I now know that to be Afro-Boricua is to be an activist and revolutionary by birth. It is not a choice: it is a birth-right that insists that your existence be acknowledged, your intelligence praised, your space respected, your voice heard, your color not questioned, your gender honored and physicality embraced.
Marta Moreno Vega in “Women Warriors of the Afro-Latina Diaspora”
The governor launched an attack on the free blacks and slaves of Puerto Rico. On this occasion, he issued the Bando Contra La Raza Negra [Decree against the (Black) Race]. This was a repressive and punitive decree that made no distinction between free Africans and slaves. It was enough merely to be a descendant of Africans to be included in the stipulations of the decree. According to Article I, any offence in which members of the African race, free or enslaved, were involved, would be tried and punished by a military court.
Article II reaffirmed the superiority before the law of the White person over the Black person when it pointed out that any African taking up arms against whites “even if the aggression were justified,” would, if he were a slave, be executed, and if free, would have his right hand cut off.
Baralt, Guillermo A.. “The Bando Contra a Raza Negra and the 1848 Slave Conspiracy in Ponce.” Slave revolts in Puerto Rico: slave conspiracies and unrest in Puerto Rico, 1795-1873. Princeton, N.J.: Markus Wiener ;, 2008. 104-105. Print.