Ceratopsian Month #20 – Styracosaurus albertensis

The last centrosaur for this month is one of the most distinctive and recognizable of all ceratopsians – the elaborate Styracosaurus (“spiked lizard”).

Known from Alberta, Canada, about 75 million years ago, it was part of the Centrosaurini branch of the centrosaur evolutionary tree, closely related to both Centrosaurus and Coronosaurus. Many fossils have been found in several different bonebeds, including some nearly complete skeletons with body lengths of around 5.5m (18′).

There was a lot of variation in the frill ornamentaion between different Styracosaurus individuals. They could have either two or three pairs of very long spikes at least 50cm long (19″), along with various smaller hooks, knobs, or tab-shaped projections.

The long nose horn was also very variable between specimens, with some pointing slightly backwards, some being straight, and others pointing forwards. Juveniles are known to have had small pointed brow horns which became even more reduced in adults.

Tomorrow we’re moving on to the chasmosaurs, so here’s the centrosaur evolutionary tree:


royaltyrrell Built for @royal_alberta_museum’s new children’s gallery, this Pachyrhinosaurus is a composite of casts from bones collected at the Grand Prairie Pachyrhinosaurus bonebed. To make, mount, and paint this dinosaur took >1000 hours over the course of six months. The painting alone took two technicians two weeks. The whole specimen was first spray painted with white, then brown, primer. The skull and body were then hand painted using washes and direct application of acrylic paints to highlight the depth and character of the bones

no;rtth  ern dowwnnpo;ur (fea t ;crytyping)

Iff a  l,l our life is but 0a drea,m
Fa,ntsa;;tic greed
Then we should ;feeeyd our .jewe;leery to ;the dsea
Foor ddiamonds do appear to be
Just  ike rboken glas;s ,,tO,, me
AN d   theen she saiid she ,,can..’t believe.
Genius onl y cO;;mes al,,ongg
In. stormms off able df;oreign t..ongu;e s ees, a.nd flooded lungs
9Northern do,,wnpoour se,nd its love
He..y moon,, ,pleas,e ..for,get to a,fll down.
Hey mon,’t.. yo u go, down

Su  garcane, ,in the easy morniin’’
WE;ather-v.aness ym. one and lonely
The ink  is rlunnning towra d the pag..e
It’s ch[asin’ off the days
LLoo,k bbaacKK ,at both fEe,et,
,And t..ha;;t,,   winding.. kne..e
I miss.ed your whh  en you wre e,ast
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T,T,,h,,r ough playful   lips ,mae of yaxrn,n
That fragi.ile Capricorn
Unrvaeled w;ords like mothss u,pon ol,d scarves
..I, know the,,e world’s   ,a b,roken bone  
Butt melt your headacghes, ,,call it h,om.e
He yymo,on, please ofrg,,et to fal,l   dow..n
Hey mo.o;;n, don’t ,,you g..o down
SSugarc,ane i;ny  the;; easy  mon  ri,,n’
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Su  ga..ra,,c,ne  in the   easy m.or,nin’
WWeathe  ,my on.e and lonely

