anonymous asked:

Can you write a post explaining German cases please?

If they could be explained in one post, i’m sure we’d all have less problems lmao but i’ll try! 

1. What cases are there? 

German has four cases: Nominativ, Genitiv, Dativ und Akkusativ. (for any Latin nerds: Same as in Latin minus Ablative and Vocative.) 

2. Why are they necessary? 

Well, for once, you’ll need them if you want native speakers to understand what you’re saying. But let’s go a little deeper and compare German to English: 

In English, the meaning depends on the sentence structure. “The man bit the dog” and “The dog bit the man” have very different meanings even though both sentences use the same words - that’s because of the typical SVO-order. In English, the subject generally comes first, then some kind of verb, then the object (there are more difficult cases of course, but let’s not go into that rn). English has very little morphology, meaning that nouns/pronouns/determiners don’t inflect (a lot) depending on the case they’re in. 

In German, you can switch stuff around until you’re dizzy. “Der Hund biss den Mann” and “Den Mann biss der Hund” both mean the same, because “den” indicates that “Mann” is in the Akkusativ, thus he’s the one being bitten, no matter where you put him in the sentence. The case morphology allows a freer sentence order without leading to possible misunderstandings. 

3. So how do I know which case I need? 

This is the moment where it gets more complicated. You can associate the following questions with each case: 

  • Nominativ = Wer oder was? (Who?. The subject of a sentence is always in the nominative case.)
  • Genitiv = Wessen? (Whose?. Typically describes possession or comes as a rule after certain prepositions like “wegen” or verbs like “gedenken”.)

Okay, we can deal with that. Now on to the more difficult stuff: 

  • Dativ = Wem? 
  • Akkusativ = Wen oder was? 

To understand this, some knowledge of grammar is definitely an advantage. Consider the following sentences: 

  • I have a book. = Ich habe ein Buch. 
  • This is all well and nice. Subject (NOM), Verb, Object (AKK). 
  • In English, you would call “a book” a direct object because the verb “to have” is transitive, meaning it carries one object. “I have.” isn’t generally a full sentence and is expected to be followed by an object.

So apparently all our problems are solved with the Akkusativ/direct object. What now? 

  • I give you a book. = Ich gebe dir ein Buch. 
  • This is the critical moment. Subject (NOM), Verb, Object (DAT), Object (AKK). 
  • Suddenly we have two objects because the verb “to give” makes us expect information about what we’re giving (direct object, AKK) and to whom we’re giving it (indirect object, DAT). 
  • Such verbs are called ditransitive, meaning they can carry two objects. Just saying “I give.” leaves us wondering what you’re talking about because we’re missing key information. 
  • English, as explained above, solves this with sentence order by making the indirect object come first or by indicating it with “to” (“I give a book to you”). German solves it with inflection, putting the indirect object in a different case. 
  • That’s why things like “Ein Buch gebe ich dir” and “Dir gebe ich ein Buch” are both possible in German.
  • There are also intransitive verbs which carry either no object at all or just a dative object (“Ich antworte ihm”). 

4. How do I know which verbs carry which object(s)? 

This list will save you.  At some point (once you’ve gotten to a certain level in German), you’ll have a gut feeling about which object(s) to use just from experience. Give it some time! 

5. What about determiners and pronouns? 

I actually think this is less work because it’s one table of endings each, and once you’ve got that down you should be fine. 

side note: As a native speaker and language nerd who loves grammar, it’s hard for me to judge if this was helpful or just confusing as hell. I hope I still answered your question to some extent! If you need more help or have problems with a specific sentence, let me know and i’ll try my best! :) 

Enchanting with touch -

A lot of witchcraft seems to be focused on visualisation as a means of imbuing things with magic, energy work seems almost entirely written to suit those who can visualise images.
I am extremely tactile, I am a touchy feely person with busy hands so I decided to share how I “enchant” items.

Enchantment in my book means to take an object and make it magical, whether it be a charm, a ward, an agent of the spell itself.

