brehms

2

Giant Anteater - Myrmecophaga tridactyla

The giant anteater is much bigger than illustrations make them seem - males can get up to 90 lbs and over 7 feet long.

Their tongues are “elastic”, almost 2 feet long, coated in a sticky saliva, and anchored directly to their sternums, rather than the hyoid bone that anchors most mammalian tongues. They flick in and out almost 180 times per minute. As one might expect, they do not have teeth, but smash the ants against their palate before swallowing. Their stomachs are tough, but do not produce their own acid; they use the formic acid of the ants in order to digest.

Since the structure of termite mounds can be as tough as concrete in some places, the anteaters need strong, well-anchored claws to tear them open. These claws would get in the way while trotting through their environments, however, and as such, anteaters walk on their knuckles, much like the great apes.

Brehms Tierleben, Allgemeine Kunde des Tierreichs. Prof. Otto zur Strassen, 1912.

9

Despite the ancient origins of the Greek [and later, via French, Latin] suffix -logia, and eventually -ology, the addition of -ology to mean “the study of” a subject didn’t begin in earnest until the mid-1800s. A few related words (such as theology) existed before then, but it was not a commonly-used root in the sciences before that period.

Today, though, it’s a ubiquitous root, used in science and nonce words alike. Want to study some animal -ologies? Here are a few of those fields!

[Of course, many of these fields of study don’t universally use the Latin/Greek name, but it’s fun to know!]

Biology: The study of organic life. The root bio- is from the Greek bios, meaning “the way of life, the way one lives” (properly-formed example: biography), so “biology” takes some liberties with its modern definition.

Zoology: The study of animals. From Greek zoion (animal, living being).

  • Birds! Ornithology
    -
    Extinct birds! Paleornithology
    - Bird nests! Caliology
    - Bird eggs! Oology- Nestlings! Neossology
    - Bird feathers! Pteryolology

  • Bugs! Entomology
    - Honeybees! Apiology
    -
    All bees! Mellitology
    - Wasps! Vespology
    - Beetles! Coleopterology
    -
    Grasshoppers! Orthopterology [rare alt. Acridilogy]
    - Flies! Dipterology
    - Ants! Myrmecology
    - Bugs on dead people! Forensic entomology
    - Pollination! Anthecology

  • Arachnids! Arachnology
    -
    Spiders! Araneology
    - Ticks and mites! Acarology

  • Other Arthropods! Arthropodology
    -
    Crabs! Carcinology
    - Centipedes and millipedes! Myriapodology
    -
    Squids, octopi, and other molluscs! Malacology 
    - Shells! Conchology

  • Fish! Ichthyology
    -
    Sharks and rays! Elasmobranchology
    - Freshwater fish! Limnobiology [full freshwater ecosystem]
    - Plankton! Planktology
    -
    Extinct fishes! Palaeichthyology

  • Amphibians and reptiles! Herpetology [amphibians only - Amphibiology]
    - Snakes! Ophiology
    - Frogs! Batrachology
    -
    Turtles! Cheloniology
    - Lizards and geckos! Squamatology or Saurology
    - Salamanders! Caudatology

  • Mammals! Mammology [alt. Mastology, Theriology]
    - Platypuses and echidnas! Monotreme mammalogy
    - Placental mammals! Eutheriology
    -
    Marsupials! Metatheriology
    - Whales! Cetology
    -
    Horses! Hippology
    - Horses but also tapirs and rhinos! Perissodactology
    - Dogs! Cynology
    -
    Cats! Felinology
    - Primates! Primatology

Vista desde la calle de las casas de ‘tipo D’, Terrazas Satélite, Circuito Novelistas 56, Ciudad Satélite, Naucalpan de Juárez, Estado de México, México
1964

Arq. Abraham Zabludovsky

Foto. Brehme

Street view of  'Type D’ houses, Terrazas Satelite, Circuito Novelistas 56, Ciudad Satelite, Naucalpan, Edo. Mexico, Mexico 1964

5

Internal anatomy of the snake

“Arms and legs gone, no ears, only one functional lung, voiceless, eyelids missing…a human being under these conditions would be institutionalized and under constant care…” James A. Peters, Encyclopedia Britannica 15th edition

The internal anatomy of snakes shows their obvious relation to other vertebrates; their organs, tissues, and germ cell layers are all very similar to those of other scaled reptiles (order Squamata), and even to other vertebral species (subphylum Vertebrata).

