Despite the ancient origins of the Greek [and later, via French, Latin] suffix -logia, and eventually -ology, the addition of -ology to mean “the study of” a subject didn’t begin in earnest until the mid-1800s. A few related words (such as theology) existed before then, but it was not a commonly-used root in the sciences before that period.

Today, though, it’s a ubiquitous root, used in science and nonce words alike. Want to study some animal -ologies? Here are a few of those fields!

[Of course, many of these fields of study don’t universally use the Latin/Greek name, but it’s fun to know!]

Biology: The study of organic life. The root bio- is from the Greek bios, meaning “the way of life, the way one lives” (properly-formed example: biography), so “biology” takes some liberties with its modern definition.

Zoology: The study of animals. From Greek zoion (animal, living being).

  • Birds! Ornithology
    Extinct birds! Paleornithology
    - Bird nests! Caliology
    - Bird eggs! Oology- Nestlings! Neossology
    - Bird feathers! Pteryolology

  • Bugs! Entomology
    - Honeybees! Apiology
    All bees! Mellitology
    - Wasps! Vespology
    - Beetles! Coleopterology
    Grasshoppers! Orthopterology [rare alt. Acridilogy]
    - Flies! Dipterology
    - Ants! Myrmecology
    - Bugs on dead people! Forensic entomology
    - Pollination! Anthecology

  • Arachnids! Arachnology
    Spiders! Araneology
    - Ticks and mites! Acarology

  • Other Arthropods! Arthropodology
    Crabs! Carcinology
    - Centipedes and millipedes! Myriapodology
    Squids, octopi, and other molluscs! Malacology 
    - Shells! Conchology

  • Fish! Ichthyology
    Sharks and rays! Elasmobranchology
    - Freshwater fish! Limnobiology [full freshwater ecosystem]
    - Plankton! Planktology
    Extinct fishes! Palaeichthyology

  • Amphibians and reptiles! Herpetology [amphibians only - Amphibiology]
    - Snakes! Ophiology
    - Frogs! Batrachology
    Turtles! Cheloniology
    - Lizards and geckos! Squamatology or Saurology
    - Salamanders! Caudatology

  • Mammals! Mammology [alt. Mastology, Theriology]
    - Platypuses and echidnas! Monotreme mammalogy
    - Placental mammals! Eutheriology
    Marsupials! Metatheriology
    - Whales! Cetology
    Horses! Hippology
    - Horses but also tapirs and rhinos! Perissodactology
    - Dogs! Cynology
    Cats! Felinology
    - Primates! Primatology

Laura rerecorded her acoustic performance. :D


Oviparity, Ovoviviparity and Viviparity

As many of you have seen, scientists recently discovered a new frog species (the fanged frog, Limnonectes larvaepartus) in Indonesia, which gives birth to tadpoles! Cool, huh?

There are several frog species that give birth to tiny froglets (the tadpoles develop inside the female), but all other frog species that we know of lay eggs that are fertilized outside of the female.

This is the first species we know of that has the eggs fertilized internally, but does not allow its offspring to fully develop before releasing them.


There are many ways that animals reproduce, but there are four basic categories of reproduction:

  • Ovuliparity: The roots to this word, “ovum” (ovuli-) and “birth” (-parity) are key to this form of reproduction. The female releases (“gives birth”) to unfertilized eggs, which are fertilized outside of her body, and which fully develop outside of her body. Many arthropods, and most frogs and bony fishes use this form of reproduction.
  • Oviparity: This is the form of reproduction seen in birds and monotremes. Fertilization is completed inside the female, but the eggs are then laid as already-forming zygotes, with a significant vitellus (yolk and cell body) to provide for the developing embryo.
  • Ovoviviparity: Though this term is not used in the scientific community these days (as it lumps together a few different modes into one category), it’s useful for learning about types of reproduction. In ovoviviparity, you have both “egg” (ovo-) and “live” (vivi-) prior to “birth” (-parity).

    Basically, the female produces the eggs (including all of the nutrition they’ll get, in the vitellus) and is internally fertilized, and allows the embryos to grow within her body, rather than in the harsh environment. However, after the formation of the egg, she gives them none to very few additional nutrients.

    There is no placenta or placenta-like membrane, but developing offspring often eat unfertilized or unhatched eggs (oophagy or adelphophagy), or uterine secretions (histrotrophy). Most sharks, all seahorses, and other live-bearing fish undergo this type of reproduction. Some salamanders and about a dozen frog species also use this method to reproduce.
  • Viviparity: “Live” (Vivi-) “Birth” (-parity) - this is probably the sort of birth you’re most familiar with. The egg produced by the female has very few nutrients and can only develop for a few days on its own. After that, it implants into a placenta or placental structure. The embryo aggressively grows into the uterine lining, until it connects to the maternal capillaries.

