branch of science

branches of biology → paleontology

the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present). It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms’ evolution and interactions with each other and their environments (their paleoecology). Paleontological observations have been documented as far back as the 5th century BC.

20 Out Of This World Facts About The Universe That Will Sweep You Off Your Feet

We’ve compiled a list of the 20 most incredible facts about the universe you will ever come across. The infinite expanse of stars and galaxies are riddled with mysteries which leading scientists and experts are yet to explore. In their quest to unearth the hidden secret of the universe, startling facts and information have emerged - 20 of which we’ve featured below.

1. When you look into the night sky, you are looking back in time.

Originally posted by apparently-artless

 When we gaze at stars in the night sky, we are actually looking into the past. This happens because light emitted from a star has to travels many light years ahead to actually become visible to our eyes. For  example, Orion is 640 light-years away, so the light left the star around 1370 is what we are seeing now.

2. The Hubble telescope allows us to look back billions of years into the past

Originally posted by dreamofthedragon

NASA releases some incredible images of space, from time to time, and it’s made possible with The Hubble Telescope. Here’s an image which is a collection of 10,000 images captured by The Hubble. 

3. You can watch the Big Bang on your television

Cosmic background radiation is an after effect of the Big Bang, the event that allegedly gave birth to the universe. This can actually be seen on television where the old fuzzy noise we saw contains 1% of the same radiation. 

4. There’s a giant cloud of alcohol in Sagittarius B

Sagittarius B, is a huge cloud of vinyl alcohol whizzing in space near the Milky Way. It’s important as it leaves crucial information for scientists about how early life forms originated in space.

5. There’s a planet-sized diamond in Centaurus named after a Beatles song

Originally posted by iclalove

A planet , made completely of diamond, which has been called Lucy by scientists after the Beatles song, “Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds,”  can be found 50 light years away in Centaurus and weighs in a mind boggling 10 billion-trillion-trillion carats. 

6. It takes 225 million years for our Sun to travel around the galaxy

Originally posted by toomanythoughtanddreams

While our planets in the solar system circumnavigate the Sun, the star itself it on a orbit around the Milky Way. And if we’re counting in humans years, it takes 225 million years to complete the journey. 

7. Our solar system’s biggest mountain is on Mars

The tallest mountain in our solar system is Olympus Mons, located on Mars. It’s calculated  to be three times taller than Everest, spanning 600 kilometers across and 26 kilometers in height. 

8. Uranus spins on its side, with some rather strange results

Originally posted by spaceplasma

Uranus is not just unique because of its strange spinning, but the consequences of that effect results in 42 consecutive years of summer sunlight followed by another 42 consecutive winter darkness.

9. A year on Venus is shorter than its day

Originally posted by spaceplasma

Venus is the slowest rotating planet in our solar system - it takes longer to finish a rotation on its axis than orbit the entire Sun!

10. Neutron stars are the fastest spinning objects known in the universe

The fastest spinning known pulsar, a neutron star which emits a radiation beam as light, cycles on a whopping 70,000 km per hour speed.

11. A spoonful of a neutron star weighs about a billion ton

Neutron stars are unimaginably dense, in fact one spoonful of one such star would weigh around a billion tons!

12. The Voyager 1 spacecraft is the most distant human-made object from Earth

In 1977, the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 were released into space as an ambitious project and are still cruising the outskirts of our galaxy and maybe beyond to help us explore space even further.

13. Voyager 1 captured the most distant photograph of Earth

The same spacecraft, Voyager 1, took the most distant photograph of Earth: Voyager 1 took a shot of the Earth from the far reaches of space in 1990, and the small speck at the end of the image that is the world we’re living on right now became known as the Pale Blue Dot. Astronomer Carl Sagan noted,“From this distant vantage point, the Earth might not seem of any particular interest. But for us, it’s different. Consider again that dot. That’s here. That’s home. That’s us.”

