brain tissue

Can the brain feel it? The world’s smallest extracellular needle-electrodes

A research team in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering and the Electronics-Inspired Interdisciplinary Research Institute (EIIRIS) at Toyohashi University of Technology developed 5-μm-diameter needle-electrodes on 1 mm × 1 mm block modules. This tiny needle may help solve the mysteries of the brain and facilitate the development of a brain-machine interface. The research results were reported in Scientific Reports
on Oct 25, 2016.

(Image caption: Extracellular needle-electrode with a diameter of 5 μm mounted on a connector)

The neuron networks in the human brain are extremely complex. Microfabricated silicon needle-electrode devices were expected to be an innovation that would be able to record and analyze the electrical activities of the microscale neuronal circuits in the brain.

However, smaller needle technologies (e.g., needle diameter < 10 μm) are necessary to reduce damage to brain tissue. In addition to the needle geometry, the device substrate should be minimized not only to reduce the total amount of damage to tissue but also to enhance the accessibility of the
electrode in the brain. Thus, these electrode technologies will realize new experimental neurophysiological concepts.

A research team in the Department of Electrical and Electronic Information Engineering and the EIIRIS at Toyohashi University of Technology developed 5-
μm-diameter needle-electrodes on 1 mm × 1 mm block modules.

The individual microneedles are fabricated on the block modules, which are small enough to use in the narrow spaces present in brain tissue; as demonstrated in the recording using mouse cerebrum cortices. In addition, the block module remarkably improves the design variability in the packaging, offering numerous in vivo recording applications.

“We demonstrated the high design variability in the packaging of our electrode device, and in vivo neuronal recordings were performed by simply placing the device on a mouse’s brain. We were very surprised that high quality signals of a single unit were stably recorded over a long period using the 5-μm-diameter needle,” explained the first author, Assistant Professor Hirohito Sawahata, and co-author, researcher Shota Yamagiwa.

The leader of the research team, Associate Professor Takeshi Kawano said: “Our silicon needle technology offers low invasive neuronal recordings and provides novel methodologies for electrophysiology; therefore, it has the potential to enhance experimental neuroscience.” He added, “We expect the development of applications to solve the mysteries of the brain and the development of brain–machine interfaces.”

A typical neuron makes about ten thousand connections to neighboring neurons. Given the billions of neurons, this means there are as many connections in a single cubic centimeter of brain tissue as there are stars in the Milky Way galaxy.
—  Dr. Carl Sagan (1934 - 1996) American Astronomer and Science Author

A rusty-brown rock found on a beach by a fossil hunter might contain a bit of preserved dinosaur brain.

If so, it would be the first time scientists have ever found fossilized brain tissue from a dinosaur.

The fossil comes from a species closely related to Iguanodon, a large herbivore that lived about 130 million years ago. A collector named Jamie Hiscocks found it in 2004, near Bexhill in the United Kingdom.

“He picked it up and noticed that it was slightly unusual in its shape and its texture,” says Alex Liu of the University of Cambridge. “There’s a series of bumps to this specimen that are quite characteristic of it fitting into the brain case of a dinosaur.”

This kind of fossil gets made when sediment fills up a dinosaur’s skull cavity and hardens. Later, if the skull breaks off and disappears, what’s left behind is a solid object that reveals the shape of the skull’s inner cavity.

Researchers Say They’ve Found A Bit Of Fossilized Dinosaur Brain

Photo: Jamie Hiscocks/University of Cambridge
Caption: This rock was found on a British beach. Some scientists believe it could contain fossilized brain tissue.

 “As I was examining and dissecting the cranium or head area I noticed that there was some hemorrhage around a hole that had been drilled into the skull and hemorrhage in a forensic sense means that an injury occurred when there was a blood pressure. When a person is injured and they’re in a postmortem state or after they’re heart stops beating, there’s not a lot of blood that gets pushed into the tissue. But the fact that there was hemorrhage around the area led me to believe that it may have been an injury that had been incurred before death. And so I examined the brain tissue and I did find that there was a wound track or a track through the brain tissue that looked hemorrhagic and so I recovered that area, photographed it and then looked at it under the microscope and what I found was that there was an inflammation in that track and so when we see inflammation that means that there was a time factor that happened between the time of obtaining the injury and the time the person died. “

“We looked at that with a neuropathologist who is an expert in brain anatomy and tissue and we made the diagnosis that this injury had been inflicted while the person was alive and that the person had survived for some time after receiving that injury.”

Medical Examiner Dr. Jeffrey Jentzen on finding the holes drilled in the skulls of Jeffrey Dahmer’s victims (The Jeffrey Dahmer Files, 2013)

PARASITIC WORMS: People of Earth, hello. We, the giant brain-eating parasites, would like to publicly apologize for taking over the body of Donald J. Trump. What started out as an innocent vacation away from our home turned, literally, into an orgy of fun – fun which we regret and could never take back. [Audience politely chuckles.] We first entered Donald in 2007, through a poorly cooked piece of Trump Steak – Trump Steaks are the origin country of our people – where we were conceived. And for that, we thank Donald. Please buy Trump Steaks.

Worms shuffle in Trump’s body. He is visibly uncomfortable. Audience laughs and claps.

PARASITIC WORMS: When we first nested inside of Donald, it was all innocent fun – pressing various lobes, allowing our children to occasionally nibble on his brain tissue, and having lots of parasitic worm sex wherever we could, leaving trails of parasite semen all over the place. 2007 was a crazy time, and I guess we never left because we … we fell in love.

AUDIENCE: AWWWWW.

One of the guards sobs silently. He is patted on the back by other guards, and quickly stands up sniffling. Giuliani is seen on the verge of tears – or maybe it’s from all the dead-eyed staring. Trump’s little hands form into even littler fists.

An Apology From Donald Trump’s Parasitic Brain-Worms

Chyna’s brain is donated to science

According to her manager, the brain of former WWE star Chyna has been donated to CTE for research. Her brain has been given to researcher Dr. Bennet Omalu to see weather or not there were any effects of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE, which is believed to be caused by repeated blows to the head, can be diagnosed only after death via an examination of brain tissue.

anonymous asked:

A headcanon of mine is that Jack is there, but due to the virus affecting his brain so severely, he's basically had his memory wiped and he's reduced to basic survival skills. But his memory can be redeemed, there's a decent amount of brain tissue that has survived that allows him to function.

OMG IM YELLING !! I want so much to give my thoughts on this hc but if I do then it’ll give too much away!!!!!!!!!!

Avocados are a pregnancy superfood, They offer nearly 20 essential nutrients, including folic acid, which promotes brain, tissue, and nervous-system growth in your baby. Avocados are packed with potassium, which can prevent pregnancy leg cramps. And they’re free of sodium and cholesterol.

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So there’s a hashtag going around Twitter right now called #disabledandcute and I wanted to do it here for Tumblr too.

So hi I’m Alex. I have anxiety and depression and I’m on the autistic spectrum and I also have fine motor skill problems thanks to being born with an excess mass of brain tissue pushing against the back of my head.

I’ve been worrying since before I posted it yesterday that I’m neither disabled nor cute enough to qualify since most of my disabilities are more mental than physical and also because I’m not that cute overall but representation is good and important and I want to be a part of that and be like “Hey, I have disabilities”.

Your brain does not feel pain because there are no nociceptors (sensory neuron that processes pain and harmful stimuli) located in brain tissue. This feature explains why neurosurgeons can operate on brain tissue without causing a patient discomfort, and, in some cases, can even perform surgery while the patient is awake.