatively little attention from
the state authorities charged with the protection of monuments.
Between 1947 and 1990, a total of 425 monuments and sites in Kosovo were
officially designated for state protection. These included 96 archaeological sites,
16 cemeteries, 116 secular buildings and monuments, and 174 religious sites. Of
the last category, 139 were Orthodox churches or monasteries, while only 32
Islamic religious monuments had been listed for protection. Since listed sites
received priority in attention and in conservation funding from state agencies,
this meant that by the 1990s much of Kosovo’s Islamic built heritage was in a
dilapidated state, after decades of neglect. In practice, the authorities not only
failed to provide the funds and expertise needed for the preservation of these
historic houses of worship, they allowed even listed Islamic monuments to be
altered or demolished without intervening.
The years of peacetime neglect were followed by the massive wartime
destruction of Kosovo’s Islamic religious heritage in 1998-1999. As has been
documented in this book, roughly 40 percent of Kosovo’s 560 mosques were
damaged or destroyed during the war.
The damage in most cases was clearly the result of deliberate attacks directed
against the mosques. There is evidence of explosives planted in the mosque or
inside the minaret, of artillery projectiles aimed at the minaret, and of mosques
set ablaze. In some places, the mosque was the only building in the vicinity that
had been singled out for attack. More often, the destruction of a mosque was
accompanied by the burning of the surrounding homes of the local Albanian
residents. The devastation of Islamic sacral sites was widespread and systematic,
with few areas of Kosovo left untouched. Among the worst hit was the northwestern region of Peja/Peć, where every one
of 49 Islamic sites was attacked in 1998 and 1999. Among the sites targeted
were the region’s 36 mosques (half of them dating from the 15th-18th
centuries), the offices, archives and library of the Islamic Community Council of
Peja, a historic medresa, a 15th-century hamam (Turkish baths), 9 schools for
Qur’an readers (mekteb), a dervish lodge (tekke), and several mosque libraries
In some places, those responsible for these attacks had left behind their
“signatures”— in the form of anti-Albanian and anti-Islamic graffiti in Serbian
scrawled on mosque walls, or in the deliberate desecration of Islamic sacred
scriptures, torn apart by hand, defiled and burned. Examples of this sort could be
seen in the Gjylfatyn Mosque in Peja, the Mosque of Carraleva/Crnoljevo, the
Mosque of Livoç i Poshtëm/Donji Livoč, and the Mosque of Stanofc i Poshtëm,
and in a number of other mosques. Of the 218 mosques and 11 tekkes in Kosovo that were destroyed or damaged
during the war, 22 mosques and 8 tekkes were in the most severe damage
categories. Among these, 13 mosques and 5 tekkes were completely razed, the
ruins levelled by bulldozer; 9 mosques and 3 tekkes were reduced to rubble, but
the ruins were not bulldozed. Among examples of completely levelled Islamic
houses of worship are the Bazaar Mosque (built 1761-62; renewed 1878) in
Vushtrria/Vučitrn, the Ibër Mosque (built 1878) in Mitrovica, the Mosque of Halil
Efendi in Dobërçan/Dobrčane (1526), the Mosque of Loxha (1900), and the
historic Bektashi tekke in Gjakova/Đakovica (1790).
An additional 95 mosques suffered lesser degrees of damage, ranging from shell
holes in the walls, through the roof or in the shaft of the minaret, to vandalism,
including fires set inside the mosque, smashed-up interior furnishings, and the
desecration of sacred scriptures.
A total of 31 mosques and 2 tekkes (dervish lodges) were attacked by Serb forces
during the first year of the war, in the spring and summer of 1998. Two-thirds of
these religious buildings were burned down, blown up or otherwise destroyed
or seriously damaged. Ten of the mosques that were damaged during 1998 were
subjected to repeat attacks and further damage during the spring of 1999.