However, their differences from other vertebrates are even more distinct than their similarities. The body of a snake is long and elongated, like a tube, and certain adaptations have been made along the evolutionary chain in order to fit their organs into this form.

Other adaptations have also been developed in the evolutionary history of the suborder Serpentes, with the result of this highly specialized carnivore. Here are a few of those adaptations:

Lungs: All snakes are essentially one-lunged. Their left lung is usually vestigial, sometimes completely absent, and their right lung is enlarged and elongated, and has much less cartilage in it than other vertebrates. In aquatic snakes, the left lung’s anterior portion still functions, albeit not for gas exchange. It works as buoyancy organ during swimming.

Jaws: The lower jaw of snakes is loosely attached, with ligaments connecting the anterior left and right halves of the mandible. The left and right halves are generally also connected with a relatively loose ligament, allowing separation and movement of both halves. When the snake ingests a large meal, the jaw easily pops out of its hinge, to allow food to enter the esophagus. After swallowing its prey, the snake will “yawn” widely, and snap its mandible back into place.

Spine: Snakes generally have between 200 and 400 vertebrae. The “tail” vertebrae usually make up less than 20% of the total, and are the only vertebrae without ribs attached. The ribs and vertebral column of the snake provide solid anchoring points for the strong muscles required for limbless locomotion, and are necessary much farther down the torso than in other vertebrates.

Skin: It’s not slimy, for one! Despite some snakes looking like they have a sheen to their scales, no snakes secrete “slime” or mucous to coat their skin. Only amphibians and worm-type creatures do that. Snake skin is incredibly flexible, to accommodate the large meals that are consumed, and is comprised of scales, which are a protective extension of the epidermis. Scales also allow snakes to grip the ground or trees they’re climbing. Snake eyes are covered in clear scales, allowing them to be protected without eyelids.

Ears: Obviously, snakes have no external ears. However, they still have inner ears. When soundwaves hit their skin, the vibration is transferred through the muscle and bone, and into the inner ear, where it’s processed. Though the ability to sense directional vibration in snakes is generally highly developed, the sense of “hearing” as humans know it is relatively poor.

Sight: This is one trait that varies widely between snake species. Some are nearly blind, sensing only light and dark, while some can spot prey from far away. No snakes can see in color, but some snakes (the pythons, pit vipers, and some boas) can see infrared images - that is, they can sense the heat radiating from warm-blooded animals, allowing them to hunt prey at night.

Tongues: Snakes do not have a sense of taste, in the way that humans think of “taste”. Instead, their tongues “test” the air for certain compounds, bringing the air particles back into their mouth, into their vomeronasal (Jacobson’s) organ, which can tell if there are predators or prey in the area. Some snakes that live in aquatic environments, such as sea kraits and boas, can also use this sense underwater.

All images: Brehms Tierleben, Allgemeine Kunde des Tierreichs. Dr. Otto zur Strassen, 1913.

Snake info from: Snakes: In Question. Carl H. Ernst, George R. Zug, 1996.

thosewho-wander asked:

Every Time I Die?

  • First song I ever heard - The New Black
  • Favorite song - Kill the Music
  • Favorite album - Gutter Phenomenon
  • Favorite member - No one in particular. I just like the band.
  • If I’ve ever seen them live - Nope
  • If I own any merch - no

Leopard Frog - Rana spp. - Internal Anatomy

The internal anatomy of the adult frog is, on a very basic level, quite similar to that of mammals - they have the standard set of vertebrate organs (a heart, some lungs, a nervous system, a stomach, and some other digestive organs), but once you look closer, you can see how different the frog really is.

For one, their skin absorbs oxygen directly through water, and if they dry out, they suffocate - their lungs aren’t nearly large or strong enough to provide the oxygen for their entire body. The frog has no functional ribs or diaphragm, and they must breathe using buccal pumping - moving the floor of their mouth up and down to inflate and deflate the lungs.

Frogs have a single excretory orifice, like birds and reptiles, called the cloaca - all waste and reproductive excretions go through the same hole. Their paired kidneys actually function fairly similarly to mammalian kidneys, but their endocrine system does not conserve water inside the body, like our kidneys and endocrine system do. Because of this, even frogs with strong lungs would die quickly if they had no access to water, due to dehydration.

The hearts of frogs are also somewhat different from mammals. They have only three true chambers. The oxygenated blood from the lungs, and the deoxygenated blood from the tissues enters the heart through separate atria. When the heart beats, it pumps the blood into a common ventricle, which has a partial septum (dividing tissue), to minimize the mixing of the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood. The blood then passes through a spiral valve to the appropriate vessels - the aorta for oxygenated blood, and the pulmonary artery for deoxygenated blood.

