brain revealed

Just thinking about how it’s cool that our brains can process information instantaneously then it occurred to me that a measure of time we consider “instantaneous” may only seem instantaneous because that’s the limit of how quickly our brains can process information.

Need a better way to phrase this but our brains only seem super fast because the speed they run is literally the fastest thing we brain-dependent organisms can comprehend.

To a faster system, a second may seem excruciatingly long, and we humans appear to be stuck making dial-up noises for most of this excruciatingly long existence.

Messed Up
  • Danny, yelling: This isn't fair! I- I never meant to- to make everything so MESSY! I didn't- I didn't mean for this to happen!
  • Danny, falling to his knees, crying: I... I didn't... Mean for this... I never- never meant to make it such a mess...
  • Danny, eyes glowing a sorrowful green: I never meant to go this far... I- I never meant to...
  • Danny, brokenly: I'm so sorry... I- I'm so, so sorry... I'm sorry...
3

WAIT! Why are Michaela and Ororo suddenly unconscious on a beach? They were living in Saaqartoq and barely knew each other! Where are they now? What’s going on? And how the hell did Michaela keep her Aviators on if she was just washed up on a deserted island?! There is no continuity here! WHAT’S GOING ON?!!

Unsolved Paleo Mysteries Month #10 – Ambiguous Amiskwia

Amiskwia was a tiny soft-bodied creature from the Middle Cambrian, known from a fairly small number of fossils – about 18 specimens from the Burgess Shale in Canada (505 mya) and an additional one from the Maotianshan Shales in China (515 mya).

Despite only measuring about 2.5cm long (1”), it was one of the larger animals alive at the time. Its body features a head with two tentacles and a small mouth, a pair of stubby fins, and a flattened paddle-shaped tail, suggesting it was an active swimmer. Its internal anatomy has been well-preserved in some specimens, revealing a brain, gut, and traces of what may be blood vessels and a nerve cord.

But we don’t know what type of animal it is. At all.

It was initially thought to be an early arrow worm. However, fossils of Cambrian representatives of that group have since been found, and Amiskwia lacks their characteristic spines and teeth. A relationship to ribbon worms or molluscs has also been suggested, but these hypotheses have the same problems with missing key features.

So, for now, Amiskwia remains one of the “weird wonders” of the Cambrian Explosion with no obvious affinities to any other known group.

cassbel5  asked:

1/2 I'm trying to write something and I keep going back to the tension appearing intermittently between Sherlock and Molly in S3 and S4? I wonder what you think about it. It doesn’t seem to be only about the drugs and its onset did seem to coincide with the end of her engagement and the two of them becoming closer. I watched TAB again recently and the obvious tension between Hooper and Holmes disappeared not when any drug issue was resolved but when Sherlock’s mind finally saw Molly as a

I like where you’re heading here.  :D  Both as a shipper and narratively - the tension between Sherlock & Molly is certainly ripe for headcanon and interpretation.  Sadly, there’s really not much in the text to point to any one conclusion (that I can think of in my just-woke-up-addled brain) but that makes the idea all the more fun to explore creatively. 

Your point about TAB is a compelling one - the tension in the drug testing/Slap Heard Round the Lab and Hooper’s Morgue is palpable - but Sherlock’s brain “revealing” Hooper as Molly is not the only time his mind has steered him in this direction.  Even after the confrontation in the lab, Sherlock has Molly in his Mind Palace - helpful, gentle, straightforward - telling him which way to fall.  Molly in his mind has always eased his tension, has always been the one he’s gone to when he’s in danger.  With MP John telling him to let himself “go”, and then revealing Molly as a woman, it’s pretty clear what his subconscious is telling him to do.  Sherlock’s frustration/awkwardness/inability to act on that could be a huge source of the tension between them.

When TST opens, they’re back on good terms, with Molly again cheerfully steering him where he needs to go.  I wish we could have seen their reconciliation, but that’s what fic is for, right? (she asked hopefully ;D )

forbes.com
Scientists Scramble To Discover More About A Disorder That's Haunted People For Generations

This disorder is called “Misophonia” 

“Scientists all over the world are scrambling to find out what causes it, how to treat it and really just to identify it. But that doesn’t mean it’s something new. Many seniors have suffered in silence for decades.

