british political history

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This Archeologist Is Clapping Back After B.C. Wrote First Nations Out Of Its History
“I want the government to rethink how they’re doing this."
By Lindsay Kneteman

An archeologist is using some crafty editing and a passion for First Nations rights to challenge the colonial history lining B.C.’s highways.

One of the examples of her work:

All Love to London: An Entire Religion Didn’t Commit Today’s Attacks at Westminster Bridge and at British Parliament

As I write this, it’s still unclear who ran over Londoners on Westminster Bridge today and then stabbed a police officer outside the Parliament Building. It seems the same person committed both acts of terrorism.

We don’t know if the terrorism was domestic or foreign. 

I can’t make this point often enough: domestic terrorism IS terrorism. 

We don’t know anyone’s identity or motive. 

Three victims, including a police officer, have died so far and 20 more persons are injured. (Note: Since I began writing here, it has been confirmed the terrorist was killed by British police.)

Today marks the one year anniversary of the massacre at the Brussels airport in Belgium. 

We don’t know if today’s attack in London is related to the Brussels anniversary. 

DJT supporters have taken to social media yet again to falsely allege all Muslims are terrorists. 

A reminder: liberals HATE terrorism, too.

The only people who root for terrorists are, in fact, terrorists.

The one thing we DO know right now: it remains immoral and illogical to blame the actions of a few on over one billion individuals. 

Should today’s terrorist(s) turn out to be Muslim, he/she/they will be Muslim in name only and will have done enormous harm to their own people.

DJT, Bannon, and their ilk are already virulently Islamophobic. 

Deeply saddened by today’s slaughter of British innocents. Can’t get the image of people flattened on Westminster Bridge out of my head.

And I fear retribution against Muslim innocents.

As for the terrorist: I’m glad he’s dead.

LONG POST BUT GOOD I THINK

Hello tumblr! I would like to take the time to explain some of this British/Irish politics stuff that is happening right now. I’m not an expert, but apparently neither is anyone else (including Theresa May), so I’m going to run down what I know, so that everyone who wants to understand can get up to speed (as much as I’m able to get you there). If anyone who is an expert wants to correct me or add anything then please, please do.

(Quick note: Remember that the UK is a country, but it also made of other countries including Northern Ireland.)

First, some history: Britain has had a very tumultuous relationship with Ireland basically forever. There’s a LOT to go over, so I’ll just kind of massively over-simplify and say that Ireland became a British colony and fought its way out until only 6 counties were undecided about being part of the UK.* Conflict known as The Troubles started in the ‘60s.

The Troubles: The counties of Northern Ireland consisted (and still consist) of a mixture of two key ideologies; those who considered themselves British (unionists), and those who considered themselves Irish (republicans).** The former, wanted Northern Ireland to stay as part of the UK, but the latter wanted Northern Ireland to rejoin the rest of Ireland as one sovereign state - they arguably settled into a kind of a ‘draw’*** in the 1920s. When the fighting began in the ‘60s, the republicans were, rightly, pissed that they were being discriminated against by the unionist authorities - they wanted to be treated fairly, and asking and then demanding it clearly wasn’t working, so they resorted to force. This kicked off thirty years of fighting, involving a variety of paramilitary groups, activists, Northern Irish police, politicians, and the British army. Thousands of people died (mostly civilians), and there was bombing throughout the UK. Eventually, after a lot of work, a peace-deal was brokered: The Good Friday Agreement (GFA).

The Good Friday Agreement: In order to bring an end to the both the fighting, but also the state-sponsored discrimination that started it, a contract was brought up between the republicans and the unionists. It’s pretty complex, but some key points are these: 

  • A forced coalition of republicans and unionists must run the country 
  • The majority of people want to stay in the United Kingdom but there are loooads who want to be part of Ireland: If there is ever a time when this switches, and the majority wants to unite with the Republic of Ireland, then the UK is bound to allow it.
    • (A reason this is so groundbreaking is because Britain had never before recognised that both these ideas were totally legitimate)

Key to this contract is the concept of ‘impartiality’. To properly manage a country with such distinct and opposing viewpoints, you have to be emphatically impartial between the two (and the legitimacy of both viewpoints therefore implicit). This is why the forced coalition is so important. 