    With their circulations connected, the female then directly provides nutrients to the developing embryo. Placental mammals use this form of reproduction, as do many species of scorpion, cockroach, and a few species of shark, snake, and velvet worm.


Top: Honey Badger (Mellivora capensis) - Viviparous
Second row: Short-Beaked Echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) - Oviparous
Third: Blue-and-Yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna) - Oviparous
Fourth: Hercules Beetle (Dynastes hercules) - Oviparous, Northern Banded Newt (Ommatotrioton ophryticus) - Ovuliparous
Fifth: Sea Bream (Family Sparidae) - Ovuliparous, Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) - Ovoviviparous
Sixth: Fat-tail scorpion (Androctonus australis) - Viviparous

Brehms Tierleben, Allgemeine Kunde des Tierreichs. Dr. Otto zur Strassen, 1915.

Arcana; or, The Museum of Natural History. George Perry, 1811.

Macross Delta: Death Predictions

People, we are only 6 weeks away from Delta ending.

So I’m either screaming “YES, I’LL BE FREE!!” or crying about what I’m going to do with my life after it’s over.

But that aside, and I say this very gravely, I kinda feel that I should lay out a potential death list. Y’know, to better prepare myself for the pain and stuff…not that it helps much.

Should be interesting if there are any surprises coming up soooo…

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Hayate - Protected by plot armor and his position as the MC so will likely not die. I don’t think there’s been any Macross “hero” oh, let’s be real here, Freyja is the true hero of the story who has actually died on screen, right?

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Freyja - Guaranteed to survive until the final episode, at least. Again, cuz she’s one of the main protagonists and a major love interest of the central love triangle.

But even if she survives the war, there’s no guarantee that she’ll live beyond those 30 years that Windermereans normally last. That is, if some sci-fi miracle doesn’t mess with her DNA or whatever.

…*slides 10,000 yen note to Kawamori and whispers* 80 is good. 80, please.

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Mirage - Nah. I mean, where combat is concerned, they’ve been playing her rather safe. She’s not the reckless type and even if things get rough for her as we move closer to the end, my gut tells me she’ll be able to pull through just fine.

Plus, she’s a Jenius girl and I can’t help but feel that will be a factor in ensuring that Mirage will live.

As for the romance part, I’ll really hate it if they’re going to turn her into a consolation prize…but in case things with Freyja don’t work out, it’s safe to bet she and Hayate will stick close together even if they don’t become a couple right away.

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Mikumo - I don’t think there is a worst case scenario for her as much as wondering how she’ll go?

Because after all this is over, is it even possible for her to stay in her ‘human’ form?

I dunno cuz the whole mystery surrounding Mikumo at the moment is doing a great job of not giving anything away on what will happen to her. Or what could possibly happen to her. So I’m not even going to hazard a guess.

Just expect lots of explosions and maybe a giant nekkid Mikumo in space or something. And of course, JUNNA’s powerful, magnificent voice to shatter the universe to pieces (yes, I am on a mission to make her legendary and there’s no stopping me).

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Kaname - Nope, can’t see her dying and I bet it’s because they’re not done making her suffer yet. And then some. Those sadistic bastards. xP

Arad - Wouldn’t it be interesting if they killed him off? See, Kaname loses Messer, the kouhai she was close to. Then she loses the guy she loves…oh, it’s so sad.

Personally, I don’t dislike the guy or anything but I don’t find him that engaging as character. He has what? Two functions at the most? Three? Captain of the squad, exposition and the dude our Team Mom pines for?

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Keith - No. And I have a couple reasons why…

1. He has yet to switch out that hideous bandage for an eyepatch. It’s practically a rule (through character development or something similar) that a major character who’s lost an eye will get a badass eyepatch eventually. And since he hasn’t yet, I’m thinking he’ll live on after the war’s over. Because maybe he’ll receive some epiphany that’ll force him to reconsider what he’s fighting for. Cue eyepatch because symbolism.

2. Karma. Right now, Heinz seems to be in more danger than Keith is so if Heinz dies from overstraining himself, the only one left to inherit the throne will be Keith.

Think about it. Keith never had any interest in becoming king. He also doesn’t particularly care about being part of the royal family. The only blood relative he does care for is his little brother so for Keith to become king this way, through losing Heinz…it’d be just awful. He’d be saddle with this huge guilt over not being able to protect Heinz (when he swore to himself that he would) and that will be his punishment. Death is more preferable.