Ask Michael Lawrence, 65, who has suffered from a sensitivity to certain sounds since he was six. Or better yet, ask him about his mother who died at the age of 93, after having drunk much of her life away to escape the sounds that haunted her.

Scientists have dubbed it misophonia. Literally meaning “hatred of sound,” the word is derived from the Greek words miso, “hate,” and phon, “sound.” It is also known as Selective Sound Sensitivity.”


…..”Researchers at Newcastle found the “first evidence of clear changes in the structure of the brain’s frontal lobe in sufferers of misophonia and also report changes in the brain activity.”

“Brain imaging revealed that people with the condition have an abnormality in the emotional control mechanism which causes their brains to go into overdrive on hearing trigger sounds,” A Newcastle University press release reported in February. “Researchers also found brain activity originated from a different connectivity pattern to the frontal lobe. This is normally responsible for suppressing the abnormal reaction to sounds. The researchers also found that trigger sounds evoked a heightened physiological response with increased heart rate and sweating in people with misophonia.”


x

me:

my brain: Lena Luthor is revealing a #Supergirl statue Lena Luthor is revealing a #Supergirl statue Lena Luthor is revealing a #Supergirl statue Lena Luthor is revealing a #Supergirl statue Lena Luthor is revealing a #Supergirl statue Lena Luthor is revealing a #Supergirl statue Lena Luthor is revealing a #Supergirl statue Lena Luthor is revealing a #Supergirl statue Lena Luthor is revealing a #Supergirl statue Lena Luthor is revealing a #Supergirl statue Lena Luthor is revealing a #Supergirl statue Lena L

Estrogen Alters Memory Circuit Function in Women with Gene Variant

Fluctuations in estrogen can trigger atypical functioning in a key brain memory circuit in women with a common version of a gene, NIMH scientists have discovered. Brain scans revealed altered circuit activity linked to changes in the sex hormone in women with the gene variant while they performed a working memory task.

(Image caption: Both PET scans (left) and fMRI scans (right) showed the same atypical activation (yellow) in the brain’s memory hub, or hippocampus, in response to estrogen in women performing a working memory task – if they carried a uniquely human version of the BDNF gene. Activity in this area is typically suppressed during working memory. Picture shows PET and fMRI data superimposed over anatomical MRI image)

The findings may help to explain individual differences in menstrual cycle and reproductive-related mental disorders linked to fluctuations in the hormone. They may also shed light on mechanisms underlying sex-related differences in onset, severity, and course of mood and anxiety disorders and schizophrenia. The gene-by-hormone interaction’s effect on circuit function was found only with one of two versions of the gene that occurs in about a fourth of white women.

Drs. Karen Berman, Peter Schmidt, Shau-Ming Wei, and colleagues, of the NIMH Intramural Research Program, report on this first such demonstration in women April 18, 2017 in the journal Molecular Psychiatry.

Prior to the study, there was little evidence from research on the human brain that might account for individual differences in cognitive and behavioral effects of sex hormones. For example, why do some women develop postpartum depression and others do not – in response to the same hormone changes? Why do some women report that estrogen replacement improved their memory, whereas large studies of postmenopausal estrogen therapy show no overall improvement in memory performance?

Evidence from humans has also been lacking for the neural basis of stark sex differences in prevalence and course of mental disorders that are likely related to sex hormones. For example, why are there higher rates of mood disorders in females and higher rates of ADHD in males – or later onset of schizophrenia in females?

In seeking answers to these questions, the researchers focused on working memory, a well-researched brain function often disturbed in many of these disorders. It was known that working memory is mediated by a circuit from the brain’s executive hub, the prefrontal cortex, to its memory hub, the hippocampus. Notably, hippocampus activity is typically suppressed during working memory processing.

Following-up on a clue from experiments in mice, the NIMH team hypothesized that estrogen tweaks circuit function by interacting with a uniquely human version of the gene that codes for brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a pivotal chemical messenger operating in this circuit. To find out, the researchers experimentally manipulated estrogen levels in healthy women with one or the other version of the BDNF gene over a period of months. Researchers periodically scanned the women’s brain activity while they performed a working memory task to see any effects of the gene-hormone interaction on circuit function.

