The World Arabian Horse Organization recognizes 5 major “blood lines” from 5 countries; Russian, Polish, Crabbet, Egyptian, and Spanish. There are smaller “blood lines” from other countries such as France, Brazil, Australia or South Africa but they aren’t as established but they still make in impact on global breeding. The reason why these “blood lines” are so big and purity is a huge deal is that each one has their own characteristics and traits.
The Russian stud book was established in the late 1800’s, but their breeding stock didn’t take off til 1930 when they introduced 6 more horses into their breeding program. The Russians favored the racing Arabians so as a result we have extremely athletic horses from those lines. During the wars there was an influx of Polish horses to Russia in order to save precious breeding lines. Having these horses added into the breeding pool helped strengthen the Russian bloodlines.
Balaton - 1982 ( Menes x Panagia)
Murhib - 2004 (Amer x Kachia)
Polish stud book was established in 1932 officially even though Arabians have been in Poland for hundreds of years because they made such great war horses. Poland has a heavy racing influence too because they wanted to physically test the horses they were breeding by seeing how they carry weight on their back and seeing how they recover after a hard work out. Usually, during the annual Polish Auction we see brood mares and maybe a young stallion just off the track there. The Auction is world wide famous because it’s the only time of year the Polish horses get exported from Poland.
Bask - 1956 (Witraz x Balalajka)
Piaff - 1997 (Eldon x Pipi)
The Crabbet horses were first bred by the Blunts in 1878. However, the breeding stock was seperated in 1906 when the Blunts split up. They continued to trade horses and import more horses from the desert to improve their breeding stock. However, the trading between barns ended once two precious stallions perished on the sea and they were too fearful to lose more horses. Crabbet Arabians have a huge influence in other strains like the Polish and Russian Arabian.
Negatiw - 1945 (Naseem x Taraszcza)
Volcano - 1989 (Bakos x Victorine)
Egypt and other desert dwelling countries, especially Arabia and Iran are where the Arabian horses come from. True pure Arabians (Asil-Arabian) are few and far in between but Egypt is the holder of almost all of these Arabians. Official records started being kept of these Arabians in 1908 by the Egyptian government so they could keep these horses pure. We do see a lot of Egyptian related stallions out there, however, most of them are not pure, or Asil-Arabians, which only makes up 2% of the “purebred” Arabian population.
Thee Desperado - 1989 (The Minstril x Ak Amiri Asmarr)
Ramses Mishaal Nadir - 2006 (Mishaal HP x Ramses Minx)
The Spanish Aabians are the oldest recorded Arabians outside of the desert. They were formed in 1847. However, they have been in Spain much longer than that. For example, Queen Isabel II bred her private stock to lighter and better for riding. The modern Spanish Arabian horses were bred upon by imports from the desert and Poland were they were looking for horses with type, stamina, speed and height. These horses brought in shaped the look of the Spanish horse we see today.