Most parents would consider it a crime to give a child ice cream for breakfast. But they might rethink allowing their kids to have a scoop of the cold, sweet treat first thing in the morning, if they knew it could make them smarter. Although an early morning sugar rush may be parents and teachers worst fears, a new study recently found eating ice cream first thing in the morning can actually be beneficial for the brain. The study, published by Kyorin University professor Yoshihiko Koga, said eating ice cream right after waking up can result in improved instances of alertness and mental performance.
“Everything we do, every thought we’ve ever had, is produced by the human brain. But exactly how it operates remains one of the biggest unsolved mysteries, and it seems the more we probe its secrets, the more surprises we find.” - Neil deGrasse Tyson
Aphasia: The disorder that makes you lose your words
It’s hard to imagine being unable to turn thoughts into words. But, if the delicate web of language networks in your brain became disrupted by stroke, illness or trauma, you could find yourself truly at a loss for words. This disorder, called “aphasia,” can impair all aspects of communication. Approximately 1 million people in the U.S. alone suffer from aphasia, with an estimated 80,000 new cases per year. About one-third of stroke survivors suffer from aphasia, making it more prevalent than Parkinson’s disease or multiple sclerosis, yet less widely known.
There are several types of aphasia, grouped into two categories: fluent (or “receptive”) aphasia and non-fluent (or “expressive”) aphasia.
People with fluent aphasia may have normal vocal inflection, but use words that lack meaning. They have difficulty comprehending the speech of others and are frequently unable to recognize their own speech errors.
People with non-fluent aphasia, on the other hand, may have good comprehension, but will experience long hesitations between words and make grammatical errors. We all have that “tip-of-the-tongue” feeling from time to time when we can’t think of a word. But having aphasia can make it hard to name simple everyday objects. Even reading and writing can be difficult and frustrating.
It’s important to remember that aphasia does not signify a loss in intelligence. People who have aphasia know what they want to say, but can’t always get their words to come out correctly. They may unintentionally use substitutions, called “paraphasias” – switching related words, like saying dog for cat, or words that sound similar, such as house for horse. Sometimes their words may even be unrecognizable.
So, how does this language-loss happen? The human brain has two hemispheres. In most people, the left hemisphere governs language. We know this because in 1861, the physician Paul Broca studied a patient who lost the ability to use all but a single word: “tan.” During a postmortem study of that patient’s brain, Broca discovered a large lesion in the left hemisphere, now known as “Broca’s area.” Scientists today believe that Broca’s area is responsible in part for naming objects and coordinating the muscles involved in speech. Behind Broca’s area is Wernicke’s area, near the auditory cortex. That’s where the brain attaches meaning to speech sounds. Damage to Wernicke’s area impairs the brain’s ability to comprehend language. Aphasia is caused by injury to one or both of these specialized language areas.
Fortunately, there are other areas of the brain which support these language centers and can assist with communication. Even brain areas that control movement are connected to language. Our other hemisphere contributes to language too, enhancing the rhythm and intonation of our speech. These non-language areas sometimes assist people with aphasia when communication is difficult.
However, when aphasia is acquired from a stroke or brain trauma, language improvement may be achieved through speech therapy. Our brain’s ability to repair itself, known as “brain plasticity,” permits areas surrounding a brain lesion to take over some functions during the recovery process. Scientists have been conducting experiments using new forms of technology, which they believe may encourage brain plasticity in people with aphasia.
Meanwhile, many people with aphasia remain isolated, afraid that others won’t understand them or give them extra time to speak. By offering them the time and flexibility to communicate in whatever way they can, you can help open the door to language again, moving beyond the limitations of aphasia.
If you’re interested in neuroscience or psychology, I’d highly reccomend any book by Oliver Sacks! I get asked a lot about books to read so you can also check out this video I made with my top 7 and this masterpost which includes websites where you can learn more!
For centuries, physicians have been fascinated by the many manifestations of migraine, and especially by the visual hallucinations or auras- similar in some ways to those induced by hallucinogenic drugs or deliria–which often precede a migraine.
Dr. Sacks describes these hallucinatory constants, and what they reveal about the working of the brain.
Awakenings is the remarkable account of a group of patients who contracted sleeping-sickness during the great epidemic just after World War I. Frozen in a decades-long sleep, these men and women were given up as hopeless until 1969, when Dr. Sacks gave them the then-new drug L-DOPA, which had an astonishing, explosive, “awakening” effect. Dr. Sacks recounts the moving case histories of these individuals, the stories of their lives, and the extraordinary transformations they underwent with treatment.