3. Actually an extension of reason #2. Chances are, he’ll probably be forced to kill Roid if his best friend does turn out to be the final boss. Add more guilt to his plate because had he noticed how odd Roid was acting earlier, he probably wouldn’t have to lose another person so close to him.

I mean, I love you Keith but this is what you get for not giving any fucks about what’s really important until it’s too late. *sips tea*

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Roid - They really want to set him up as the Big Bad, huh? With the whole galaxy domination keikaku, the sheer amount of ominous shiny glasses moments, the constant rambling on “we are the ones to inherit the legacy of the Protoculture”…

Well, if that’s the case, then it’s too predictable. So predictable that it’s just bad. Why couldn’t they think up some better way to characterize him as a villain?

Anyways, as much as I don’t want it to happen (Roid is my favorite so of course I don’t want him to die), he has slim chances of coming out of this alive. Especially with Keith now being suspicious on his case.

*prepares tissues for the moment Keith might kill Roid* If you don’t hear from me after, it’s because I’ve slipped into a coma. ;__________;

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Heinz - NOOOOOOOO!!! Don’t hurt the baby!!!! Dx

Look. Heinz has made some terrible, misguided choices but he did it out of what he thought were the best intentions. And it’s not like he could’ve known he was being used. He’s only a kid. They’re too trusting when they’re young! Too idealistic!

Also, who in their right mind would put a 10-year old in charge of a country?

*sigh* But if his singing doesn’t kill him, then maybe the shock he receives from the Protoculture system will since he’s always standing so close to that giant mike and getting hit in the face with the “wind” and all.

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Herman - If he doesn’t die, I will be very surprised. They just introduced his son, Norman, to us whom I suspect is going to become the next White Knight if Keith is required to step down for whatever reason and that just screams death flag. For him or for Norman, who knows.

Point is, the guy’s already pushing past the average years Windermereans are expected to live so he’s practically just walking around with his deathbed strapped to his back. It’s only a matter of time.

Bogue - Ehh, 50/50. On one hand, he might die because he gets too hot-headed in battle. Or he could be disillusioned by what Roid’s plan really is, if he learns about it. Which would result in him not flying well because his mind will be full of conflicting thoughts and therefore, cause his death.

I think it’d be far more interesting to let Bogue live, though. And I say that because he’s the one who would use any reason he can think up to hate on the Earthlings. So if he can stay alive to reach the realization that it’s not just the Earthlings who’s done wrong but also the Windermereans…it would be quite a sight to see.

If that happens, maybe he’ll follow Keith’s lead and start fighting for the correct cause or something like that. *shrug*

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Cassim - Cassim is the only knight who I really, really don’t want to be killed off. Cuz he’s such a nice guy. Let him go back to his son, to his apple orchards and live out the rest of his short life in peace. Please? T_____T

…but with that frostbite accelerating, it’d be a miracle if he can live for another year.

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Theo & Xao - They have a rather minor role in the grand scheme of things so I’m picturing a possible Fred and George scenario here.

And for those of you who don’t get the reference, well, I won’t spoil it for you.


Yea, I suppose that’s it. For the major characters anyway.

I didn’t make these predictions based on any certainty, btw, so don’t take it too seriously. Just wanted to get a good idea of where everyone is standing in terms of survival, that’s all.


Skeleton of Baboon - Papio spp.

The baboons are a genus of old-world monkeys (meaning that they’re larger primates from Asia and Africa with non-prehensile tails) that exist in matrilineal troops (the females stay with their mothers, the males join another troop).

They’re fascinating creatures. The color varies from red to blue to pink, but all baboons have a rough, hairless, nerveless pad of protruding tissue on their bum, called ischial callosities. The primary function of these pads is similar to our own bums - sitting! Baboons sit like humans more than any other primate.

In females, their ischial callosities swell when they’re in estrous and ready to mate. During breeding season, the female baboons will present their swollen rumps to males, as a signal that she wants to mate.

Young baboons nurse for about a year, and during this time, when major fights break out in troops (baboon groups), male baboons have been seen taking nursing or just-weaned youth hostage, in order to avoid being hurt, themselves.

Despite their generally-herbivorous diet, baboons are some of the more hostile primates, and their over-sized canines scare off many predators of animals their size. Humans are their primary predator (often for the bushmeat trade), but Nile crocodiles, lions, and hyenas will take down individuals who stray from the troop or wander too close to the water.


