These large hornbills are found in woodlands and savannas in southern and eastern Africa. They eat mostly arthropods, along with various vertebrates, including amphibians, lizards, snakes, hares, and tortoises, sometimes also eating carrion, seeds, and fruit. Nesting in tree or cliff cavities, females usually lay two eggs, three to five days apart. Only one chick, almost always the older sibling, survives. While pairs sometimes nest alone, they usually breed cooperatively in groups of up to 11 birds. They are classified as Vulnerable by the IUCN due mostly to habitat loss, along with indirect poisoning, trapping, shooting, and possibly collisions with powerlines.