Kissing things - your lips are far more sensitive than your fingers, they are also very close to your nose so you can incorporate smell into this, too. Take the item, and bring it too your lips gently, place a plush firm kiss whilst focusing on planting your into into the item.

Stroking or brushing - I have heard people try knot magic by braiding their hair, my hair is too short for this, but you could start by brushing your hair. Really smoothing it out, deeply brushing hair or even fur is a great way to transfer magic from your mind to the hands to the object, brushing is very therupeutic and could almost be a trance inducing activity. When I had hair I could sit on, it was a wonderful sensory experience to hand brush it after a wash.

You could also feel the surface of your item by smoothing it with you hands, really get to know the texture, let the magic explore the grain of the wood, the crevices in the stone or the cool touch of the metal.

Crumbling something - You could do this with breadcrumbs for kitchen magic or a bath bomb for bath magic (I wouldn’t crumble a bath bomb imo but I have heard some people prefer to do that.) Guide your intent to your hands and let it over whelm the object in your palms.

Stepping on something - This could be very destructive and great for curses.

Walking around it - Walking around an object features a lot in folk lore, perhaps you could use it to slowly build up intent and magical energy within you?

Throwing or juggling - Juggling is a great skill to learn and I can well and truly say kinetic energy is magical very powerful, throwing and catching something in the air until your satisfied is a fantastic way of enchantment, the weight as you catch it in your hand and watching it fly in the air is just fantastic.

Rubbing it to give it body heat - This is very physical, you can feel the warmth you’ve transferred to this object and its very responsive as well.

☆ how to : "when" using ~ㄹ/을 때

♡ verb stems ending in a vowel  : ~ㄹ 때
– 가다 = to go
– remove 다
– 가 - 다 = 가
– 가 + ㄹ 때 = 갈 때 = when /subject/ go

♡ verb stems ending in a consonant : ~을 때
– 먹다 = to eat
– remove 다
– 먹 - 다 = 먹
– 먹 + 을 때 = 먹을 때 = when /subject/ eat


너랑 얘기할 때 행복해요
–> i’m happy when i talk with you
너 - you (+랑 = with)
얘기하다 - to talk with someone
행복해요 (present tense of 행복하다) - to be happy

공부할 때 음악을 들어요
–> i listen to music when i study
공부하다 - to study
음악 - music (+을 - object particle)
들어요 (present tense of 듣다) - to listen

학교에 가지 않을 때 많이 자요
–> when i don’t go to school, i sleep a lot.
학교 - school (+에 - location particle)
가지 않다 - to not go
많이 - a lot
자요 (present tense of 자다) - to sleep

제 좋아하는 책을 읽을 때 초콜릿을 먹어요
–> i eat chocolate when i read my favorite book
제 좋아하는 - my favorite
책 - book (+을 - object particle)
읽다 - to read
초콜릿 - chocolate (+을)
먹어요 (present tense of 먹다) - to eat

Originally posted by nosleeptbh

Stephen King is a titan of pop culture. He makes up about 60 percent of your local Barnes & Noble, and has covered so many horror topics that most films are legally required to carry the message “Based On A Whatever By Stephen King.” As a kid who grew up gawky and un-talked-to, King novels were both a source of respite and joy for me. And with the new trailers for IT and The Dark Tower, it’s nice to see people come together to say “DAMMMNNNNN, STEPHEN KING. DUDE. IS. KILLING. IT.” Or something like that.

However, we should approach these adaptations with at least a little bit of wariness, because with Stephen King movies come the threat of Stephen King cameos. As tremendous as King’s writing career has been, his onscreen ventures are usually confusing, frequently terrible, and always unnecessary. And because of that, I feel that it’s time to document all the times that movie producers decided to remind you that Stephen King is a flesh person and not a being of pure energy that drops a book about haunted objects from the sky twice a year.

The Cocaine-Fueled Acting Cameos Of Stephen King

10 drawing prompts to help you sketch outside the box.