The Egyptian god Babi was the deification of the Hamadras baboon, and was an aggressive, bloodthirsty, entrail-consuming god of the pre-dynastic Egyptian underworld. If your soul was deemed unjust on the scales of Anubis, you would be consumed by Babi, and not permitted into the afterlife. This role was played by Ammit (hippo-lion-crocodile) in some parts of Egypt, and Thoth (often portrayed as the ibis) was sometimes portrayed as the Hamadras baboon, too.

Because baboons were considered very virile, sexual creatures, Babi was usually portrayed with an erection, and was also prayed to in order to ward off impotence after death. His erection was said to be the mast of the boat that sailed the worthy souls to paradise in the afterlife.


Brehms Tierleben: Allgemeine Kunde des Tierreichs. Dr. Otto zur Strassen, 1912.
Bird Paintings of CG Finch-Davies. Claude Gibney Finch-Davies, 1920 (by the Transvaal Museum, 1984)
[Thoth as Baboon. 1400 BCE. British Museum, London.]

Atlantic Puffin - Fratercula arctica

Despite popular misconception, polar bears and penguins would never naturally interact. However, the Arctic does have puffins! These black-and-white seabirds have often been mistaken for penguins, but are a result of convergent evolution, not relation.

In adults, the brightly-colored beaks and “horns” on the eyes are part of their breeding plumage, and similarly to the antlers of moose and deer, are shed every year.

Puffins, like penguins, tend towards monogamy - but unlike penguins, their monogamy is largely due to fidelity towards their nesting site, not their mate. Generations of puffin families will nest in the same area, and if one gets “kicked out” or dies and another female chooses the area as a nest site, they will often find a different mate.

Brehms Tierleben, Allgemeine Kunde des Tierreichs. Prof. Otto zur Strassen, 1910.

This is the last Delta post this week, I swear…until Sunday, that is.

So Plan X is to form some kind of enormous mind network. Roid doesn’t deny it when Berger calls to confirm things for himself so yea, this is probably the only thing he has left to hide from everyone.

But…for what purpose is he going to use this network? If it’s not mind control, is it mind brainwash? Honestly, what’s the difference? Does he want to delve into the heads of all sentient beings and rework something in their brains to make them think Windermere is superior to other races? Or is to search for the reason why Windermereans in particular can only live an average of 30 years?

…*gasp* Is he planning to have them all go through massive body jumping? Cuz I don’t think that’s the solution to living longer, Roid. :/

Really, I have no clue. What’s more…

I haven’t the faintest idea of what that’s got to do with the Protoculture/Star Singer thingy he keeps going on about.

But it’s nice that we got some confirmation that he’s not just embellishing the details of their heritage. The Star Singer (or what Roid refers to them as in the modern day) did exist.

I mean, you can’t get better proof than a giant stone slab with an ancient drawing on it suddenly coming down out of nowhere and lighting up after you utter the magic words.

As for all the sparklies rising up from the ground when Roid is the only person in the room (chamber, whatever), I suspect it’s because he’s always worked in close proximity of those structures. Roid comes from a family who takes care of the ruins so maybe it’s their and his prolonged relation with the mysticism that grants them access to the Protoculture secrets.

I’m just hazarding a guess, though, but the fact that Roid can activate the hidden parts of this room and receive some sort of message from the beyond (however you want to describe it) when Heinz, the actual Wind Singer, can’t is something to take note of.

Finally, we’ve got this smirky rat riding on our coat tails and it looks like there’s a good chance Berger might become the final boss.

Sure, Roid is the one with the plan but Epsilon is actually the ones managing the resources. Berger is only too aware that Roid won’t share his findings with Epsilon but it’s no big deal because there’s plenty of ways for Berger to double cross Roid. Expose Roid’s secret to the public, turn Windermere against him and watch as they strip him of his title and have him hanged all while Epsilon quietly swoops in to steal Roid’s research that no one else knows about. Or deliberately screw with their own reports that are handed to Roid to throw his plan off while having the effects play into Epsilon’s favor. And those are just to name a few.

It’s not hard to imagine anything like that happening because Roid is preoccupied with other things at the moment, especially his worries on much time he has left. This effectively blocks the idea that Berger is becoming more of a threat from his perspective. And if Berger doesn’t show up on his alarm radar, Roid will continue to underestimate what Berger is really capable of. Which, as we all know, is very dangerous.

Don’t mess with people from the arms industry, Roid. They gonna fuck you up.

Anyways, I’m kinda hoping that Berger really will be the last boss. Not only because I don’t want Roid to be filling that role but also because I want to see Roid get his shot at redemption. If they’ll let him have one…*prays* >.<

C’mon, let’s face it. When it comes down to who’s the bigger evil here, all fingers are going to point at Berger. :P