That was in 1998, and Northern Ireland has pretty much been peaceful ever since (there is the odd bombing every now and then) but obviously it’s kind of part of the whole deal that the two sides will never see eye-to-eye completely. Unfortunately…

Recent UK political history: I won’t go into too much detail, but basically the Conservative party were having a bit of a power struggle and David Cameron (the Prime Minister at the time) decided to sort it out by saying he’d hold a referendum about whether the UK should be part of the EU. And in 2016, he kind of had to follow through with that. It was a dumb decision with no forethought whatsoever, and the discussions around it were of the same ilk. Anyway, as we all know, without any idea what would happen once the decision was made, the UK slightly voted to Leave more than to Remain (this is known as Brexit because of course it is a dumb name like that). David Cameron resigned because whoops, and we got Theresa May - we didn’t get to vote for her or anything, we just got her. 

This year, she decided she wanted a more firm support to go into Brexit negotiations with Europe, so she called a snap election. Elections are typically every 5 years and our last one was only in 2015, so it was early. LITTLE DID SHE KNOW, good old Jeremy Corbyn (who I could talk about at length as well but I won’t) and his Labour crew brought their A-Game, and destroyed the Tories as much as they could without actually winning the election.

Basically, Britain has a dumb system called ‘first-past-the-post’. The gist of it is as follows: Each political party has their own leader, and that leader becomes the prime minister if their party wins. When you go to vote, you vote for a local MP for your constituency (or local area) representing his or her party and that counts towards the national wins - or seats - of that party. For example, you might vote for a local Labour candidate and, if that Labour candidate wins, their seats are added to the Labour party seats to see whether or not the country wants them doing a good rule of the whole place. To have a strong mandate, i.e. to be large-and-in-chaaarge, a political party has to get a ‘majority government’ - this is defined as winning 326 seats. If they don’t get that, they must form a coalition with another party to pick up the seats that they’re missing - this tends to be the biggest party teaming up with one of the much smaller ones. In 2010 nobody got enough seats****, and the Tories took over from the Labour party by getting the Lib Dems into a coalition with them; then they somehow got even more control in the 2015 election by getting a majority government on their own little leggies (no Lib Dems required).

In this election, again, no party got enough seats - so the Tories had to try and get a coalition going. But there was a problem! All the other parties they could turn to, had said they would absolutely not form a coalition with them. WHAT TO DO? Well, remember we were talking about Northern Ireland earlier…

I KEEP THINKING I’M NEAR THE END AND THEN MORE INFORMATION IS HAPPENING: Northern Ireland has for a while been run by a coalition between the Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) and Sinn Féin. The former is unionist (obviously); the latter is republican. This had been going pretty well, till something called the Renewable Heat Incentive (RHI). This was a system to help businesses move towards renewable energy sources, thereby reducing UK carbon emissions. Essentially, businesses were given subsidies to change their heating methods over from non-renewable sources. But it was done in a shambolic way - people were basically being paid to just have their heat on aaaall the time, and there was no cap on subsidies so they could just heat their way to an unethical, but apparently perfectly legal, fortune. SCANDAL HAPPENED when it was revealed that this whole thing was going to cost Northern Ireland huuuundreds of millions of pounds and also look what a hash job everyone has done. Arlene Foster, leader of the DUP was asked to stand down while an enquiry happened but she refused and, in protest, the leader of Sinn Féin (Martin McGuinness) resigned from his post (and then subsequently resigned from the party and then died). Sinn Féin refused to put someone else forward to lead their half of the coalition, so Arlene Foster couldn’t lead either! Northern Ireland, therefore, had to have an election even though they had JUST HAD ONE in 2016. So they had another in March and the unionists headed into shaky ground - they lost a whole lot of seats, so only had one more than Sinn Féin. Sinn Féin continued to demand that Arlene Foster step down, and Arlene Foster continued to refuse, meaning they still couldn’t form a government. They were given a deadline to form one, or they would be put under Direct Rule (this means Westminster taking over running Northern Ireland), which is NOT IDEAL considering. (Also Brexit is happening!!! Ireland is part of Europe!!! The Northern Irish border with Ireland is a sensitive thing!!! Nobody talked about this during Brexit and they’re all fucking idiots!!!) The deadline passed, so they extended the deadline… And then Theresa May called a national election! WHAT A CLEVER CLOGS. This fucking idiot called an election in the most unstable time in Northern Ireland since the fucking ‘90s. Northern Ireland now has to go back to the polls once again! So they push back the deadline some more and then the election happens and GUESS FUCKING WHAT…

CLUSTERFUCK: Theresa May, a monumental shitshower of idiocy, doesn’t have enough seats to run the country, and nobody wants to team up with her horrible party, and now she’s fucked! But WAIT, what about the party that is embroiled in a corruption scandal and is currently unable to run its own country? That’s a good idea. Let’s get them involved. Theresa May and the DUP decide to join up. 