The researchers first scanned 39 women using PET (positron emission tomography) and later confirmed the results in 27 women using fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Both pegged atypical activity in the hippocampus to the interaction. Turning up the same findings using two types of neuroimaging strengthens the case for the accuracy of their observations, say the researchers. Such gene-hormone interactions affecting thinking and behavior are consistent with findings from animal studies and are suspect mechanisms conferring risk for mental illness, they add.

  • <p> <b>Depression:</b> You are worthless and no one cares about you.<p/><b>Me:</b> Well yeah, I know.<p/><b>Brain:</b> Actually, you’re wrong! People <i>do</i> care about you!<p/><b>Me:</b> Wait, what? Really?<p/><b>Brain removing mask, revealing themself as Anxiety:</b> Yeah, you see,<p/><b>Me:</b> NOohymfucKING-<p/></p>

RIVERDALE SEASON 2 THEORY: MASK OFF S2E1

FIRST OF ALL SPOILERS… POTENTIALLY, THAT IS IF I AM RIGHT IN THIS THEORY, but anyways, so what we do know about the shooter that shot Fred Andrews aka Archie’s dad, is that he was no robber, this is proven when Pop Tate owner of Pop’s Chock'lit Shoppe says that he has dealt with many robberies and this man was like an angel of death, he shot friend and took no money. Also, later in the episode, masked man kills grundy. This man obviously had an unspecified intent to kill. Anyways, Archie particularly remember’s that the shooter has GREEN EYES. Who do we know in Riverdale has green eyes? That’s right BETTY Cooper, but this was clearly a man, coincidentally, when the flashbacks were played, we saw a close up of the masked man, the eyes were in fact green and the facial structure and eye bags triggered my brain to reveal that this face almost undeniably belonged to HAL COOPER. BETTY’S FREAKING FATHER. so why would betty’s father shoot her best friend’s dad? I have not gathered enough information to give a more accurate theory to that question but I believe hal may potentially be a hitman or a full blown pschyo path because after all we did find out that the coopers are in fact related to the blossoms and they all seem to have a pattern of mental illness. (not that having a mental illness makes you crazy, it doesn’t.) Follow me for more Riverdale theories and everything Riverdale in general. Below are some images of “proof” to my theory. Pay particular attention to the eyes, the eye bags, and the facial structure of Hal Cooper and this masked man.


do you ever wonder why you don’t sleep earlier and then you realize it’s because you stay up making things like this

Creepypasta #1021: The Fourteenth Floor

Length: Long

– 

I love my school.

Ever since I was a kid, I knew I wanted to go here. In the interests of anonymity, I can’t tell you the name of the school, but I can tell you that it’s known for its prestigious academics and killer football team – and I am a huge, HUGE football fan.

I was overjoyed to be accepted. It had been my dream since I was old enough to sit on my dad’s lap while he watched the superbowl, so you can imagine how much this meant to me. As a result, I learned everything I could about the school. All of its many years of history I studied, keeping careful track of dates, names, and places. If you give me a date in history, I can tell you if something happened at my school.

But there was one thing I didn’t know. And I was unfortunate enough to find out about it first-hand.

It happened one night in the library. I had stepped into the elevator with another girl, a petite blonde sort with dark circles under her eyes that bespoke an all-night paper-writing session in progress. She was going to the eighth floor. My finger snuck out and hit the fourteenth button, and she stared at me curiously as the doors slid shut.

“The fourteenth floor, huh? What kind of books are you looking for there?”

The fourteenth floor is full of the more… obscure books in the library. Unless you’re researching a very, VERY specific topic, you’re not likely to find yourself there. Seriously, I’m pretty sure one of the books was called The History of Sweet Potatoes in Southern China.

“Oh, I’m not looking for any books. I just needed a quiet place to study.” An interesting note about our library is that the further you go up, the quieter it gets. The first floor is a pretty boisterous place, with its study areas and meeting rooms. The top floor – the fourteenth floor – is deathly quiet, so much so that you can actually hear yourself think.

