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Dogs can tell when you’re lying

Scientists say your dog knows better than to trust that bogus happy tone you use for bad news, according to a new study.

Scientists, led by researcher Attila Andics from Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest, found that dogs can differentiate between the way humans say words and what they actually mean. So if you call your dog a good boy, but your tone doesn’t match the words, he’s going to know you’re being dishonest.

The study found that dogs use their brains in an eerily similar way to humans.

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Zika Drug Breakthrough for Researchers at Florida State Unviersity

A team of researchers from Florida State University, Johns Hopkins University and the National Institutes of Health have found existing drug compounds that can both stop Zika from replicating in the body and from damaging the crucial fetal brain cells that lead to birth defects in newborns.

One of the drugs is already on the market as a treatment for tapeworm.

“We focused on compounds that have the shortest path to clinical use,” said FSU Professor of Biological Science Hengli Tang. “This is a first step toward a therapeutic that can stop transmission of this disease.”

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Funding: The research was supported by the National Institutes of Health, Florida State University, Emory University and the Maryland Stem Cell Research Fund. Other institutions contributing to the research are the Zhejiang University School of Medicine in China, Emory University and the Icahn School of Medicine. Emily Lee, a Florida State University graduate student working with Tang, shared the first authorship position with Assistant Professor of Biology at Emory Zhexing Wen and NIH scientist Miao Xu.

Raise your voice in support of expanding federal funding for life-saving medical research by joining the AAMC’s advocacy community.

Brain Draining

Just like any control centre – such as a busy head office – the brain needs regular cleaning to stay healthy and functioning properly. Special cells called microglia act as vigilant cleaners, constantly patrolling the brain and mopping up any debris left by dead and damaged nerve cells. This process is captured in action here: the pink blob in the centre is an unwanted nerve cell being targeted by microglia (white spidery shapes) starting the clean-up. By studying brain samples from patients with epilepsy, scientists have discovered that the microglia in these patients’ brains seem to be ‘lazy’, ignoring dead cells and letting the debris pile up. In turn, this molecular garbage triggers an immune response that makes the resulting brain injury even worse. The researchers are now developing potential drugs that can kick the sluggish cleaners back into action and boost their effectiveness, leading to new epilepsy treatments in the future.

Written by Kat Arney

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11 Things Only People Who Suppress Their Emotions Will Understand

Originally posted by reigns-karma

Some of us carry catastrophic storms in our hearts and minds wherever we go. They try to keep everything bottled in as they have trouble expressing themselves or nobody’s listening.

When they do react , they are reacting to not only the current situation but the many like it before. If two or more of these aspects relate to you then I’d suggest you start venting and seeking avenues of love and acceptance for yourself (and the safety of others).

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Study Shows That “Male” And “Female” Brains Are A Myth

Originally posted by camicosmos

A recent study proves that “all male” and “all female” brains are rare and that most people are in the middle.

Awareness about gender fluidity has been increasing in recent years as sexuality and identity are being questioned and the current wave of feminism challenges traditional gender roles and the supposed abilities of each sex.

A recent study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences further challenged the assumed differences between the sexes by studying the brains of 1,400 males and females to determine if there really are distinct differences. Find out what we discovered below:

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How Interpreters Juggle Two Languages at Once

For most of history, interpretation was mainly done consecutively, with speakers and interpreters making pauses to allow each other to speak. But after the advent of radio technology, a new simultaneous interpretation system was developed in the wake of World War II. In the simultaneous mode, interpreters instantaneously translate a speaker’s words into a microphone while he speaks, without pauses. Those in the audience can choose the language in which they want to follow.  

On the surface it all looks seamless, but behind the scenes, human interpreters work incessantly to ensure every idea gets across as intended. And that is no easy task.

It takes about two years of training for already fluent bilingual professionals to expand their vocabulary and master the skills necessary to become a conference interpreter. To get used to the unnatural task of speaking while they listen, students shadow speakers and repeat their every word exactly as heard, in the same language. In time, they begin to paraphrase what is said, making stylistic adjustments as they go. At some point a second language is introduced. Practicing in this way creates new neural pathways in the interpreter’s brain and the constant effort of reformulation gradually becomes second nature.  

Over time, and through much hard work, the interpreter masters a vast array of tricks to keep up with speed, deal with challenging terminology and handle a multitude of foreign accents. They may resort to acronyms to shorten long names, choose generic terms over specific, or refer to slides and other visual aids. They can even leave a term in the original language while they search for the most accurate equivalent.

Interpreters are also skilled at keeping aplomb in the face of chaos. Remember: they have no control over who is going to say what or how articulate the speaker will sound. A curve ball can be thrown at any time. Also, they often perform to thousands of people and in very intimidating settings, like the UN General Assembly. To keep their emotions in check, they carefully prepare for an assignment, building glossaries in advance, reading voraciously about the subject matter, and reviewing previous talks on the topic.

Finally, interpreters work in pairs. While one colleague is busy translating incoming speeches in real time, the other gives support by locating documents, looking up words and tracking down pertinent information. Because simultaneous interpretation requires intense concentration, every 30 minutes the pair switches roles. Success is heavily dependent on skillful collaboration.

From the TED-Ed Lesson How interpreters juggle two languages at once - Ewandro Magalhaes

Animation by @rewfoe