Aphasia: The disorder that makes you lose your words
It’s hard to imagine being unable to turn thoughts into words. But, if the delicate web of language networks in your brain became disrupted by stroke, illness or trauma, you could find yourself truly at a loss for words. This disorder, called “aphasia,” can impair all aspects of communication. Approximately 1 million people in the U.S. alone suffer from aphasia, with an estimated 80,000 new cases per year. About one-third of stroke survivors suffer from aphasia, making it more prevalent than Parkinson’s disease or multiple sclerosis, yet less widely known.
There are several types of aphasia, grouped into two categories: fluent (or “receptive”) aphasia and non-fluent (or “expressive”) aphasia.
People with fluent aphasia may have normal vocal inflection, but use words that lack meaning. They have difficulty comprehending the speech of others and are frequently unable to recognize their own speech errors.
People with non-fluent aphasia, on the other hand, may have good comprehension, but will experience long hesitations between words and make grammatical errors. We all have that “tip-of-the-tongue” feeling from time to time when we can’t think of a word. But having aphasia can make it hard to name simple everyday objects. Even reading and writing can be difficult and frustrating.
It’s important to remember that aphasia does not signify a loss in intelligence. People who have aphasia know what they want to say, but can’t always get their words to come out correctly. They may unintentionally use substitutions, called “paraphasias” – switching related words, like saying dog for cat, or words that sound similar, such as house for horse. Sometimes their words may even be unrecognizable.
So, how does this language-loss happen? The human brain has two hemispheres. In most people, the left hemisphere governs language. We know this because in 1861, the physician Paul Broca studied a patient who lost the ability to use all but a single word: “tan.” During a postmortem study of that patient’s brain, Broca discovered a large lesion in the left hemisphere, now known as “Broca’s area.” Scientists today believe that Broca’s area is responsible in part for naming objects and coordinating the muscles involved in speech. Behind Broca’s area is Wernicke’s area, near the auditory cortex. That’s where the brain attaches meaning to speech sounds. Damage to Wernicke’s area impairs the brain’s ability to comprehend language. Aphasia is caused by injury to one or both of these specialized language areas.
Fortunately, there are other areas of the brain which support these language centers and can assist with communication. Even brain areas that control movement are connected to language. Our other hemisphere contributes to language too, enhancing the rhythm and intonation of our speech. These non-language areas sometimes assist people with aphasia when communication is difficult.
However, when aphasia is acquired from a stroke or brain trauma, language improvement may be achieved through speech therapy. Our brain’s ability to repair itself, known as “brain plasticity,” permits areas surrounding a brain lesion to take over some functions during the recovery process. Scientists have been conducting experiments using new forms of technology, which they believe may encourage brain plasticity in people with aphasia.
Meanwhile, many people with aphasia remain isolated, afraid that others won’t understand them or give them extra time to speak. By offering them the time and flexibility to communicate in whatever way they can, you can help open the door to language again, moving beyond the limitations of aphasia.
me, last night when I thought my best friend was abandoning me: I hate her and she’s the worst person ever and I’m never going to speak to her again so she’s knows how I feel!! my best friend, this morning: hey, wanna hang out today me, now: 💖💖💖💕💕💕❤❤😍😍😍😍✨✨❤❤💕😍😍💖💓😍💓💘💘😍💞💖💕💛💟😍💜❣💙💓💚💓💕❤😍😍💕💘😍💗 YES!!! ABSOLUTELY!! LET ME CLEAR MY SCHEDULE!!
Warnings: Swearing (guess it’s a little late for that though whoops I’ll just put that in the tags), food mention
A/N: Inspired by a debate between @botanistlester, @insanityplaysfics, and some anons on Phanfiction Catalogue about whether Dan or Phil would propose. I, um, might have been one of those anons btw (*cough* #TeamEliza *cough*). I hope this serves as an acceptable compromise.
Dan doesn’t bother to look away from the episode of Steven
Universe they’re watching, acknowledging his boyfriend only with a noncommittal
sound somewhere between a hum and a grunt. Phil’s using his ‘idea’ voice, and
as it’s barely past ten in the morning and Dan was up pacing the lounge until
nearly five, he has neither the energy nor the mental capacity to pay attention
to anything more complicated than cartoons right now. He pops another spoonful
of cereal into his mouth and hopes whatever Phil has to say is brief.
(He gets his wish).