14. Scientists are looking for evidence of extraterrestrial life on Earth

Originally posted by ajshostak

One of the most exciting mysteries of the universe is a quest to find aliens, or as termed by scientists a project called The Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI), where they are pulling n all data about extraterrestrial life on other planets through evidence they have at their hands.

15. It is estimated there are 400 billion stars in our galaxy

Originally posted by thelucidnation

Our own Sun is one of 400 billion others, some astoundingly larger, some smaller, in the Milky Way alone. 

16. There could be 500 million planets capable of supporting life in our galaxy

“Goldilocks Planets” are  habitable planets which fall into a specific zone around the star to make life sustainable on it. Many factors come into play to get this perfect distance such as temperature, atmospheric content, water, chemical compounds on the surface etc. 

17. There are probably more than 170 billion galaxies in the observable universe

Based on extensive calculations, using data from the Hubble Telescope and as far as it can see into space, there’s a probable 170 billion galaxies besides our own Milky Way.

18. There could be an infinite number of universes

Originally posted by sci-universe

Speculative theories in advanced branches of science such as mathematics, quantum mechanics and astrophysics have summed up that we could be living in a “multiverse”- a convergence of an infinite number of universes. 

19. The human brain is the most complex object in the known universe

Originally posted by teapotsandroses

Our brain is a blueprint for the most complex network in the universe, with over a hundred billion neurons and quadrillion connections- this system isn’t even the tip of the iceberg which we know about what our brains have the potential to achieve.

20. We are all made of stardust

Originally posted by drugsruleeverythingaroundme

Carl Sagan beautifully summarises this fact, “The nitrogen in our DNA, the calcium in our teeth, the iron in our blood, the carbon in our apple pies were made in the interiors of collapsing stars. We are made of starstuff.” In fact, every element on Earth transpired from a burning heart of a star.

anonymous asked:

I feel like a fool for not knowing this but how are the sciences used to promote white supremacy? Does this refer to all sciences or just the social sciences? If it's much too complicated to sum up succinctly why they're racist, could you maybe point me to some reading material on the subject? I wouldn't really know where to start researching a topic like this. Thank you.

every natural and social science originated in service to, is deeply indebted to, or has at least been wielded in service of, empire & white supremacy (some more directly than others imo). science & scientific thought under capitalism exist as tools for the dissemination of narratives that support capitalism and/or imperialist exploitation, plus some scientific knowledge arises from or is used to further imperialism & white supremacy in a very immediate sense.

a few things to consider off the top of my head:

additional readings and specific things to research can be found in my science tag

branches of biology → ornithology

concerns the study of birds. The word “ornithology” derives from the ancient Greek ὄρνις ornis (“bird”) and λόγος logos (“rationale” or “explanation”). Several aspects of ornithology differ from related disciplines, due partly to the high visibility and the aesthetic appeal of birds.


OK so anyone here knows that True Colors is the most emotionally driven song in the whole movie. But there is some scientific stuff that they did with their animation that surprises me. And it has to do with Branch and Poppy. But first onto some observations. First off, saying I love you. As you know, in the song True Colors, I love you is said twice. Some think that it is strictly platonic I love you’s but I can prove that that is false. The Spanish language has two ways of saying I love you. Te amo for romantic and te quiero for platonic. In the Spanish version of the film, Branch and Poppy BOTH say te amo. When the trolls are escaping and Bridget and Poppy say they love each other, it is said as te quiero. So Poppy and Branch definitely love each other romantically. Second, science stuff. There is a strong correlation between arousal and specific eye movements like dilation and blinking. Our eyes naturally dilate to allow more light in, dilation also occurs in response to cognitive and emotional events. So when we are interested or in any way emotionally stimulated and what we are looking at, are pupils dialate. Put in more lame terms, when you see someone you love or like, your pupils dialate. When you watch Poppy react to Branch saying I love you, her pupils dialate. Branch’s do as well when he smiles at her. His also dilate multiple times throughout the movie when he’s looking at her. (You can see Poppy’s eyes dilate in the second gif) (It’s harder to see but you can also see Branch’s in the third one) So through the power of Science and investigating with different language versions of the same exact movie, we can come to the conclusion that branch and Poppy do in fact love each other romantically, not platonically. Look at these little fools in love :D

4th July

On the first day of the month, Steve arranged things.