Brehms Tierleben, Allgemeine Kunde des Tierreichs. Dr. Otto zur Strassen, 1913.

brehms replied to your post: brehms replied to your post: speakeasaye replied…

HAHAH. I’m living in hamilton this year. It kinda sucks too but my room is in a convenient area. But I’m living in those nice apartments next year even if it puts me in debt. DON’T CARE.

debt’s totally worth it. and southside is right by the rec and a lot of nifty shit so at least there’s that, too bad the rooms are kind of grody as fuckkk. 

In Ashes - (Reader x Sam Wilson)

A/N: I will probably start putting author’s notes at the end of fics now. This was inspired by  emoh-in-bed ’s amazing song recommendation, ‘Pressure’ by Draper (Ft. Laura Brehm). It has been added to the Recruit Spotify Playlist as well, so check it outtttt~


You tightened the straps on your bracers and reached to feel for the blades at the small of your back. Today would be the day. It was time.

A hand brushed a few strands back from your face and you swallowed down the acid that burned your throat when Krait came into view. “Nothing too challenging today, unfortunately.” He grinned at you and pet your cheek. “Stop looking so nervous.”

Keep reading

8

Oviparity, Ovoviviparity and Viviparity

As many of you have seen, scientists recently discovered a new frog species (the fanged frog, Limnonectes larvaepartus) in Indonesia, which gives birth to tadpoles! Cool, huh?

There are several frog species that give birth to tiny froglets (the tadpoles develop inside the female), but all other frog species that we know of lay eggs that are fertilized outside of the female.

This is the first species we know of that has the eggs fertilized internally, but does not allow its offspring to fully develop before releasing them.

——-

There are many ways that animals reproduce, but there are four basic categories of reproduction:

  • Ovuliparity: The roots to this word, “ovum” (ovuli-) and “birth” (-parity) are key to this form of reproduction. The female releases (“gives birth”) to unfertilized eggs, which are fertilized outside of her body, and which fully develop outside of her body. Many arthropods, and most frogs and bony fishes use this form of reproduction.
  • Oviparity: This is the form of reproduction seen in birds and monotremes. Fertilization is completed inside the female, but the eggs are then laid as already-forming zygotes, with a significant vitellus (yolk and cell body) to provide for the developing embryo.
  • Ovoviviparity: Though this term is not used in the scientific community these days (as it lumps together a few different modes into one category), it’s useful for learning about types of reproduction. In ovoviviparity, you have both “egg” (ovo-) and “live” (vivi-) prior to “birth” (-parity).

    Basically, the female produces the eggs (including all of the nutrition they’ll get, in the vitellus) and is internally fertilized, and allows the embryos to grow within her body, rather than in the harsh environment. However, after the formation of the egg, she gives them none to very few additional nutrients.

    There is no placenta or placenta-like membrane, but developing offspring often eat unfertilized or unhatched eggs (oophagy or adelphophagy), or uterine secretions (histrotrophy). Most sharks, all seahorses, and other live-bearing fish undergo this type of reproduction. Some salamanders and about a dozen frog species also use this method to reproduce.
  • Viviparity: “Live” (Vivi-) “Birth” (-parity) - this is probably the sort of birth you’re most familiar with. The egg produced by the female has very few nutrients and can only develop for a few days on its own. After that, it implants into a placenta or placental structure. The embryo aggressively grows into the uterine lining, until it connects to the maternal capillaries.

    With their circulations connected, the female then directly provides nutrients to the developing embryo. Placental mammals use this form of reproduction, as do many species of scorpion, cockroach, and a few species of shark, snake, and velvet worm.

Images:

Top: Honey Badger (Mellivora capensis) - Viviparous
Second row: Short-Beaked Echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) - Oviparous
Third: Blue-and-Yellow Macaw (Ara ararauna) - Oviparous
Fourth: Hercules Beetle (Dynastes hercules) - Oviparous, Northern Banded Newt (Ommatotrioton ophryticus) - Ovuliparous
Fifth: Sea Bream (Family Sparidae) - Ovuliparous, Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) - Ovoviviparous
Sixth: Fat-tail scorpion (Androctonus australis) - Viviparous

Brehms Tierleben, Allgemeine Kunde des Tierreichs. Dr. Otto zur Strassen, 1915.

Arcana; or, The Museum of Natural History. George Perry, 1811.