bone marrow disease

The Genius of Marie Curie

Growing up in Warsaw in Russian-occupied Poland, the young Marie Curie, originally named Maria Sklodowska, was a brilliant student, but she faced some challenging barriers. As a woman, she was barred from pursuing higher education, so in an act of defiance, Marie enrolled in the Floating University, a secret institution that provided clandestine education to Polish youth. By saving money and working as a governess and tutor, she eventually was able to move to Paris to study at the reputed Sorbonne. here, Marie earned both a physics and mathematics degree surviving largely on bread and tea, and sometimes fainting from near starvation. 

In 1896, Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium spontaneously emitted a mysterious X-ray-like radiation that could interact with photographic film. Curie soon found that the element thorium emitted similar radiation. Most importantly, the strength of the radiation depended solely on the element’s quantity, and was not affected by physical or chemical changes. This led her to conclude that radiation was coming from something fundamental within the atoms of each element. The idea was radical and helped to disprove the long-standing model of atoms as indivisible objects. Next, by focusing on a super radioactive ore called pitchblende, the Curies realized that uranium alone couldn’t be creating all the radiation. So, were there other radioactive elements that might be responsible?

In 1898, they reported two new elements, polonium, named for Marie’s native Poland, and radium, the Latin word for ray. They also coined the term radioactivity along the way. By 1902, the Curies had extracted a tenth of a gram of pure radium chloride salt from several tons of pitchblende, an incredible feat at the time. Later that year, Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel were nominated for the Nobel Prize in physics, but Marie was overlooked. Pierre took a stand in support of his wife’s well-earned recognition. And so both of the Curies and Becquerel shared the 1903 Nobel Prize, making Marie Curie the first female Nobel Laureate.

In 1911, she won yet another Nobel, this time in chemistry for her earlier discovery of radium and polonium, and her extraction and analysis of pure radium and its compounds. This made her the first, and to this date, only person to win Nobel Prizes in two different sciences. Professor Curie put her discoveries to work, changing the landscape of medical research and treatments. She opened mobile radiology units during World War I, and investigated radiation’s effects on tumors.

However, these benefits to humanity may have come at a high personal cost. Curie died in 1934 of a bone marrow disease, which many today think was caused by her radiation exposure. Marie Curie’s revolutionary research laid the groundwork for our understanding of physics and chemistry, blazing trails in oncology, technology, medicine, and nuclear physics, to name a few. For good or ill, her discoveries in radiation launched a new era, unearthing some of science’s greatest secrets.

From the TED-Ed Lesson The genius of Marie Curie - Shohini Ghose

Animation by Anna Nowakowska

Severe, chronic anaemias (such as thalassaemias and sickle cell anaemia) can increase the bone marrow response to form red blood cell’s. This drive for erythropoiesis may increase the mass of marrow and lead to increase in marrow in places, such as the skull seen here, that is not normally found. Such an increase in marrow in skull may lead to “frontal bossing” or forehead prominence because of the skull shape change.

