According to new research from Northwestern University, there is more than one kind of Alzheimer’s disease and relying on clinical symptoms of memory loss to diagnose Alzheimer’s may miss other forms of dementia caused by Alzheimer’s that don’t initially affect memory, but may impact language, behavior or judgement.
“These individuals are often overlooked in clinical trial designs and are missing out on opportunities to participate in clinical trials to treat Alzheimer’s,” said first study author Emily Rogalski, associate professor at Northwestern’s Cognitive Neurology and Alzheimer’s Disease Center.
How Alzheimer’s affects a patient depends on how and where it attacks the brain. A definitive diagnosis can only be achieved with an autopsy. Emerging evidence suggests an amyloid PET scan, an imaging test that tracks the presence of amyloid – an abnormal protein whose accumulation in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer’s – may be used during life to determine the likelihood of Alzheimer’s disease pathology.
Funding: The study was funded by grants DC008552 from the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, AG13854 from the National Institute on Aging, NS075075 from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, all of the National Institutes of Health.
Raise your voice in support of expanding federal funding for life-saving medical research by joining the AAMC’s advocacy community.
11 Things Only People Who Suppress Their Emotions Will Understand
Some of us carry catastrophic storms in our hearts and minds wherever we go. They try to keep everything bottled in as they have trouble expressing themselves or nobody’s listening.
When they do react , they are reacting to not only the current situation but the many like it before. If two or more of these aspects relate to you then I’d suggest you start venting and seeking avenues of love and acceptance for yourself (and the safety of others).
Recent technological and scientific advances have fuelled a neuroscientific revolution. Imaging techniques such as those shown above have given us an unprecedented view into the structure and function of our brain.
13 Impressive Psychology Tricks that Will Make Your Life Easier
Every human being is a unique universe, but psychologists who have a keen eye for details keep discovering new behavioral patterns that are believed to be rooted in our childhood and can be applied to everyone.
We decided to share these useful psychology tricks; maybe they will positively affect your communication skills and make your life easier in some way.
If you have the feeling that someone is watching you, just yawn and look around. If someone is really stalking you, he will yawn too, since yawing is highly contagious.
For most of history, interpretation was mainly done consecutively, with speakers and interpreters making pauses to allow each other to speak. But after the advent of radio technology, a new simultaneous interpretation system was developed in the wake of World War II. In the simultaneous mode, interpreters instantaneously translate a speaker’s words into a microphone while he speaks, without pauses. Those in the audience can choose the language in which they want to follow.
On the surface it all looks seamless, but behind the scenes, human interpreters work incessantly to ensure every idea gets across as intended. And that is no easy task.
It takes about two years of training for already fluent bilingual professionals to expand their vocabulary and master the skills necessary to become a conference interpreter. To get used to the unnatural task of speaking while they listen, students shadowspeakers and repeat their every word exactly as heard, in the same language. In time, they begin to paraphrase what is said, making stylistic adjustments as they go. At some point a second language is introduced. Practicing in this way creates new neural pathways in the interpreter’s brain and the constant effort of reformulation gradually becomes second nature.
Over time, and through much hard work, the interpreter masters a vast array of tricks to keep up with speed, deal with challenging terminology and handle a multitude of foreign accents. They may resort to acronyms to shorten long names, choose generic terms over specific, or refer to slides and other visual aids. They can even leave a term in the original language while they search for the most accurate equivalent.
Interpreters are also skilled at keeping aplomb in the face of chaos. Remember: they have no control over who is going to say what or how articulate the speaker will sound. A curve ball can be thrown at any time. Also, they often perform to thousands of people and in very intimidating settings, like the UN General Assembly. To keep their emotions in check, they carefully prepare for an assignment, building glossaries in advance, reading voraciously about the subject matter, and reviewing previous talks on the topic.
Finally, interpreters work in pairs. While one colleague is busy translating incoming speeches in real time, the other gives support by locating documents, looking up words and tracking down pertinent information. Because simultaneous interpretation requires intense concentration, every 30 minutes the pair switches roles. Success is heavily dependent on skillful collaboration.