Now. Remember a little thing from nearer the beginning of this stupidly long post: The Good Friday Agreement? The culmination of years of peace-process discussions after and through decades of war and terror? The thing the relies on an impartial government? How impartial is the Tories getting in bed with the DUP - the unionists? Not very impartial, if you don’t mind me saying. So now not only is Northern Ireland in a mess over the Cash for Ash scandal, and unable to run itself, but ALSO Theresa May is shitting all over the only real thing that’s kept the peace for nearly 20 years. And we still don’t know what’s happening with the Ireland/NI border! And we still have a deadline for a NI government to be sorted out! And the official plan for when that doesn’t happen is Direct Rule! And you can’t possibly run Direct Rule with one of the coalition parties that is refusing to run the fucking country! And Direct Rule is kind of kryptonite for GFA anyway! IT’S A FUCKING LUDICROUS, ILLEGAL, DANGEROUS MESS. 

And that’s all I have to say about that.


—————————————————————–

*That’s not exactly what happened. Ireland was colonised, fought for home rule (which is like being in charge of their area, while still be a British colony), and was partitioned in the 1920s because lots of people in these few Northern counties wanted to be ruled by the British government. The Irish Free State was created soon after, and Northern Ireland had the option to be part of that as well, but their government decided nah.

**This divide invariably fell along Protestant vs Catholic lines which lots of wilfully ill-informed British people will tell you is all the fighting was about. Actually there is a very long history related to this divide, which involved purposeful subjugation of Catholics in Ireland, to the point that the Irish Potato Famine could be considered attempted genocide of Irish Catholics by the British (protestants).

***Northern Ireland has since had the right to leave the UK if that’s what its people want, but that hasn’t happened and… Well, read on.

****This is known as a ‘hung parliament’. Hung parliaments do not happen a lot. there was one in 2010, as detailed above, and I think the one last before that was way back in the ‘70s. 

Black History Month in Canada:

Emery Barnes (1929-1998) was a Football player & politician; he served as the speaker in British Columbia’s Legislature, and was the first black person to hold this role in this province. 

He was first elected in 1972 and was re-elected 4 consecutive times. He belonged to the BC New Democratic Party (NDP). Emery Barnes and Rosemary Brown were the only black politicians elected in British Columbia in the 20th century.

Read more about him here:

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April 17, 1982: Queen Elizabeth II and Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau signed Canada’s Proclamation of the Constitution Act, 1982

Top Image: Queen Elizabeth II, as Queen of Canada, signing the proclamation of the Constitution Act, 1982.

Bottom Image: Proclamation bringing into force the Constitution Act, 1982, which includes the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

It is commonly said that in 1982 Canada “patriated” its Constitution. What actually occurred is that Canada requested that the Parliament of the United Kingdom legislate for it one last time, to remove the Westminster Parliament’s ability to legislate for Canada. The Canada Act 1982 enacted the Constitution Act, 1982. Part I of the Constitution Act, 1982 contains the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms; Part II of the Act recognizes and affirms the Aboriginal and treaty rights of the Aboriginal peoples of Canada; Part V provides procedures for amending the Constitution of Canada in the future. As with the British North America Act, 1867 and the Statute of Westminster, 1931, the Canada Act 1982 is an Act of the British Parliament, the original of which is kept in the United Kingdom. Enacted as part of the Canada Act 1982 (U.K.), the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms acknowledges that “Canada is founded upon principles that recognize the supremacy of God and the rule of law.” Among the freedoms the Charter protects are the fundamental freedoms of conscience and religion; of thought, belief, opinion and expression (including freedom of the press and other media of communication); of peaceful assembly; and of association. The Charter also protects democratic rights, mobility rights, legal rights and equality rights.

The Chartists have at last had their final demand fulfilled, 179 years after it was set down in the People’s Charter -alongside universal suffrage, the secret ballot and payment of MPs, yearly elections have finally become a permanent feature of British democracy.