Hotel and cab booked, tickets sorted, overnight bag packed. He was ready to go at a moment’s notice. He’d even pre-written his letter of apology to the others, in case he didn’t have time to say goodbye.

He was prepared.

Last year, he’d been stupid. Left it too late, and then faced the consequences throughout the whole damn week.
He wasn’t going to be stupid this time. He was prepared, see.

Unfortunately, it was very difficult to plan anything when you had people like Tony Stark living in the same tower as you. That man was predictably unpredictable. Damn him.

“Steve?” Came the confused voice from the door, and Steve jerked, turning around quickly and looking up, spotting Tony leaning against the wall with his arms folded, looking at him in confusion.

Well, not him. The bag he was re-packing was what was grabbing all the attention right now.

“What… what are you doing?” Tony asked, brow furrowed deeply as he stepped further in and took a shirt from the pile of luggage. Steve quickly snatched it back, stuffing it into his bag defensively.

“Nothing, Tony, I’m just…packing,” Steve muttered, searching for his toothbrush among the mess.

Tony paused, and Steve got the feeling he was holding back a sigh of exasperation. “Hmm- yes, I gathered that much. I was just wondering, y’know, why?”

Steve kept his eyes fixed on the shirt he was folding in front of him. “Birthday plans,” he lied, before spinning around to face Tony, preparing to usher him back out of the door.

He stopped when he noticed how obviously Tony’s face had fallen, and the hurt look that was lingering on his face.

Fucking Tony. It had to be Tony who had caught him. Anyone else, and he probably could have just let it slide.

“What’s wrong?” he said with a sigh, because he was a fucking sucker.

Tony quickly smoothed his face over and smiled, that horrible brittle one that made Steve want to argue relentlessly with him, just to bring out some semblance of an emotion on his face instead of that thing. “Nothing, nothing. Go, be free, it’s your birthday, you need to relax. I’m happy you’re actually taking a break for onc-”

“Tony,” Steve asked, raising an eyebrow and grabbing his shoulders between his two hands, “what’s wrong?”

Tony paused, and for a moment it seemed as if he was going to continue to bullshit his way through it, but then his face just sort of…fell again, and he shook his head. 

“I…uh, remember we had- uh- plans? Your big party at the tower! and then you and me were going to catch a movie afterward? I don’t… I mean, obviously, you’ve got other plans, and that’s fine, I don’t mind, honestly,” Tony assured him, blustering around back and forth between his two feet and generally looking like he’d rather be anywhere else than in Steve’s room.

As soon as Tony had begun speaking, Steve realised he was right. Shit. He hadn’t been paying too much attention to the dates when Tony had spoken about it- too busy having a little crisis over the fact that Tony had pretty much asked him out to notice about the when and where of it all.


“I…” Steve stumbled, trying to think of what to say to try and fix this, to try and not be such a stupid fucking idiot, “I’m really sorry, I forgot completely-”

Oh, fuck, that just made Tony look even more sad. Steve was pretty sure if he looked any more upset he’d make Steve start crying through fucking exposure.

“No, wait, I didn’t mean it like that,” he said quickly, grabbing Tony’s forearm desperately, “I was just… God, I just need to leave for a week. Okay?”


Steve winced. “I just… have to, okay, but we can do it when I get back! I-”

“Steve, if you don’t want to, and you’d rather be alone, that’s absolutely fine,” Tony said, giving him a sad smile as he began backing away, “you go, uh, do your thing. Have fun, be merry, it’s your birthday, you deserv-”

“I can’t handle the fireworks,” Steve blurted, and then immediately balked.