1) Self portrait:  In a mirror with a washable pen, trace the lines of your face (on your face), or of one particular part (an eye, your mouth, etc.) Take note of things that you discover: the placement of under-eye bags, the curves in your nose, the line of your jaw. Recreate the line-art on paper. 

2) Poses and Posture: Draw stick figures in a variety of positions- dancing, jumping, leaning backwards, sitting forwards, etc. gradually fill in the bodies of these figures using a wooden model or online guide. It’s helpful to draw a line down the centre of your figures that runs through the nose, sternum, and pelvis. If your figure is twisted or bent, the line should be too. 

3) Doodle: Draw the silhouette of something you’re good at drawing. Then, draw the biggest circle that you can without going outside the lines of that silhouette. In the remaining space around the circle, draw the biggest circles that you can. Attempt to fill the entire space with circles. Each new circle creates room for several smaller ones, and eventually you will have spaces that are too small for new circles ( using a fineliner will reduce but not eliminate this problem). If you like, colour in the circles and spaces according to the coloration of the thing you drew the silhouette of. 

4) Creativity: Using an online guide, make a rough sketch of the proportions of a human face. Include lines for the nose, mouth, eyes, ears, and eyebrows. Then, instead of drawing a human face, try to draw one as alien as possible while still following the proportions you have sketched. Pay attention to shading and details such as eyelashes, lip-wrinkles, and facial blemishes. 

5) Hands: Go through a few magazines and cut out pictures of hands in as many different positions as possible to glue into your sketchbook. Using a pencil or erasable pen, trace over the key features of each hand. Pay close attention to the width of the hand, the length, and its connection to the wrist. Try to recreate these hands beside the pictures. Don’t focus on detail, instead, focus on making the position of the hand look as natural and fluid as possible.  

6) Perspective: with a pencil, draw a large square with a dot in the centre. Draw lines between the corners of the square, crossing over the dot in the centre. Attempt to draw the room you are sitting in by first drawing the largest objects, and later filling in details. Use the lines as guidelines for perspective: things closer to the dot will be further away, things closer to the edges of the square will be closest to you. An object that starts close and gets further away will seem like it is being ‘pulled’ into the centre by the dot, and will have lines of the same angles as those you have drawn. 

7) Animals: If you have a pet, try to sketch it as quickly as possible. Focus on forms and shapes, not on detail. When it moves, sketch its new position over top of the old one. If it moves to the right, sketch it again to the right. Allow your sketches to overlap. If you do not have a pet, this would be a great excuse to watch cute cat videos on youtube. 

8) Memory: It’s dangerous to rely on memory when drawing, especially if you haven’t trained your memory to recall forms and shapes before details. Generally, what we remember most about a scene is what we see as the most unusual. This is why some people are good at drawing eyes, but unable to draw the rest of the face. For this exercise, find a photograph you like in a magazine or newspaper, and give yourself 30 seconds to study it. Try to see shapes, not objects. Instead of seeing a cup, remember the shape of the cup and its position relevant to other objects. Then, try recreate the photograph from memory. This may take several tries, don’t be afraid to ‘cheat’ if you get stuck. 

9) Abstract: allow yourself to be filled with a specific emotion. Focus on that emotion, think about how it feels, the physical effect it has on your body. Try to draw that emotion coming out of you. It may be helpful to start by drawing a self-portrait of your facial expression while feeling the emotion, and letting yourself get carried away as you draw the components of your face that are most altered by that expression. Don’t try to preserve the first things you sketch, let them be covered and obscured as you add more details. 

10) Practice: It’s always good to practice drawing objects, I find it most helpful to draw from photographs. Dedicate a page in your book to drawing objects that you feel represent you, or are otherwise close to your heart/ identity. Like music? Try drawing piano keys. Like fashion? Draw a few of your outfits draped over the bed. Try to fill the page with these drawings, making use of every inch of space available. 