During the second year of the war in 1999, a total of 197 mosques and 9 tekkes
in Kosovo were damaged or destroyed by Serb forces. One mosque, in the village
of Jabllanica (Prizren region), had its roof partly destroyed by a NATO air strike
in the spring of 1999. Otherwise, the destruction of mosques and of other Islamic
heritage in Kosovo during the war was entirely attributable to attacks from the
ground, carried out by Serbian troops, police and paramilitaries, and in some
cases by Serb civilians.
The destruction also encompassed the written record of Islamic religious and
cultural life in Kosovo. The Central Historical Archives of the Islamic Community
of Kosovo were burned by Serbian police in June 1999, hours before the arrival
of the first NATO troops in Prishtina. Six of the regional archives of the Islamic
Community were also attacked and wholly or partially destroyed, among them
the archives of the Islamic Community Councils in Peja/Peć, Gjakova/Đakovica,
Gllogoc/Glogovac, Lipjan, Peja/Peć, Skenderaj/Srbica, and Suhareka.
Kosovo’s Islamic religious libraries were also singled out for destruction. Notable
losses include the manuscripts and old books of the library of Hadum Syleiman
Efendi in Gjakova/Đakovica, founded in 1595 and burned in 1999, as well as the
libraries of dervish lodges in Gjakova/Đakovica, Mitrovica and Peja/Peć, also
destroyed in 1999. However, the losses go far beyond this. Many old mosques in
Kosovo had been endowed with collections of Qur’an manuscripts and Islamic
religious books that were destroyed or damaged in 1998-1999Remarkably, not a single Serb Orthodox church or monastery in Kosovo was
damaged or destroyed by Albanians during the 1998-1999 conflict.
Unfortunately that changed after the end of the war, as thousands of Albanian
refugees who had been forced out of Kosovo during the war returned to their
burned-out home towns and villages. Following the end of hostilities in June
1999, dozens of Serb Orthodox churches and monasteries were damaged in
revenge attacks. Some 40 Serb Orthodox sites were vandalized, while another 40
suffered serious structural damage or were destroyed completely. Many of these
buildings were village churches, some of them built during the previous decade.
But about 15 to 20 of the destroyed churches dated from the medieval period.By the end of the summer of 1999, as a result of the efforts of KFOR and the UN
administration to restore order, and in response to public appeals by Kosovo
Albanian political and religious leaders, attacks on Serb Orthodox religious sites
“This book is an attempt to document, to the extent possible, the Islamic sacral
heritage of Kosovo that was lost during the 1998-1999 war. As Kosovo and its
people come to terms with the painful memories of the recent past and work
towards a common future it is well to recall that, for most of Kosovo’s long
history, houses of worship were protected by all communities and had
traditionally been held immune from personal and communal vendettas. The
rich cultural heritage that remains in Kosovo, despite the ravages of time and the
destruction of war, is the common patrimony of all of Kosovo’s people. It is up to
them, as it was up to their forefathers, to jointly value and preserve it for future
generations.“ - Destruction of Islamic Heritage in the
Kosovo War, 1998-1999, by Sabri Bajgora
1. Mitrovica. Tekke (dervish lodge) of Sheh Fejzullah. Destroyed in spring 1999. 2. Vushtrria. Gazi Ali Beg Mosque, its minaret blown away by tank cannon 3. Peja/Peć. The Market Mosque (1471), torched by Serbian policemen, June 1999. 4. Mushtisht/Mušutište. Mosque of Hasan Pasha (1702). Blown up in April 1999. 5. Deçan. Mosque, built like a kulla; the mosque was burned in the 1999 war. 6. Carraleva/Crnoljevo. Torn-up and desecrated Qur’ans in the village mosque.
#THE DEMIGODS: - A N N A B E T H C H A S E -
↳ Annabeth loves architecture, and spends her free time designing new buildings and visiting national monuments. Her fatal flaw is hubris, otherwise known as excessive pride: she thinks she can do anything and do it well, even better than the gods.
