In 2007, the Department of Water Protection in Los Angeles detected high levels of bromate in the Ivanhoe reservoir. Bromate forms when sunlight causes chlorine to oxidise bromide. Bromide is a natural constituent in water, particularly groundwater, while chlorine is generally added to water supplies to kill any bacteria, viruses and protozoa. 

The reservoir facility, which is 102 years old, supplies more than 600,000 people with potable water in downtown and South LA. When the Department of Water Protection realised the problem with bromate, they began construction of a new underground reservoir, but while the new facility was being built they had to determine a way to keep the sunlight out of the water. 

The method had to be quick and cost effective. The solution was “bird balls” which are made of polyethylene and cost only 40 cents each. 400,000 balls were dropped into the reservoir on June 2008, where they were to remain for the next four to five years until the new underground reservoir is completed.


Photograph by Gerd Ludwig

For more info see:


A fun Friday video. The city of Los Angeles has a chemistry problem. There are high amounts of bromine in several reservoirs that supply the city with water and when bromide and chloride (salt) ions react with sunlight, they form bromate, a carcinogen to humans. The city’s solution? Spending tens of millions of dollars on plastic balls that block sunlight out of the reservoirs. They also cut down on evaporation, saving hundreds of millions of gallons of water per year. Here’s a gigantic truck filled with plastic balls being dumped into a reservoir near L.A..

                                                       ✧゚・:* +1 YEAR *:・゚✧

hey guys, this is my very first follow forever in celebration of my blog’s first anniversary and hitting +1,1k followers! if you don’t see yourself on here don’t worry I still love you!!


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Oscillating chemiluminescent reaction using a  luminol-H2O2-KSCN-CuSO4-NaOH system. 

Long ago, according to the second law of thermodynamics, chemical reactions could only go one way, from starting material A to product B, since in every natural thermodynamic process the sum of the entropies of all participating bodies is increased. The except is the oscillating reactions, a classical example of non-equilibrium thermodynamics.

In 1951 Boris Pavlovic Belousov noted, while investigating the citric acid circle, that in a mix of potassium bromate, cerium(IV) sulfate, malonic acid, and citric acid in dilute sulfuric acid, the ratio of concentration of the cerium(IV) and cerium(III) ions oscillated, causing the colour of the solution to oscillate between a yellow solution and a colorless solution. Belousov made two attempts to publish his finding, but was rejected on the grounds that he could not explain his results (because of the second law of thermodynamics) to the satisfaction of the editors of the journals to which he submitted his results.

During the last 60 years, several oscillating chemical reactions have been described, some of them uses luminol as a chemiluminescent indicator as seen on the above gif. Chemiluminescent reactions are also among the most fascinating demonstrations. Many of these demonstrations can be found in the Journal of Chemical Education.

Photo by @GerdLudwig. The surface of the large open-air Ivanhoe Reservoir in Los Angeles is completely covered with over three million black plastic balls, which help deflect UV rays. In 2007, high levels of bromate - a carcinogen formed when bromide and chlorine react with sunlight - were found in its water which prompted officials to look for affordable ways of shading the reservoir. A biologist suggested so-called “bird-balls”, commonly used by airports to prevent birds from congregating in wet areas alongside runways. The balls, which cost 40 cents each, are made of polyethylene, with carbon coating.
The city recently continued with the program, covering the LA Reservoir as well.
@thephotosociety @natgeocreative @theimagereview #Ivanhoe #reservoir #LosAngeles #California #preservation #chemicals #boat #carcinogen #environment #bromate by natgeo

I recently hit a landmark follower count (not a big one, mind you) so I decided to do a follower forever since I’ve not down one yet on this tumblr. This is actually going to be kind of short just because I don’t follow a lot of people XD

Special bros, my comrades in filth, the cutie mc-cutersons, the SIN SQUAD: @lintmaster1989, @aobas-donut-hole, @sly-cool, @ponpox, @strawberryd18, @orocana-joka and @wolfwithatophat (<3 <3 <3 <3)

Amazing, incredible, gorgeous, awesomely talented peeps, so cool, so…what’s another synonym for awesome??: @paper-bag-with-holes / @paper-bag-with-blush, @purpuara / @ah-rah, @ahmerst, @ourlordandseivior, @ennead13x, @magemg, @minkirl, @aobert, @allmate-ren, @khaleecia, @clearbakka, @child-of-melancholy, @sora-mimi-desu, @vanity-destruction, @bluleaves / @thegreentomyblue, @caledscratch, @bromatical-murder, @pookystar / @pookys-art, @popnographic, @mink-answers, @cinna-bara, @noizudesu, @blushingbluenette, @boysnbooty, @kaleidoscope13579, @shinocchi / @shinocchidesu, @lurlonde, @lust-stag, @nugget-fuckers, @dratinimartini, @tigerine and @ignite-terror

Told you it wasn’t gonna be a lot XD 

Hello sweets!! Is with all the happiness in the world that I come to tell you that recently I hit 700+ followers and I want to thank you guys for being by my side through these years! I never thought it would reach this level… I r-really love you my sweets !!!

And to the amazing people that keeps my dash more and more alive and beautiful, i want hug all of you and thank you from the bottom of my heart!

Hope you all continue to enjoy my blog as I enjoy all of yours!



# - E

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F - K

@fanartyomi95 | @feliciakainzofspades@fi-ri | @fluffy-ren | @foxyladycpz| @freejoshis | @fuckyeahjoonmyun | @fuckyeahminao | @fuckyeahvitri | @fuwa-fuwa-clear | @fy-94@fy-sehuna | @fyeah-chanyeol | @fykai | @give-me-more-yaoi-onegai | @hagi-nosuke | @hereoctopussalad@hkyit | @illegalkai | @impulsive-temper | @incorrectdmmd | @ineedabaozi | @iridescentjam | @itsdramaticalmurder | @jongin-the-devildancer | @jonginice | @jubilation-set | @justfujoshi | @kaibility | @kaillusive | @kaleidoscope13579 | @keepcalmkeepdrawing | @kmexoplanet | @koujaku | @koujakusexual | @kxneki-ken |

L - Q

@leovine | @lintmaster1989 | @lycheepeaches | @m-inku | @mackervel | @magemg | @midorijima99 | @mink-answers | @minoru-chan | @miss-cigarettes | @mister-bite-my-dick | @mmkpeach | @nebulousnoiz | @noizudesu | @ohsh-exo | @omurizer-draws-things | @onlygoodyaoi | @pheonixart | @pinkyh12 | @praythegayway | @punk-ghoul |

R - Y

@re-dmmd | @reasonanddesire | @rentabulous | @ruffzrabbit | @sadistwithglasses | @sebaeked@sehun-nam | @sehun-perfection | @sehunijjang | @sehunix | @seragaki-ren-powa-powa | @sexual-harrassment-piercing-guy | @shining-petal | @stuffedtofu | @susurru | @swimclubboys | @swimminghomosubtitles | @trips-right-testicle | @unnecessary-yaoi-ship | @verstecktkatzchen | @wolfwithatophat | @yaoi-blcd | @yaointimacy