Angel Boy

Cas x Reader//Smut

Warnings: NSFW, Rough Sex, Getting Caught (kind of?), Unprotected Sex, Teasing/Calling Names

Summary: You know that Castiel likes you as you’d overheard him tell the boys, but he won’t act on it. You tease him by calling him “Angel Boy”, a name he doesn’t like. Castiel decides to confront you about this, which leads to an interesting demand from you.

Author’s Note: On my last home visit I got my wisdom teeth out and read a lot of fan fiction when recovering- I noticed Cas rolling his eyes and being sassy was a trend, as well as sarcastic sex- so I was inspired to write this. 

Originally posted by love-untiltheresnoloveleft

Over the past couple of weeks, I’ve been continuously teasing Castiel. After having heard him admit to Sam and Dean a few weeks ago that he always got a weird feeling around me which he didn’t quite understand fully- to which the boys later confessed what he was describing was ‘Love’- I decided that I’d try to see where I could take this little love interest.

I’d been wearing clothes that I thought I looked especially cute or hot in whenever I knew Castiel was going to be around; I would purposefully button a few of the top buttons of my flannel so he could get a ‘good view’ of my cleavage when we were researching. I also made sure to put in lots of touch, considering that I knew Castiel wasn’t much of a ‘touchy-feely’ kind of guy; he never had many interactions with humans before meeting Sam and Dean-according to what they tell me- so he was a little more socially awkward when it came to the hugs, or handshakes. Whenever we would pass by one another I would ‘accidentally’ brush my hand against his, or reach for the same book or object when doing research in the bunker. My touch seemed to always startle him, making him seem wearier and almost electrocuted when it’d happen, even if only for a split second.

Keep reading

What an astonishing thing a book is. It’s a flat object made from a tree with flexible parts on which are imprinted lots of funny dark squiggles. But one glance at it and you’re inside the mind of another person, maybe somebody dead for thousands of years. Across the millennia, an author is speaking clearly and silently inside your head, directly to you. Writing is perhaps the greatest of human inventions, binding together people who never knew each other, citizens of distant epochs. Books break the shackles of time. A book is proof that humans are capable of working magic.
—  Carl Sagan
What an astonishing thing a book is. It’s a flat object made from a tree with flexible parts on which are imprinted lots of funny dark squiggles. But one glance at it and you’re inside the mind of another person, maybe somebody dead for thousands of years. Across the millennia, an author is speaking clearly and silently inside your head, directly to you. Writing is perhaps the greatest of human inventions, binding together people who never knew each other, citizens of distant epochs. Books break the shackles of time. A book is proof that humans are capable of working magic.
—  Carl Sagan, The Persistence of Memory
Read It, Doll


Happy 100th Birthday, Bucky

@bucky-plums-barnes proposed a little writing game to celebrate the 100th anniversary of James Buchanan Barnes. This is kink #54: Writing a smut fic to each other and reading it to them.

Join ‘100 banging kinks for Bucky’s 100th birthday’

A/N: I think I must say this is my very first smut, so some feedback would be greatly appreciated.

Warnings: smut, oral sex.

Words: 1536. 


“Hey, doll?” Bucky calls as he walks to the couch and plops down next to you, his muscular arm around your frame and pulling you closer to him. You close your book and look at the object in his hands: your notebook. Your smut notebook.

Your eyes open wide. “Where did you get that?”

“I was in my bag and I’ve never see it,” he shrugs. Then looks at you, his pupils blown and licks his lips slowly. “There are some pretty interesting things here, doll.”

“You think?”

His left hand comes to your waist. His fingers caress you through your clothing, but not even the fabric can keep the cold sensation from you.

“Mmhm,” Bucky nods. He dips his head to bury his face in your neck. His hot breath sends shivers all over your body and you let out a sigh. He places an open-mouthed kiss on the sensitive skin behind your left ear. “In fact,” his voice is low and husky, your stomach flips at the sound, “If you want,” he kisses your jaw, “We can,” he kisses the top of your neck, “Try some things,” he kisses your throat, “You wrote,” then he kisses your right shoulder. His lips decent in a wet trail to the valley between your breasts.