Shit. Shit shit fuck shit fuck fuck shit, he shouldn’t have told Tony that. He’d made sure not to let anyone know that, God dammit, it was so fucking stupid-

“What?” Tony asked blankly.

“Nothing,” Steve jumped in immediately, desperately trying to quell the sickening shame in his gut and the red on his cheeks as he put an arm on Tony’s shoulder and started pushing again, more forceful this time, “listen, Tony, I’ve really got to get back to-”

“You can’t handle fireworks?” Tony asked again, and shit, it didn’t seem like he had missed that like Steve had hoped.

Steve stopped. Sighed. Let go of Tony’s arm and turned away. “uh, yeah- no, I can’t. It’s a thing, I don’t know, I just… I’m fine, I’m just gonna… head out to the country for a week or so, because, y’know,” Steve gestured vaguely to himself, “4th of July and all.”

“Lots and lots of fireworks,” Tony said slowly, eyes widening a little in understanding. “Right.”

They stood in silence for a moment, before Tony opened his mouth again. Steve, however, got in first.

“Please don’t, Tony,” he said, shaking his head, “whatever you’re about to say, I don’t… just leave it. I’m fine.”

“But it’s your birthday,” Tony said weakly, “don’t you want to… I don’t know, celebrate that?”

“Maybe in a world where I’d never gone to goddamn war, yeah,” Steve snapped angrily, “I would love to get through one fucking birthday without screaming, y’know, would be swell, but unlucky for me, life doesn’t agree. So sorry I’m not gonna be present this week, but believe me, it’s for the best.”

He was fucking tired. What the fuck was it with people setting off fireworks a week in advance to the fucking celebration? It made no fucking sense and Steve was sick of coming back to himself after a minute of sheer panic and realizing he’d crawled under his fucking bed to stop the non-existent shrapnel burying itself in his skull-

Tony said something, but it was white noise to Steve, and he’d marched out of the room before any of it could sink in anyway.

It was 4am. Everyone was asleep. No one would notice him slipping out, and he’d left his note for them in the morning. Turns out it was easier to explain his absence on paper than it was face to face.

“Steve! Just wait a second!”

God fucking dammit.

Wearily, he turned again, watching Tony hurry toward him, jumping down the stairs two at a time in his ratty jeans and faded band tshirt. “What do you want, Tony?” He asked.

Tony stopped moving once he got to Steve’s side and grabbed his hand excitedly. “Listen- I’m going to propose something awesome to you that you really should have thought of before deciding it was best to fuck off into the middle of nowhere on your own, but whatever, I won’t hold it to you, I am a genius-”


“Right, yes, yes, okay,” Tony paused, and took a breath before looking Steve in the eye. “Let me come with you?”

Steve stopped. That was… certainly an idea. Bad or good, Steve wasn’t too sure.

“ I know you might think it’s weird and forward or whatever, but a) fuck the stereotypes, just as a matter of principle more than anything, and b)-” Tony’s hand tightened briefly around Steve’s as he shrugged in an attempt at nonchalance that, in Steve’s opinion, didn’t work out for him very well, “you shouldn’t be alone on your birthday, Steve. That just sucks. You… you deserve better than that. You deserve someone to be there with you.” He shrugged again, biting his lip, “and I know I’m not like, y’know, this Special Thing or whatever, and really you should have someone better here for you, but at the moment everyone else is asleep and-”

Tony was cut off as Steve laid his hand across Tony’s moving mouth, effectively silencing the fast-derailing thought process. He couldn’t help but chuckle a little as he watched Tony just stand there, Steve’s hand over his mouth, not knowing quite what to do.

It was honestly more than a little adorable.

“That would be… nice,” Steve admitted softly, “but Tony- it’s really late, and you have work, and I don’t want to inconvenience you-”

Tony scoffed, removing Steve’s hand to speak. “Believe me, this would be my pleasure. I’m pretty sure Fury’s out for my head this week anyway, so I need somewhere to lay low. Don’t sweat it, Rogers, I’ve got it all sorted.”