I never realised until this very day quite how uninterested Britain is in Northern Ireland. I mean, obviously, I knew there was a general lack of interest and awareness.  I just didn’t realise the degree of that lack.  No one seems to have heard of the DUP.  Like… no one.  I honestly thought Channel 4 News were taking the piss when they said: “So, who are the DUP?” until they followed it up with a fact package.  I mean… how?!  Northern Ireland is IN the flippin’ UK! They’ve been in the news for as long as Theresa May has been without a soul.

2

The top picture is showing Jeremy Corbyn.He is the leader of the Labour Party. He is constantly slammed for by the sun and the daily mail for being too left wing and is reffered to as Commie Corbyn or Comrade Corbyn for wanting nuclear disarment, social housing, increased benefits, and being against millitary action in Syria. This is him in 1984 protesting outside the south African embassy. 

The Bottom picture is current Prime minister David Cameron. Often Revered by the right wing newspapers such as the Sun. For pushing through austerity measures to reduce the deficit (Spending cuts), reducing benefits for the poorest and weakest in our society, all while giving tax cuts to millionaires.     This is him outside Oxford university in 1984 as a member of the bullingdon club. An exsclusive club known for trashing resturants and heavy drinking.   One of the requirements to getting in was burning a 50 pound note infront of a homeless person. Aswell as other entry rituals involving a pig.  

But clearly Jeremy is the bad guy here. Literally the devil incarnate. 

When the British government took control of India from the British East India Company, in 1857, they set up direct imperial control under a system known as the British Raj. But making India part of Britain’s worldwide empire did not suddenly make India one country. The British left no fewer than 565 princely states – each with a large amount of autonomy – continue to rule their own domains. These maharajas only gave up their armies, and their ability to make foreign policy. So they gave up all their actual power, but none of their wealth or prestige. These maharajas existed until India and Pakistan declared independence.

7

Diana, Princess of Wales {July 1,1961 - August 31,1997}

“Caring for people who are dying and helping the bereaved was something for which Diana had passion and commitment. When she stroked the limbs of someone with leprosy, or sat on the bed of a man with HIV/AIDS and held his hand, she transformed public attitudes and improved the life chances of such people. People felt if a British princess can go to a ward with HIV patients, then there’s nothing to be superstitious about.”

(Nelson Mandela, at a press conference in London 2002.)

“Hillary and I admired her for her work for children, for people with AIDS, for the cause of ending the scourge of land mines in the world and for her love for her children William and Harry.”

(American President Bill Clinton)

“Princess Diana in her official position and in a personal capacity has made an extraordinary contribution not only to her country but to the world.”

(Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien)

“She was well loved and admired across the Commonwealth and was emerging as a potent symbol of our common humanity in her evident commitment to others less fortunate than herself.”

(Commonwealth Secretary General Emeka Anyaoku)

“She represented Britain with nobility and warmth and she captured the imagination of millions throughout the world with her dedication to her children and to innumerable worthy causes. Her untimely death is a shock to all who admired her and who will cherish her memory.”

(Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu)

“Her genuine concern for the plight of others and her ability to talk to anybody and make them feel special were her remarkable qualities. Her loss has been felt here very deeply because of the wonderful work she did here with patients. She will be very deeply missed.”

(Rebecca Mosley, The Royal Marsden NHS Trustt’s communications manager)

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January 26th 1950: Indian Constitution enacted

On this day in 1950, the Indian Constitution came into effect, thus founding the Republic of India. The struggle for independence from British colonial rule had been ongoing for many years, characterised by the non-violent resistance led by Mohandas Gandhi. In 1947, these efforts came to fruition, with the Partition of India creating the two independent nations of India and Pakistan. However, the transition to independence was not a smooth one, and religious violence was commonplace in the years after partition. In an effort to stabilise the new Indian state, the India Constituent Assembly adopted a new constitution in 1949. It was decided that the constitution would be enacted on January 26th to commemorate the 1930 Declaration of Independence on the same day, which resolved the Indian parliament to fight for self-rule. The 448-article document provided for a government based on the British parliamentary system, with elections every five years, and enshrined the principles of universal adult suffrage and equality. Unlike Britain, India was to be a republic, with a President holding a ceremonial head of state role. The new republic’s first President was Rajendra Prasad. Jawaharlal Nehru served as Indian Prime Minister until his death in 1964, having led the nation through a very turbulent time, and was succeeded by Lal Bahadur Shastri. Nehru’s daughter, the famous Indira Gandhi, went on to become a four-term Prime Minister. This day is commemorated in India every year as Republic Day.