You hiss as his hot tongue darts out to lick a firm trail on your right breast, damn too near your nipple, but purposely keeping his distance from it. Only to drive you crazy.

“I’d love that.”

It is all you had to say before his hands travel through your body, an arm around your back and the other behind your knees. Bucky raises from the couch, a grin on his lips. You smile back and wrap your arms around his neck. He walks soundly to the bedroom, where he stops at the center and sets you down, and not letting go of you. Bucky clings to your waist, not letting your body away more than the necessary for you to talk looking into each other’s eyes. He extends his hand, asking for your notebook. You place it on his open palm.

Bucky opens the notebook, but you take it back before he can start reading.

“I’ll choose.”

He grins, his other arm circling your waist again, “Please do, doll.”

You don’t hesitate. You know exactly which smutty fanfic you want to become real.

You take your time to find the right page though, your fingers lingering on each page you touch, your tongue licking your lips that were partly open. When Bucky’s own tongue wets his lips, your knee creeps up, touching the inside of his thighs.

Bucky closes his eyes and inhales sharply. He growls, “[Y/n], have your found the page yet?”

“Humm,” you touch your fingertips with your tongue and flip to the next page, his pupils covers almost all the blue of his irises. “Here,” you hand it to him.

He detangles one hand from you, takes the notebook and reads. “He lays me down on the bed, my head rests on his pillow as he slowly removes my clothes.” Bucky smiles at you and, even though your cheeks have a little blush from the situation, you smile back. He places the notebook on the headboard.

“I have my instructions, doll. Now relax.”

Bucky gently pushes your back until your knees hit the mattress. With both hands on your back, Buck helps you lay down. He places his pillow under your head. His palms roam your skin from your jaw down your waist until he reaches your ankles, where he rests his left hand as the other reaches for the book. You sigh happily. Perhaps this wouldn’t be as uncomfortable as you initially thought.

He removes your shoes and socks, giving each foot a quick rub before setting them on the mattress again. His hands inch up to the hem of your pants, where he works on the button and slid it down your legs, his lips breathing a hot line right after his metal hand.

Bucky is on top of you, shirtless now, with his hands – cold and warm - pushing your shirt up. The sudden and constant difference of temperature draw a moan from your mouth. He uses the strong muscles in his arms to lower his torso to breathe a chuckle in your unclad lower stomach. He rises and continues his work, your raise your arms to help him.

As your bra has a frontal clasp, there is no problem. He takes if off you and tosses it over his shoulder. Bucky caresses your breasts with his fingers, his thumbs quickly massaging your hard nipples and you squirm for a moment. Once again, his palms traces your body from top to bottom, but this time, his mouth places open-mouthed kisses right after his hands. Your eyes close and you sigh again.

He reads, “Once his steel eyes focused on my naked body, his hands separate my legs and he plays like only he knows with my pussy. Doll, prepare yourself.”

You don’t have time to before he lowers himself to your center, depart your thighs with his hands, placing them on his shoulders, your knees lightly bent, and his teeth graze over your core before nipping at them. His hands stroke your smooth skin wherever it can find. He doesn’t warn you before his tongue licks a thick stripe from your opening to your clit.

His long hair tickles your lower stomach, goosebumps tingling all over your body. His tongue starts bouncing your clit, his tongue playing with it.

Your back arches and your hands grab a hold of the sheets.

“Bucky,” you whimper, breathing hard, eyes closing.

His mouth parts from you so he could say, “Read something, doll.”

You scramble through the sheets to found the notebook, opening it at a random page with a yellow sticker (which were your favorites).

His thumb goes up to my breast,” you wheeze, “his thumb finding the swollen nipple almost instantly. He keeps sucking and using his tongue on my bundle of nerves.”

His warm hand does as told, making you mumble. “James.”

He groans, “Doll, your time to read.”


Bucky reaches into the drawer in his nightstand and takes a leather-covered notebook from it. He arches one eyebrow while a sly smile dances on his lips, “You think you’re the only one who writes?”