Steve looked at him for a moment; watched the way his gaze flickered briefly from Steve’s eyes to his mouth and then back up, or the way his heart was beating just that little bit faster than normal through the pulse in his wrist.

“Sure, Tony- come along for the ride,” Steve said with a smile and a fond roll of his eyes.

Tony positively beamed, and then held up a finger as he rushed over to the kitchen counter, where he pulled out a bag of his own and then hurried back to Steve’s side, still grinning.

“You were confident, then,” Steve said dryly, eyeing the bag full of stuff.

Tony raised his eyebrows. “I am very persuasive. I hedged my bets.”

Steve just huffed and hid a smile behind his hand as he pulled Tony into the elevator with him, feeling the all-too-familiar sensation of butterflies in his stomach as Tony smiled up at him.

The sky was beautifully clear, and the place was utterly, utterly silent.

Well. Apart from Tony. Of course.

Don’t you think it’s so incredible? Literally, Steve, look at them. Look at those insignificant, stupid little dots in the sky. They created every atom in your body. Every atom on this planet. Each atom in the visible universe. And they’re up there. We’re looking at…creation,” Tony gushed, hands waving through the air as they pointed at random objects in the sky.

They were both sat on the grass outside the tiny barn Steve had rented, a blanket under their backs as they stared up into the blissfully clear skies.

The stars hadn’t changed. That was all the same, at least. It was comforting.

“-and, I mean, there’s so much we don’t know yet, and probably never will. It frustrates the damn hell out of me. I hate not knowing stuff. Main reason I never pursued astronomy or theoretical physics. Theoretical physics, Steve- a whole branch of science dedicated to not knowing things,” Tony shuddered, and Steve felt it reverberate through his shoulder, “Good lord, the horror.”

Steve just smiled and nodded along, listening as Tony explained how stars were made and something about dark matter. Steve didn’t really follow it. He was more interested in how Tony’s hands moved, and the way the moonlight illuminated each curve and crease in Tony’s face, and the fact that he hadn’t thought about bombs even once since this trip-

“Thank you,” he whispered suddenly, cutting through Tony’s speech more effectively with those two quietly spoken words than Fury could in a direct scream.

There was silence as Tony paused, and turned his head to look over at Steve. He opened his mouth, undoubtedly to ask ‘what for’ before he caught on and nodded in understanding.

He didn’t say anything. Just grabbed Steve’s hand and linked their fingers together. 

Closing his eyes and once more reveling in the silence and lack of terrifyingly familiar hisses or whines that had always haunted his birthday before, he brought Tony’s hand to his lips and kissed the knuckles there.

Steve heard Tony exhale ever so slightly, and felt with amusement as his pulse suddenly spiked. Neither of them said anything, but Tony shifted a little after a few moments; shuffling closer until his body pressed against Steve’s. 

“Happy birthday, Steve,” Tony said softly, his head falling against Steve’s chest.

It was soft and silent and perfect, and Steve let his spare hand trail aimlessly over the soft curls of Tony’s hair as they lay there on the thick grass in the dead of night. Honestly, they probably needed to talk about a few things that had changed tonight.

But for now, Steve was just going to enjoy the stars above him and Tony beside him and the fact that the world appeared to have stopped, just for tonight- just for him.

sweebs  asked:

I saw that gif of cats floating in 0 g, and I was wondering, would it be ethical to bring a pet along on a spaceship if they couldn't walk normally? Would it be possible if the animal was raised in 0 g or would it be too difficult to train it and to give it enough exercise (like how astronauts have a workout schedule so their muscles don't atrophy, could you make workout machines for a pet?) I know it would probably cost a bunch of money, but... theoretically

Questions like this make me so glad that this is something I get paid to do. 