3. The Island of The Color Blind
Oliver Sacks has always been fascinated by islands, and this book is an account of his work with an isolated community of islanders born totally colorblind. He listens to these achromatopic islanders describe their colorless world in rich terms of pattern and tone, luminance and shadow.
4. Uncle Tungsten
A book about Sacks’ childood;
his discovery of biology, his departure from his childhood love of chemistry and, at age 14, a new understanding that he would become a doctor.
5. An Anthropologist on Mars
This book talks about 7 seemingly paradoxical neurological conditions: including a surgeon consumed by the compulsive tics of Tourette’s Syndrome except when he is operating; an artist who loses all sense of color in a car accident, but finds a new sensibility and creative power in black and white; and an autistic professor who has great difficulty deciphering the simplest social exchange between humans, but has built a career out of her intuitive understanding of animal behavior.
6. Seeing Voices
A journey into the world of deaf culture, and the neurological and social underpinnings of the remarkable visual language of the congenitally deaf. Sacks writes “The existence of a visual language, Sign, and the visual intelligence that goes with its acquisition, shows us that the brain is rich in potentials we would scarcely have guessed of, shows us the almost unlimited resource of the human organism when it is faced with the new and must adapt.”
Productive day today! Biology revision and I did a lot of reading 📖 today. One more class today, then I’ll try to finish my essay.
I also bought 3 new books (I already read circle, but I just borrowed it) I’m looking forward to read thinking, fast and slow, I need to finish my English lectures first😧
Hope y'all having a good day and a good time!☀️
Stores are intentionally laid out
in a disorienting way so that it takes more time to find what you’re
looking for. And the more items you walk by, the more likely you are to
make impulse buys.
2. “Charm pricing” and false promises
Grocery stores deliberately price items to make you think you’re saving money when you’re not really: There’s “charm pricing,” where an item is one or two cents below a round number (like $9.99).
3. Giant shopping carts
Those gargantuan shopping carts are intentionally designed like that
to trick your brain: When you double the size of a shopping cart,
consumers will buy 40% more, marketing consultant Martin Lindstrom told Today.
4. “Open the wallet” pricing
This technique involves
placing seemingly cheap items (a big “SALE” sign must a mean big
discount — right?) in proximity to the entrance, so you are tricked into
believing you’re starting your shopping expedition by saving money.
5. Playing music — with a slow beat
In one studyon the influence of music on consumers, published in in the journal Procedia Economics and Finance, respondents
said pleasurable music in the background increased the
likelihood they’d spend more time and money in the store — and thwarted
their negative emotions.
6. Placing dairy far from the entrance
Dairy is one of the most popular grocery categories — and you may have noticed it tends to be miles from the entrance. That’s not a coincidence. This forces the consumer to walk by more grocery items and, you
guessed it, exposes them to more opportunities to buy things they don’t
need… like an ergonomic, bacteria-free sponge.
7. Putting popular items in the center of aisles
The most popular items and brands are often placed in the middle of aisles, which forces you to walk by way more products than you otherwise would. All those extra goodies you’re exposed to on your shopping mission
increase the likelihood of an unplanned purchase. You came for the
toilet paper, but left with a plate of pitted dates. Good for your fiber
intake — bad for your budget.
8. Presenting a feast for the senses
of freshly baked bread and rotisserie chicken is a more well-known
tactic supermarkets use. When were hungry, we’re more likely to buy
more. This effect is compounded by colorful produce up front, which can
be pleasing and exciting to the eye. The combo of nice smells and pretty
colors puts us in a good — or at least better — mood, making us more
willing to make unplanned purchases.
9. Overwhelming shoppers with options
Literally tens of thousands of items are on offer in your average supermarket. And that demands a lot of decision-making. Brains scans examined
by Bangor University, Wales, reveal that we can only keep this up for
about 40 minutes, at which point we kind of get tired and give up. Once we’ve given up, we start to make emotional purchases — aka impulse buys — and this can lead to as much as 50% of purchases being unplanned.
10. Narrowing the checkout lanes
Grocery stores have also made their checkout lanes purposefully narrow.
This is so that when you’re unloading, if you suddenly realize you’ve
impulsively and regretfully thrown in a $15 small bottle of freshly
squeezed orange juice, it’s too hard to get out of the checkout lane to go and put it back. Read more