Bamberg is a town in Oberfranken, Bayern (Bavaria) on the river Regnitz. Its historic center is a UNESCO world heritage site. During the post-Roman centuries of Germanic migration and settlement, the region included in the Diocese of Bamberg was inhabited for the most part by Slavs. The town, first mentioned in 902, grew up by the castle Babenberch, which gave its name to the Babenberg family. On their extinction it passed to the Saxon house. The area was Christianized chiefly by the monks of the Benedictine Fulda Abbey, and the land was under the spiritual authority of the Diocese of Würzburg. In 1007, Holy Roman Emperor Henry II made Bamberg a family inheritance, the seat of a separate diocese. The purpose was to make the Diocese of Würzburg less unwieldy in size and to give Christianity a firmer footing. In 1008, after long negotiations with the Bishops of Würzburg and Eichstätt, the boundaries of the new diocese were defined. Pope John XVIII granted papal confirmation the same year. Henry II ordered the building of a new cathedral, which was consecrated in 1012. From the mid-13th century onward the bishops were princes of the Empire and ruled Bamberg, overseeing the construction of monumental buildings. In the 1200′s, the see obtained large portions of the estates of the Counts of Meran. The old Bishopric of Bamberg was composed of an unbroken territory extending from Schlüsselfeld to the Franconian Forest, and possessed estates in the Duchies of Carinthia and Salzburg, in the Nordgau (now Upper Palatinate), in Thuringia, and on the Danube. By the changes resulting from the Reformation, the territory was reduced nearly one half in extent.
The witch trials of the 17th century claimed about 1000 victims in Bamberg - the famous Drudenhaus witch prison is no longer standing today. In 1647, the University of Bamberg was founded. Bambrzy (Posen Bambergers) are German Poles, descended from settlers in villages around Posen in the 1700′s. When the secularization of church lands took place (1802) the diocese had a population of 207,000. Bamberg lost its independence in 1802, becoming part of Bavaria in 1803. It was first connected to the German rail system in 1844, which has been an important part of its infrastructure since. After a communist uprising took control over Bavaria in the years following WW1, the state government fled to Bamberg and stayed there for 2 years before the Bavarian capital of Munich was retaken by Freikorps units. The first republican constitution of Bavaria was passed in Bamberg. In 1926 Bamberg served as the venue for the Bamberg Conference, convened by Adolf Hitler in his attempt to foster unity and to stifle dissent within the then-young Nazi party. Bamberg was chosen for its location in Upper Franconia, reasonably close to the residences of the members of the dissident northern Nazi faction but still within Bavaria. In 1973, the town celebrated its 1000th anniversary.
Thirteen years have passed since the great Albanian violence in Kosovo and Metohija in 2004, when the target was the entire Serbian people, Serbian property, monuments and shrines of the Serbian Orthodox Church. In the violence known as the “Crystal night in Kosovo”, 19 people were killed and 4,012 Serbs were expelled, six cities and nine villages were ethnically cleansed, 935 Serbian houses and 10 public facilities (schools, health centers, post ) were destroyed, burned or severely damaged. Special target of the extremists was the spiritual legacy and the heritage of the Serbian people. 35 religious buildings, including 18 monuments of culture, were destroyed, burned or seriously damaged. Devič Monastery near Srbica and the monk quarters of the Monastery of the Holy Archangels near Prizren were torn down to the ground, while the Church of Our Lady of Ljeviš from the 14th century and the Church of St. George from the 16th century were burned. The Orthodox Seminary of Prizren and the Episcopal seat in Prizren were also destroyed, Serbian cemeteries desecrated. More than 10,000 valuable frescoes, icons, chalices, vestments and other religious relics, as well as baptism, marriage and death certificates which testify about the centuries of existence of the Serbs in Kosovo and Metohija were missing or damaged.
The reason for the pogrom was a false report of the Albanian media in which the Serbs were accused of forcing six ethnic Albanian boys from the village Čabar near Zubin Potok to cross the Ibar river, on which occasion three of them drowned. Over 20,000 members of the international forces weren’t ready or simply didn’t want to prevent the ethnic violence against the Serbs. It was the second major pogrom that the Albanians committed in “peacetime” since the province was put under the United Nations protectorate. Up to this day, not a single main actor from the political structures or the former KLA was held responsible for these crimes.