I think that taking an earth-raised cat into 0g would be pretty stressful for it, since everything it has known about gravity and locomotion it’s entire life would no longer apply. Even if it wasn’t hurting itself, and even if it might eventually adjust, that’s a pretty huge change to the fundamentals of existing. In theory, I think an animal raised from birth in 0g would probably be fine (in terms of stress) because it would adapt as a baby and not know anything else. 

There’s obviously a whole bunch of issues with this - you couldn’t raise a kitten in 0g without a parent, who would be stressed, and you’d still have to figure out a way to make sure they gained appropriate bone density - but in theory, it shouldn’t be to stressful. I don’t know how you’d deal with bone density issues, since it’s mostly gained early in life and I’m not sure if we’ve even solved that issues with having humans potentially give birth in space, but you could probably train a cat to use an exercise machine without too much fuss, especially if you did it from birth and it was just part of the daily routine. 

An interesting note, there, though, is that we do that sort of training for astronauts because they have to go back to earth. If we’re trying to think of the most humane way to have an animal in space as a pet, you’d probably want one that would be born in space and stay in space, because traveling is a whole ton of stress. So that raises the question of what type of muscle conditioning or bone density would be appropriate / needed for an animal that isn’t ever going to live on a planet? I feel like they’d still have certain physical needs for survival, but they might not be the same as for one that’s intended to return to terra firma - that’s probably an entire new branch of science! 

I’m well aware the topic is a pretty thorny one, so I had a look around the Internet (and in my old textbook) and tried to come up with an easy guide to guess the gender of Italian nouns. Very quick and basic, but I hope it’ll help somebody!

In Italian, all nouns are either masculine or feminine. You can usually deduce the gender of a noun from its ending.
If we’re talking people or animals, it’s pretty simple: to a male being will correspond a masculine noun, and to a female a feminine one.
Things start to get messy when inanimate objects are involved; here are a couple of tips to correctly guess their gender.

Focusing on the ending:


  • nouns ending in -o: il cielo (sky), il miracolo (miracle)…

Exceptions: very few, such as l'eco (=la eco, echo) or la mano, or shortened forms like la foto (=la fotografia, photo) and l'auto (=la auto =la automobile, car)

  • nouns ending in a consonant, often of foreign origin: lo sport, il bar, il test…

Exceptions: many. La band, la leadership, la gang…


  • nouns ending in -a: la barca (boat), la camicia (shirt)…

Exceptions: various nouns coming from Greek and ending in -ma are actually masculine. Il dramma (drama), il problema (problem), il diploma

Also, there are nouns that apply to both genders: il/la chitarrista (guitar player), lo/la artista (artist)…

  • nouns ending in -i, usually of Greek origin: la crisi (crisis), l'analisi (analysis), la sintesi (synthesis)…

Exceptions: il brindisi (toast), il safari...

  • nouns ending in -tà or -tù: la pietà (mercy), la virtù (virtue)…

Exceptions: words not coming from Latin can be masculine: il tutù (tutu).


  • nouns ending in -e: il dente (tooth), il sapone (soap), BUT la prigione (prison), la canzone (song)

Watch out! If the -e is part of certain classes of suffixes (such as -ite or -zione for feminine, or -tore for masculine) it’s easier to determine the gender of the noun!

Focusing on the meaning


  • trees: il melo (apple tree), il pero (pear tree), il pioppo (poplar)…

Exceptions: La palma (palm tree), la vite (grapevine)…

  • metals, elements, chemical compounds: l(o)‘ossigeno (oxygen), il ferro (iron)…

Exceptions: l(a)'anidride (anhydride)…

  • months, cardinal points and days of the week (except for Sunday=la domenica): il lunedì (Monday), il Nord, l'Ovest (West)…
  • mountains, seas, rivers, lakes: l(o)'Everest, il Monte Bianco, il Tevere (Tiber), il Po

Exceptions: le Dolomiti (Dolomites), la Senna (Seine), la Loira (Loire)…


  • fruit: mela (apple), arancia (orange), pesca (peach)…

Exceptions: il mandarino (tangerine), il kiwi, l'avocado…

  • cities, islands, regions, countries, continents: l(a)'Italia, la Spagna (Spain), la Norvegia (Norway)…