“Marry me?” Phil says in the exact same tone he used last
week when he suggested that they go miniature golfing in the middle of a typical
I think that one of the funniest things about the “Earth is a death planet and human’s are space orcs” posts and stuff is that that’s literally a major plot point in Animorphs. Like, the aliens in the series frequently comment on how there is just an extremely excessive amount animals with unique ways to kill or maim you on the planet, and that humans, despite looking fragile and weak in comparison, are scary as shit because they’re stubborn and ruthless and refuse to stop even when any sane species would have given up ages ago. Like there are aliens described as “walking salad shooters” with bladed spikes shooting out all over their bodies, and then you find out that all of that is just so they can harvest tree bark to eat and a whole army of them can be disabled by a single skunk. It is described in loving detail all the different ways a house cat can fuck you up, and don’t even get me started on actual predators and the damage they can do when a ridiculous stubborn, reckless, and creative human brain is what’s controlling them. The alien invaders comment about how they’re going to have to basically kill off 90% of earths species once they win the war because the planet is so damn excessive about this whole ‘murder animals’ thing, and sometimes they’re even like “you know, in hindsight, this is not nearly as easy as we assumed it would be”
Ahh hello! You mentioned in a post that you theorize Sangwoo might have physical brain damage and now i'm intrigued, can u tell me more of your thoughts on that theory?
Well, there are a number of things that contribute to this theory. The main piece of evidence is Koogi’s 30k follower art of teenage Sangwoo.
Now, it’s unclear where all that blood came from. Definitely SOME of it is Sangwoo’s. You can clearly see blood dripping from his nose, mouth, and ear. Exactly what you’d expect if someone had been beaten in the head.
Judging from the placement of the rest of the blood, it’s not unlikely he’s got injuries on his scalp. The blood appears to be dripping from the top down. If that blood came from killing his parents, you’d expect it to spatter from the front of his shirt upward. So, it’s a plausible conclusion that this picture takes place right after his dad has given him a beating in the head. It’s also plausible that this has been happening regularly since he was a little kid.
A lot of people, including myself, have theorized that Sangwoo has Antisocial Personality Disorder. This diagnosis is almost cheating. The main symptoms of ASPD are: violent behavior, abusive relationships, lack of empathy, and impulsive/reckless decision-making.
In other words, about 90% of Sangwoo’s personality is a list of ASPD symptoms (the remaining 10% is sarcasm and clinginess.)
ASPD has definitely been linked with head trauma, especially trauma to the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex is the part of your brain that controls moral and future-oriented thinking. If you damage your prefrontal cortex, you start to lose the ability to tell right from wrong, or even to tell good ideas from bad ideas.
Of course, Sangwoo is functional enough that he can fake normal behavior when others are watching. But he implies in Chapter 19 that behaving like a good, law-abiding person is a continuous strain.
Sakura has the best skill and character development in the whole naruto series. the desire to save her boys was the driving force, and all she had was her brain and chakra control. no clan background, no asspull god powers, no kurama, no sharingan, no nothing. she went from a helpless little girl to a powerful, intelligent, confident medic nin with perfect evasion, observation skills, amazing strength, sannin and thus the strongest and most skilled kunoichi and best healer all around in 3-4 years. no one else managed that. Sakura is a one woman army. whether you like that or not. deal with it.
Stiles is drunk. The party slides around him in washes of color and sound– everything transient, nothing sticking. Bass thumps in his eardrums, turning his stomach. Derek appears as a blessing, half out the door before he even makes it through the foyer, but still the most solid thing Stiles has seen all night.
“I hate this,” Stiles whispers, his breath hot against Derek’s sensitive ear. “You’re the only person here worth talking to.”
“Okay,” Derek says, his hand settling solid and reassuring on Stiles’ hip. “So let’s go somewhere that isn’t here.”
“What were you even doing there?” Stiles peers at Derek curiously over the rim of his mug. The coffee isn’t quite strong enough to dissolve tooth enamel, but coupled with the brisk walk from the rave to the diner, it’s doing wonders for counteracting his buzz. “A warehouse party isn’t really your scene.”
Derek shrugs, placidly plowing his way through a mountain-high portion of chicken souvlaki. His knees keeps knocking against Stiles’ under the chipped Formica tabletop, and Stiles can’t find it in himself to pretend to mind.
“Didn’t really look like your scene, either,” Derek says, meeting Stiles’ gaze unblinkingly. His wackadoo eyes make Stiles’ head spin, and it’s easy to blame it on the booze. Bourbon, Stiles thinks admonishingly. When will you learn that bourbon is not your friend.
“It seemed like a good idea at the time,” he huffs, darting his hand across the table to snatch a few of Derek’s fries, nearly knocking a glass of water over in the process. Derek rolls his eyes heavenward with a sigh, and then rotates his plate so that the truly impressive mound of deep fried potato is facing Stilinskiwards. Stiles bites down on a victorious whoop, and grabs another handful to cram into his mouth.
Derek watches him chew happily, his ridiculous eyebrows drawn together in the expression Stiles has categorized as “exasperated but fond.” It’s much preferred to the look that Stiles used to get, which was better classified as “imminent manslaughter”.
“So, this is nice,” Stiles begins, at the same time Derek sets down his fork and says, “Scott told me about your fight.”