You hurriedly get it from his hands and open. Your eyes widen. You thought you wrote a lot, but boy, does he have more written fanfics than you do.

“Choose one,” he moans, his mouth kissing down your legs.

You glance over page by page, scamming the words quickly, trying to find one that pleases you. It is so hard to choose, perhaps because they’re so good, and detailed, perhaps because you want to make them all true, and Bucky’s touches on your core with his narrow fingers are not helping you focus. At. All.

So you settle on the last one. Your eyes blurry for a second as he sucks a breath on your clit, and you squirm as his tongue spreads your wetness around you.

She moans as I squeeze her thigs with one hand as the other goes under her leg to hold her stomach. She can’t stop squirming,” you breathe, “Are you a psychic or something?”

Bucky lets out a chuckle, his hot breath tickling your folds. Your feet curl as your back arches once again. His human hand goes under your leg and his hand keeps you still by pressing firmly and gently on your stomach. His metal hand squeezes and caresses your thigh, pressing a certain spot behind your knee. The cold sensation on burning hot skin make you writhe beneath him.

He moans into you and you cry his name, intertwining your fingers into his shaggy hair, pulling at it lightly.

His tongue trails back to your clit, circling around it. Then he moves lower and thrusts into you slowly. His hands firlmy pressing your breast and thigh, his mouth devouring you… It takes no time for you to come undone. His hands travel to your hips, keeping you still as you squiggle.

When Bucky looks up, he decides he is blessed by such a vision. Your eyes are closed tightly, your hair all over the – his – pillow, your chest moving wildly as you breath hard, your breast jumping as you tremble with the overwhelming sensation his touches provide. A sheen of sweat covers your skin, mixing with his own. You are the most beautiful thing he has ever seen.

Once your climax dies down, you glance at the screen in your phone, pressing the home button to light the screen up. 00:03.

“Hey, Buck?” you call, your voice hoarse, as your fingers card his long hair.

Bucky closes his eyes and hums in acknowledgement.

“Happy birthday.”        

His smile stretches across his face, “Thank you for my present.”

“There’s plenty more coming, Sergeant.”

“Oh yeah?” he uses his arms to hover over you.

“Bucky,” you plead, opening your eyes, “Fuck me.”

If there is one thing in the world Bucky doesn’t need instructions, besides killing people, is how to make you see stars.


@macacodebanana​  @lilasiannerd​ 

In Italian, like in many languages, personal pronouns change based on their grammatical function. There are direct object (accusative/ablative) personal pronouns and indirect object (dative) personal pronouns. These two are further divided into two more categories of pronouns: stressed and unstrssed personal pronouns.

Please note: different textbooks will divide and categories these pronouns differently (i.e. saying that the Direct Object personal pronouns are mi, ti, lo, etc) in order to facilitate the process of learning.

Note: I have completely ignored reflexive pronouns.

Subject personal pronouns

  • io - I
  • tu - you
  • egli (lui), esso - he, it (m.)
  • ella (lei), essa - she, it (f.)
  • noi - we
  • voi - you (pl.)
  • essi/esse (loro) - them (m./f.), them (m.), them (f.)

* Please note that egliella, and essi are the subjects pronouns, whereas lui, lei and loro are the object pronouns (him, her, them). These can sometimes act as the subject of a sentence in every day speech, but formal and written Italian draws a sharp distinction between egli and lui and vice versa.

Direct Object personal pronouns

A Direct Object is the recipient (i.e. a person, animal or thing) of the action of a transitive verb. All transitive verbs have a direct object, e.g. mangio la mela (la mela = direct object of the verb mangiare).

  • io - me
  • tu - te
  • egli (lui), esso - lo, lui
  • ella (lei), essa - la, lei
  • noi - noi
  • voi - voi
  • essi/esse, loro - loro, li, le

Now consider these examples sentences and pay careful attention to the changes.