Winning A War Isn't Enough To Guarantee Churchill His Job

In the summer of 1945, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s approval rating was understandably high. He’d just led the Allies to victory in Europe, and politicians and commentators confidently predicted that he would lead the Conservatives to victory at the forthcoming general election. Yet those who anticipated Conservative victory were shocked when the Labour Party won the House of Commons in a landslide, costing Churchill his office.

Gambler loses £70,000 betting on a Tory majority, believing election to be ‘unlosable’

Not many people can lay claim to having had a worse Thursday night than Theresa May, but the gambler who placed a £70,000 bet on a Tory majority is certainly a contender.

William Hill took the wager from an unnamed punter shortly after the Conservatives crushed Labour in May’s local elections. The person was one of many who apparently believed the upcoming general election to be “unlosable”, the bookmaker said.

The Prime Minister was riding high with a seemingly unassailable double-digit lead over Jeremy Corbyn in the polls and the only question on pundits’ minds seemed to be, “how big will the landslide be?”

A month later, following one of the most remarkable turnarounds in British political history, whoever placed the bet will be rueing their decision.

But they weren’t alone. Bookmakers hailed a bumper evening as large numbers of people placed big bets on the Conservatives to romp to a convincing victory.

William Hill said around £20m was wagered, the majority of it backing the Tories.

Joe Crilly, a spokesperson for the bookmaker, said: “The general election result was a good one for us bookies as the Tories managed to fluff their lines in what was being billed as the ‘unlosable’ election.”

“We had a number of five figure bets on the Conservatives winning a majority, with some wagers at prices as short as 1/16, although one punter from London will be breathing a sigh of relief after backing the Conservatives to win the most seats to the tune of £200,000.”

After what has been labelled one of the most disastrous election campaigns in living memory, bookies have slashed the odds on Theresa May being ousted from the Tory party top job.

William Hill has made Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson the 9/4 favourite to be the next leader, followed by Amber Rudd at 5/1 and Phillip Hammond at 12/1.

The bookmaker also reported a flurry of bets for Scottish Conservatives leader Ruth Davidson to move up to party leader and she is now 8/1 from 16/1 this morning.

Watch on very-british-life.tumblr.com

Hello! I made youtube channel where I’ll be exploring British history and culture and it would be really cool if you could check it out 😊 I’ve been making youtube videos for 2+ years but recently stopped to focus entirely on this new project! Weather you’re British yourself and looking to laugh at yourself or get a better understanding of your own heritage or you’re an anglophile who wants a down to earth and engaging way to enjoy all things UK, everyone is welcome so long as they agree to be respectful of eachother ❤

Just another studyblr


Originally posted by yourreactiongifs

Heya! I’ve decided to do another post to introduce myself to the studyblr community.

My name is Alice, but call me Aly ✿

About me:

      I’m a 5'3 blondie who live in Paris. I am nineteen and I study English in university. I’m currently doing my second year; my degree involves american/british history, politics, grammar, us/uk literature, translation. I’m fluent in French, almost in English and I’m jabbering in German and Italian. I also travel a lot since I’ve got a crush on England, and also on my boyfriend who lives there.

      I am extremely talkative, a real chatterbox so if you’re looking for a friend just send me a message! I’m also very lazy and “queen of procrastination” (◔_◔) but at the same time I’ve never missed a due date. And of course I’m passionate about studying, watching tvprograms and films!

I decided to start this studyblr because it is motivating me to study and work harder and also because the studyblr community is a big big family I want join. You guys already know what a studyblr is about so I’m going to post notes, tips and all this kind of stuff!

I’m also a huuuuuge fangirl of too many tvprograms, a Potterhead (viva Slytherin and Malfoy) and least but not last.. a sushi addict. Obviously since Aly rhymes with sushi!

And to finish this lame introduction post, I’d like to thank awesome studyblrs that helped me a lot by giving me tips: @blurredstudyblr @universi-tea @studypool @textbookaddict @nocturnalstudyblr @inspostudying @muststudy @acadehmic

I hope you guys will send me lots of messages and welcome me in the studyblr community  ✿