Exceptions: maaaany. L(=lo)'Egitto (Egypt), il Messico (Mexico), gli Stati Uniti (USA)…

  • sciences, branches of knowledge, abstract notions: la chimica (chemistry), la giustizia (justice)…

Exceptions: l(o)'amore (love)…

As you might have noticed, the morphological criterion (=ending) seems to win over the one concerning the meaning.
Thus, for example, Messico is a country, but it ends in -o so it’ll be masculine instead of feminine.

German Philosophy ask!

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz : What is the integral part of your personality?

Immanuel Kant : How honest are you?

Critique of Pure Reason : Do people find you boring?

a Priori : Are you a fast learner?

a Posteriori : What is the field you are most knowledgeable about?

Synthetic a Posteriori : Do you like to disappear from people’s lives?

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel : Does your speech get incomprehensible at times

Phenomenology of the Spirit : How much of an enigma are you?

Young Hegelians : Are you a rebel?

Old Hegelians : Or do you like to keep things in order?

Arthur Schopenhauer : Do you like to isolate yourself?

The World as Will and Representation : Do you feel like the world is working against you?

On the Suffering of the World : How do you deal with your pains?

The Sublime : Would you like to just leave the world and disappear?

Friedrich Nietzsche : Are you the sore thumb?

Übermensch : Do you work hard?

Thus Spoke Zarathustra : If you had the ability to change one, and ONLY ONE thing in the minds of others, what would you change?

Human, All Too Human : Are you alienated?

Schopenhauer as an Educator : Favorite teacher?

Karl Marx : Do you believe in change?

The Communist Manifesto : Left or Right? Or neither?

Das Kapital : Can you manage your money well?

Max Stirner : Are you selfish?

The Ego and its Own : Would you fight for what is yours, even if it was one-sided against you?

Gottlob Frege : How are you with maths?

Rudolf Carnap : Would you try first, think later, or think first, try later?

Ludwig Wittgenstein : Did you finish something grand?

Tractatus Philoso-Logicus : How many languages do you know?

The Beetle : Objective or Subjective?

Karl Popper : Favorite branch of science?

branches of biology → botany

the science of plant life and a branch of biology. A botanist or plant scientist is a scientist who specialises in this field. The term “botany” comes from the Ancient Greek word βοτάνη (botanē) meaning “pasture”, “grass”, or “fodder”; βοτάνη is in turn derived from βόσκειν (boskein), “to feed” or “to graze”.

Orphan Black creator promises more flashbacks in final season

Last season of Orphan Black saw everything coming full circle. Through the heavy use of flashbacks, characters galore were brought back from the dead, including the clone that set Sarah off on her journey — Beth Childs. According to show co-creator Graeme Manson, you can expect the flashbacks to continue in the fifth and final season, which kicks off June 10 on BBC America. And that’s just one of the juicy teases he shared with us about the clone drama’s final run of episodes. Read on for more.

ENTERTAINMENT WEEKLY: So are we going to be meeting any new clones this season or is this more about wrapping up the story for the sestras we have?
GRAEME MANSON: Well, I think that the heart of the story is wrapping up our sisters, and we really felt that Tatiana [Maslany] has played, I think, 116 characters since this show started. So, we’re like, let’s concentrate on those 116 and then wrap that up, and then perhaps there might be a little squeak of room for one more clone.

You do have a few new characters though. What can you say about them?
Well, we have scaled our conspiracy. We are at the top of the pyramid ready to punch it in the eye. We met at the end of the last season our big bad— who’s sort of at the top of Neolution — P.T. Westmoreland. This is a man that we have believed has been dead for a hundred years or something. Lo and behold we are introduced to him at the end of the last season as actually still alive. This would make him the oldest man in the world and the most evil man in the world. This is part of what we do each year is we pick a new branch of science to kind of hang our story around and this year we’re looking at the science of prolongevity, which is quite timely.