  1. abbiamo invitato Luca alla festa (we invited Luca to the party) > lo abbiamo invitato (we invited him)
  2. beve un succo di frutta (s/he drinks a fruit juice) > lo beve (s/he drinks it)
  3. sto leggendo dei libri (I’m reading some books) > li sto leggendo (I’m reading them)

Indirect Object personal pronouns

An Indirect Object is a pronoun used as a recipient (i.e. a person, animal or thing) of the action of a transitive verb, but is NOT the primary object, e.g. gli ho dato un libro (gli = ‘to him’ is the indirect object, un libro = ‘a book’ is the direct object). 

  • io - mi
  • tu - ti
  • egli (lui), esso - gli
  • ella (lei), essa - le / gli*
  • noi - ci
  • voi - vi
  • essi/essa, loro - loro / gli**

*gli in lieu of le is common and acceptable in informal contexts.
**gli in lieu of loro has been in use for centuries now, literary works as well, but to this day it’s still regarded as incorrect in Standard/Formal Italian despite it having a valid etymological explanation.

Consider these examples sentences and pay careful attention to the changes.

  • ho dato un regalo agli studenti (I gave a gift to the students) > ho dato loro un regalo [or] gli ho dato un regalo (I gave them a gift)
  • ha detto una bugia alla madre (s/he told a lie to her mother) > le ha detto una bugia (she told her a lie)
  • mando una lettera a mio padre (I sent a letter to my father) > gli mando una lettera (I send him a letter)

As already mentioned above, personal pronouns also change based on their position in the sentence. They can thus be divided into stressed and unstressed objective personal pronouns.

Stressed Object pronouns

Despite being almost identical to the D.O. personal pronouns, Stressed Object pronouns can cover more functions and are regarded as ‘free forms’ or ‘oblique pronouns’. Stressed Object pronouns have mainly three characteristics: (1) they appear on their own in the sentence, (2) are not attached to verbs as clitics, (3) and are usually proceeded by a variety of prepositions such as di, a, da, in, con, etc. that trigger the use of the stressed pronouns.

  • io - me
  • tu - te
  • egli (lui), esso - lui
  • ella (lei), essa - lei
  • noi - noi
  • voi - voi
  • essi/esse, loro - loro
  1. Marco ama te (Marco loves you)
  2. Elena ha scelto lui (Elena has chosen him)
  3. Grazia è venuta per te (Grazie came for you)

In Marco ama te, te means ‘specifically you’. Similarly In the second sentence lui means ‘specifically or especially him’. Lastly, in the final example, the use of te is triggered by the preposition per ‘for’.

Unstressed Object personal pronouns OR clitics

Unstressed Object personal pronouns always accompany a verb, which they can either follow or precede, and have no stress of their own. They are also called clitics because they are invisibly glued to their host (a verb) and cannot stand alone. Unstressed personal pronouns can be either proclitic or enclitic

  • io - mi
  • tu - ti
  • egli (lui), esso - gli
  • ella (lei), essa - le
  • noi - ci
  • voi - vi
  • essi/esse, loro - loro

Proclitic personal pronouns appear before their host.

  1. ti do un bacio sulla guancia (I give you a kiss on the cheek)
  2. ci hanno dato un regalo (they gave us a present)
  3. vi ho chiamato due volte (I called you [pl.] twice)

Joining direct and indirect personal pronouns

What happens when you join both direct and indirect personal pronouns? Consider the following example:

  • mi ha mandato la lettera (s/he has sent me the letter) > me l’ha mandata (s/he sent it to me)

Here la lettera is the direct object, while mi is the indirect object. In the second sentence l’ (la) is the direct object pronoun meaning la lettera,while me is still the indirect object.

When both the direct and the indirect object are present in the same sentence, the indirect object change form.

  • io - me lo / me la / me li / me le
  • tu - te lo / te la / te li / te le
  • egli (lui), esso - glielo / gliela / glieli / gliele
  • ella (lei), essa - glielo / gliela / glieli / gliele
  • noi - ce lo / ce la / ce li / ce le
  • voi - ve lo / ve la / ve li / ve le
  • essi/esse, loro - /
  1. gliel’ha regalata sua zia (her auntie gave it to him/her)
  2. ce lo diranno domani (they will tell it to us tomorrow)
  3. te li do oggi (I’ll give them to you today)

If you find any mistakes please send me a message.