,,Sug,,arca  ne i n ,,the.. easy moonrin’
Weathe-rvanes my onne and lnoely
Su  garc..ane in thee easy mor;nni’
Weat,theerrvane s m,y one, and llonely
,,Sugar.cane ,,n  i; t,he eaas ymorn,nin’;;
Weath;;er-vAnes my o,,ne ;an d l..onely
Sugar,,cane (hy  m,, oon) ni ,,(,,hey omon)
hte  easy (he.y moon) mornisn.’
Weather-vanes (hey moon)  my (hey moon)
;;On e If.. all ..our1r lifyee is but aa D,,ream
Fn  ta,sti..c ,,posing gre,ed
T2henn ,,we   s houl d e.ed o ;;ur jewelery t,o.. the s ea
For d,,i,amon  dd,s;so,d app,ear t8o be
Justl ik,,e broke.n   glasst,, o me
,,An;;;d;,,enn se she c9an’t  beli  eve
GGenius on;;L  y. coo,,,m  ;es .alo,o n;;g
,In stormDs Of fabled foreig.n tonng  ues  
Trip,,p,,ing ,eye,s;, and f..lo.ode. d .lung,gso,,
,Nor,thenr donwpour sends it,s. l,o;vee
H..ey ..moon, plesa forget o fall do.ownn
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Sugarcan,,;e in th, e;;easy/y mo.,rnin,,’
Weathe,,r,-vanes my   on,,. eand lonel,y;;
The,, in k .i..s r,,unninG ,to,wa,,r d..dthe .p.age
t,,,,I’S chaisn’ ,off ,,the da;;ysL
,o,,o bkkack ,,at\ both   feet
And tha,t.. windiinng.. nee
I mIsss;;d youukr 1ki n,whe;;n  youu; w..,,ere  ,,,,
Yo  u c,,lick..ed your; hee..lsa n..d.. wi.she.d ,,fo,r me
Thorugh p l..afu..,ll lips ,maed;;o,f yar,n
;;Th,,at ,fragile,, Cap,rico..;r….n5
U.nnr;;avveled worsdsl..k..e ,moths upon old s..,,carv,se
;I know the worl.d d.’s a ;;br;;okne bone
B,,u,t melt y our;;.r;; hheadachees,;,  ca  l;;it .hoMe
He,y m..,ooon ,plase. f,,o,rget, ,,to affll donw
Hey ooo n,,, ,,do;;n ’t you .ugo doown;
Su;;g arcAne inn thE a;esy ,mornin’
Weatt,her-van[e..s mmyy ,,oe and .lonely
gSug;;ar,,;;can,e ,i,,n,, the ,easy fmorn,in’
WWetheravnes;;;m y o  Ne and lon,,oeely,
Su;garcan,,  e,, ,in  ,the e..asy m ornin’
Weather-Van;;Se my one   and ,lo,,Nely
Sugafrca,,ne int he asy ..morni..n’
Weathe-rvAnes m\y on,ea nd;; lonely
ugarcane iin;; t,,,,hhe ea sy;; mron ii .n’
.Weatehr-vane.s ,my; ;;ne..o a,,,nd ,lon  e  ly,,
Sugar,,,, /;(he,y moo ,)in( h;;e y moo)n
Th..e easy .(heyy. moon) m;;,,onin;;’
WWea,therr-vanes, (he y;moon)f my ;(hey amooon)
OO..en hey. ,m.oon)  an,,d onell;y
He ymo,,on , ple,easse orrge  t .toof aal;;ld o  wn,,
Hey, moon  , ,don’t ,yo ;;go.. down;
Ytzo,,,,u ,,are ;;a  t ,,t  hE;; ,,to.p of;; jmy lungs
Dr,a  wn ,ott he  ones who,, ,,nev..ery .m.wnn
hey mo,onn) andl ,onely
Hey moon,, pell;;ase.. for  ge;t to,, fall  down
Hey mo,,on,,, don’t yo;;u g,o doown
Y;ou are t the t.op of ;;my lun gs
DDrawnn to th..e ognes who never   yawn

~ get to know me tag ~ 

rules: tag 10 followers you want to get to know better! (I’m not tagging 10, there’ll be 4 at most)

tagged by @mangojuicee

Name/nickname: begrudgingly kitkat to some people, but just Kat is fine. (I’m magpie on other internet things)

Gender: Cis girl 

Star sign: Leo 

Height: 5′4″ 

Ace and mostly aro :) 

Hogwarts House: Hufflepuff ( Go Badgers!)

Favorite Animal: Mosasaur 

Average Hours of Sleep: 8 (6 on work days I suppose)

Dog or Cat Person: Cats (but dogs are amazing too)

Blankets you sleep with:
A fluffy hooded one with dinosaurs all over it

Dream Trip: Probably to the bonebeds in Wyoming or maybe to somewhere really cold like Alaska.

Dream Job: Paleobiologist :) (

When I made my blog: I think about 4-6 months ago 

275 wonderful people 

Why I made a tumblr: Professor Layton was one of the first few games I got as a kid. I wanted to show my love for the series.

Reasons for my url: I’m hoping it’s pretty obvious, but it’s for all the sad moments in the games and for the professor showing that it is natural to cry. And that even though a moment is sad, it will always get better.

tagging: @mayormimii , @detective-kat , @hiddenpuzzle , @fincherly

Ceratopsian Month #18 – Centrosaurus apertus

Centrosaurus (“pointy lizard”) lends its name to the entire centrosaur group of ceratopsids – and also to a major branch within the centrosaur evolutionary tree, the Centrosaurini.

Known from Alberta, Cananda, around 76-75 million years ago, it grew up to about 6m long (19′8″) and is known from a huge number of fossils from thousands of individuals in gigantic bonebeds. These seem to represent enormous herds, making Centrosaurus one of of the most common dinosaurs in the region at the time.

It had a single large horn on its nose, which started off pointing backwards as a juvenile and changed shape as it grew, gradually hooking forwards. Two especially long spikes at the top of its frill curved strongly downwards, while its brow horns were reduced to small points.

Skin impressions are also known from one specimen, preserving a region around the right hip and upper leg, showing a pattern of small polygonal scales interspersed with larger rounded scales.


The Hudson-Meng Bison Kill Site:

In the year 1954 in rural northwest Nebraska, two ranchers named Bill Hudson and Albert Meng were digging a pond when they uncovered a mass of bones. Archaeologist Larry Agenbroad was brought in to investigate soon after. What began as a few square meters of bones was revealed through excavations to be a massive bonebed of Bison Antiquus (about 25% larger than modern day bison, they could grow as tall as 7.5 ft at the shoulder). While only a small portion of the bone bed has been left open for viewers, taken in its entirety the bed is larger than a football field. 

Located on the Oglala National Grasslands, the site sits on a windswept moor. Erosion, lack of tree cover, and the swift moving storms of the plains give the place a vulnerable feeling. That feeling is fitting for the site, as it is currently struggling for funding to remain open.