What is the mission for the clones this season as we’re heading towards the big finale?
I think this season is really about freedom. It’s the final season and the clone sisters have to be all-in. Cosima is all-in to find a cure, to find her own cure, and the cure for the sisters. Sarah’s all-in, fighting and scrapping for everybody’s freedom. Helena’s all-in because she’s eight and a half months pregnant when we start. So if you take some stakes like that, it’s a very high-stakes season and it revolves around Helena’s pregnancy. It also revolves around Kira — we’re really going to get to the bottom of Sarah’s daughter this year. So, it’s a year with a lot of the usual Orphan Black hijinks, but also, it’s a very, very, very important year for the relationship and the bonding and the freedom to move forward for the sisters.

You really humanized Rachel for us over the past few seasons by showing us her backstory, but then just when we want to like her, you have her start stabbing people. Is the Rachel vs. Sarah dynamic back in full effect for season 5?
Sarah’s arch nemesis Rachel is back right in front of her, and this happens really early in the season. But I will say that Rachel has a surprising character arc this season, despite the fact that she is the big bad and that she really wrestles to finally get the sisters under her thumb at the start of the season, where Rachel ends up is really not where you might think.

You all did a great job last season of bringing back a lot of people we had not seen in a long time — obviously with Beth but a lot of old faces as well through flashbacks and what have you. Any surprises like that we can expect in season 5?
We really enjoyed opening that can of worms last year. It’s not easy, but it’s really a great thing for the fans to be able to go back into a flashback and learn something new about these characters that we spent so many seasons with now. So, we sort of pressed ahead with something similar this year. We figured in our final season what you really want to do is you want to take a look at these girls, and maybe just sort of ask how far have they come, where were they before?

So, we took a few episodes these seasons to create some character-focused episodes — so Cosima, Sarah, Rachel, Helena, Alison, they each sort of get their own character-focused episode, and those episodes are going to use flashbacks to open up their backstory, and tell us something new about these girls that we think we know so well.



12/04/17: {26 days} From physical to biological chemistry. I wanted to post something earlier in the day but I actually lost track of time as I was doing work and actually not procrastinating for once. So unfortunately the lighting here is awful 🙃 ft Michelle Branch and purple paper again.

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anonymous asked:

aqours fav subjects at school?

  • Dia: Dia prefers literature-based classes, simply for the analytical aspect. She loves to critique and pick apart whatever works she can find, and never hesitates to point something out in class.
  • Mari: Mari prefers the arts, specifically chorus. She believes it to be a great outlet for energy, and thinks it’s great that she can learn and still be entertained!
  • Kanan: Kanan loves science! She likes to learn about nature (and the ocean life) specifically, but she also just likes to find out how things work. Astronomy is also among her favorite branches of science!
  • Riko: Riko likes home economics, but mostly the parts where they cook. She likes broadening her horizons when it comes to dishes since she considers her taste rather boring, so learning about new palettes is very interesting to her.
  • Chika: Like Kanan, Chika likes science, but she likes experiments more. Days in the laboratory are a day well-spent, and she tries everything the teacher will let her get away with, just to see what will happen.
  • You: You loves physical education classes! She’s an ace at just about every sport they play, and her massive amounts of energy make for a fun time. 
  • Yoshiko: Yoshiko prefers math. She feels like her bad luck tends to take over in every other part of her life, but math comes pretty easily to her when there’s not a lot of interpretation. Of course, her calculator tends to malfunction every now and then…
  • Hanamaru: Hanamaru, like Dia, likes literature-based classes, but it’s less about analyzing the content, and more about getting carried away in the book. Reading about fictional universes (for academics or not) is one of her favorite things!
  • Ruby: Ruby likes art classes, simply because she can create without much pressure. She doesn’t think she’s too good at drawing or anything like that, but imagination comes fairly easily to her.