The girl gave me a scandalized look as she said, “You’re not serious, are you?”

I blinked at her in confusion. “So what if I am?”

The elevator dinged as we arrived at her floor. As the doors slid open, she said, “Do yourself a favor and stay out of there. The fourteenth floor is a bad place.” And then she was gone before I could ask her what she meant.

I was thrown off a bit by the encounter – I can’t say I’d ever met a harbinger of doom before – but I quickly dismissed her warning as the numbers on the elevator climbed. She could probably tell that I was a freshman and was just messing with me, anyway. Sick hobby to have, although I saw the appeal.

By the time I hit the fourteenth floor, my mind had returned to the paper I had to write – on feminism in Japan, if you’re wondering – and I stepped onto the quiet floor with no qualms.

God, but it was quiet.

I stalked around the floor, scoping out the various study desks. I thought it was a little strange that no one else was up there. After all, the library was the number one place to study, and many students spent entire nights there under the influence of heavy coursework and inhuman amounts of caffeine. Still, the floor was dead. It was just me. I found that suited me quite nicely as I found a desk near the east window overlooking the campus.

I sat down, opened up my computer, and sighed. I had a long night of bullshitting ahead of me.

I’d been there about an hour by the time I finally looked up from my computer.

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

Olivia tbh I ship you with Tom and the reason for that is I could really see the two of you grooving together. He'd FaceTime you everyday & try to help you with uni questions even tho he doesn't know what you're working on. When he is near where u live he'd make special trips to see you and honestly he'd post on insta about you all the time but subtly with little inside jokes the two of you have and also hed love your taste in music Bc he probably listens to overplayed stuff and u know bangers

Originally posted by memeatwork

Jekyll and Hyde cells: their role in brain injury and disease revealed

New research has shown how normally helpful brain cells can turn rogue and kill off other brain cells following injury or disease.

(Image caption: Astrocytes are shedding light on neurodegeneration caused by a range of diseases)

Astrocytes have long been implicated in the pathology of a range of human neurodegenerative diseases or injuries including Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s Parkinson’s disease, brain trauma and spinal cord injury.

But how they are produced and what their roles in disease may be, has been as yet unknown. This paper provides an understanding of the mechanism involved and for the first time provides hope that a lot of these diseases may in fact be treatable.

The study, published recently in Nature and led by researchers at The University of Melbourne and Stanford University, provides deeper understanding of the functions of injured or diseased astrocytes found in the Central Nervous System (CNS) following acute injury and chronic neurodegenerative disease.

In a healthy brain, astrocytes are vital for the normal functioning of the brain - providing nutrients to support neuron viability, releasing factors that aid formation of connections between nerve cells known as synapses, as well as many other important functions.

One puzzle has been that in some circumstances the astrocytes appear to have a toxic effect on neurons, whereas in others they support neuronal viability and connectivity.

Researcher Dr Shane Liddelow from the University of Melbourne’s Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, and the Department of Neurobiology at Stanford University, said astrocytes are often characterised as ‘helper’ cells but they can also contribute to damage caused by brain injury and disease by turning toxic and kill other types of brain cells.

“These apparently opposing effects have been a puzzle for some time. By characterising two types of astrocytes this paper provides some answers to the puzzle,” he said.

“Following nerve damage, astrocytes form scar tissue that can help in the regeneration of severed fibres. But we have also discovered that under certain conditions, they can turn and become negatively reactive, causing cell death,” Dr Liddelow said

For many decades, the trauma and neurodegeneration research focus has been on neurons. Researchers are excited by the discovery of these neurotoxic reactive astrocytes, because for the first time, these findings imply that acute injuries of the retina, brain and spinal cord and chronic neurodegenerative diseases, may all be much more treatable and even reversible than first thought.

By providing new insights into the process of neurodegeneration, researchers can look at new pathways for dealing with neurological diseases and injuries, by targetting these toxic astrocytes, in addition to neurones in neuropsychiatric diseases or oligodendrocytes as for instance in multiple sclerosis.

Ultimately, there is still hope that one day it may be possible to switch back astrocytes from the “toxic” to the “helper” state, a long term target for Dr. Liddelow and colleagues.