Harry Potter and the Cursed Child Fic: Redemption and Roses

By @torestoreamends

13.7k words, G rated

Astoria Greengrass hates Draco Malfoy, former Death Eater, and all round prejudiced asshole. It takes a year for her to change her mind, and another year to fall head-over-heels in love with him. This is the story of how it happens. 

I had the idea for this fic a while ago. I thought wouldn’t it be cool if Daphne introduces Astoria and Draco at a party, and wouldn’t it be even cooler if she starts off hating him, while he’s besotted with her from the first moment. It’s taken me a while to get round to writing it, but here we are! I will admit, as Astoria fell in love with Draco, I fell in love with the two of them as a couple. I think they’re wonderful, and I hope some of you will agree. 

Massive thanks to @abradystrix for betaing this, and thanks to @platinasi for flailing with me and being generally supportive while I wrote it. You’re both superb human beings. 

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[Book Review] - McGill Korean 1

You guys, I am very excited to be reviewing this book! I first started learning Korean about seven years ago as a first-year student at McGill University. I loved my Korean classes and was so happy to go to class every day, largely thanks to my awesome professor at the time, 김명희 교수님. Well, we still keep in touch, and today I am reviewing a textbook that she wrote and recently got published! So here are my disclaimers for this review: I received my copy of the book for free, as my professor asked the publisher to send me a copy, but I was in no way contacted by the publishing company to review this, and my professor did not ask me to review it either. Rather, I said that I would review the book and post about it here—before she even offered to send me a free copy; I was set to go out and buy it myself—because I like reviewing books and helping you guys find good study material! I will review this book as objectively as possible!

And now, let’s get into it!

Honestly, I love this book. I have a few little gripes about things here and there, but over all, I think this is a great beginner resource. The book is written for classroom usage, but it is structured and written in a way that is very friendly to self-studiers as well! It’s a thin book at just over 200 pages, but it packs in a large amount of information in that space. Also included are accompanying audio files for the book, which must be downloaded from the publisher’s website.

“McGill Korean 1″ starts with a short intro to Hangul that, blessedly, doesn’t use romanization—sort of. What it uses to represent the sounds of the characters is like a simplified version of IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet), and either way, it is only seen on those few first pages and never again in the entire book. That is, you must rely on the audio files to develop an ear for the sounds and use that to guide you. The Hangul intro chapter ends with a listen-and-repeat exercise with a fairly large list of words to get you used to hearing and producing the sounds, and then you’re on your own!

The structure of each chapter is generally: Dialogue, related grammar, dialogue 2, related grammar, exercises, and a vocab list. Some chapters even have three dialogue + related grammar sections. The dialogues read smoothly and have accompanying audio files, and the related grammar—there’s a lot of it—is explained clearly and concisely so that even self-studiers should be able to understand. As for the practice exercises, I was surprised by just how many there are! Especially toward the end of the book, as the grammar gets more complicated, you’ll find chapters with three or more pages of practice problems, ranging from listening exercises to fill-in-the-blank, sentence writing, and more. There is an answer key in the back of the book for when you’re done with the problems.

If I were to gripe about anything about this book, it would be that the large majority of the example sentences that accompany the grammar explanations do not have translations. All of them use grammar and vocab that has already appeared in the book and are fairly simple to understand, but I’m sure some people would like having that translation available to make sure that they’re interpreting the sentence correctly. Of course, in a classroom setting this isn’t a problem as one could simply ask the teacher. 

Overall, this book is an excellent beginner resource! With a large amount of useful grammar, clear grammar explanations, and a lot of practice exercises all laid out in a visually appealing package of bright colors and cute illustrations, “McGill Korean 1″ will get you to a solid high beginner level, enough to have simple daily life conversations with people around you.