Different types of medicine
  • Anesthesiologist - administers drugs and monitors patient condition during surgery; also provides pain management for acute and chronic conditions.
  • Cardiologist, Interventional Cardiologist, Cardiac Electrophysiologist - a cardiologist specializes in diseases of the heart and blood vessels; an interventional cardiologists uses guided imaging to diagnose and treat those diseases; a cardiac electrophysiologist specializes in treating irregular heart rhythms caused by electrical problems in the heart.
  • Cardiovascular Surgeon, Cardiothoracic Surgeon - a cardiovascular surgeon specializes in the surgical management of blood vessels and heart disorders; a cardiothoracic surgeon specializes in pathological conditions within the chest.
  • Emergency medicine - physicians who care for patients with acute illnesses or injuries which require immediate medical attention; they diagnose a variety of illnesses and undertake acute interventions to stabilize the patient.
  • Endocrinologist - diagnoses and treats diabetes, hormone imbalances, thyroid disease and other disorders of the endocrine system.
  • Family medicine - provides continuing, comprehensive health care for the individual and family. Encompasses all ages, both sexes, each organ system, and every disease entity; a family physician’s care is based on knowledge of the patient in the context of the family and the community, emphasizing disease prevention and health promotion.
  • Gastroenterologist - specializes in diseases of the digestive system.
  • Geriatrician (Geriatric Medicine) - general practice physician who specializes in caring for older adults.
  • Hematologist - a hematologist specializes in diseases of the blood and bone marrow.
  • Hepatologist - specializes in diseases of the liver.
  • Hospitalist - internal medicine physician whose practice is limited to hospital inpatients.
  • Intensivist - hospital-based critical care medicine specialist who treats patients in intensive care settings.
  • Internal medicine - provides diagnosis, management and nonsurgical treatment of unusual or serious diseases.
  • Medical Geneticist - provides testing, counseling and therapy for genetic diseases.
  • Medical Oncologist, Radiation Oncologist - a medical oncologist specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of all types of cancers and tumors; a radiation oncologist specializes in the application of radiation to manage disease.
  • Neonatologist - cares for premature and critically ill newborns.
  • Nephrologist - specializes in diseases of the kidneys.
  • Neurologist, Neurosurgeon - a neurologist specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of all types of disease and functions of the brain, spine, peripheral nerves, muscles and nervous systems; a neurosurgeon provides surgical management of those disorders.
  • Neurophysiologist - a neurologist who diagnoses disorders of the central, peripheral and autonomic nervous systems through clinical evaluations and electrophysiologic testing.
  • Obstetrician/Gynecologist, Urogynecologist - an obstetrician/gynecologist specializes in the medical and surgical care of the female reproductive system and its associated disorders; a urogynecologist specializes in female urological problems.
  • Opthalmologist, Optometrist - an ophthalmologist provides comprehensive eye and vision care, including to medically or surgically treat eye disorders; an optometrist specializes in diagnosing diseases of the eye and correcting vision.
  • Orthopedic Surgeon - also known as an orthopod, an orthopedist is a surgeon who treats diseases, disorders and injuries of the musculoskeletal system.
  • Otolaryngologist - the technical name for an ear, nose and throat physician.
  • Pathologist - usually works behind the scenes to diagnose diseases by studying tissues, body fluids and organs.
  • Pediatrician - a child’s physician who provides preventive health maintenance for healthy children and medical care for children who are acutely or chronically ill; pediatricians manage the physical, mental, and emotional well-being of their patients, in every stage of development - in good health or in illness.
  • Perinatologist - specializes in caring for high-risk pregnancies.
  • Physiatrist - specializes in physical medicine and rehabilitation.
  • Podiatrist - specialist that treats both medical and surgical deformities of the foot and ankle.
  • Pulmonologist - specializes in lung disease.
  • Radiologist, Interventional Radiologist - radiologists perform and interpret imaging tests; interventional radiologists also perform minimally invasive procedures, such as embolization, thrombolysis and biopsies, using imaging guidance.
  • Rheumatologist - specializes in arthritis and diseases of the joints, as well as autoimmune disorders, such as lupus.
  • Sleep doctors - diagnoses and treats sleep disorders, and also may have expertise in behavioral and cognitive methods to prevent them.
Autosomal Recessive Diseases List
  • Abetalipoproteinemia: decrease ApoB-48, Apo B-100; pigmentary degeneration of retina, acanthocytes, steatorrhea, cerebellar ataxia.
  • Acute Fatty Liver of Pregnancy: microvesicular steatosis in the liver, mitochondrial dysfunction in the oxidation of fatty acids leading to an accumulation in hepatocytes
  • Alkaptonuria: homogentisate oxidase deficiency, increase homogenistic acid, ochronosis, dark blue urine.
  • AcylCoA Dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD): fasting hypoglycemia, no ketone bodies, dicarboxilic acidemia.
  • Bernard Soulier Sd: gp1b deficiency, prolonged bleeding time
  • Bloom Sd: chromosome 15, Ashkenazi Jews, BLM gene.
  • Carpenter Sd: craniosynostosis, acrocephaly, craniofacial asymmetry, increased ICP, cutaneous syndactyly, polydactily, mild-profound MR.
  • Chediak Higashi Sd: Lyst gene mutation, microtubule polymerization defect, no phagolysosome formation, albinism.
  • Chondrodystrophy: normal-sized trunk and abnormally short limbs and extremities (dwarfism)
  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: 17alpha or 21beta or 11 beta hydroxylase deficiency; enlargemente od adrenal glands due to increase ACTH
  • Congenital Hepatic Fibrosis: hepatic (periporta) fibrosis, irregularly shaped proliferating bile duct, portal hypertension, renal cystic disease.
  • Cystic Fibrosis: CFTR gene, Phe508, defective Chloride channel, chromosome 7.
  • Dubin-Johnson Sd: direct hyperBbnemia, cMOAT deficiency, black liver
  • Endocardial Fibroelastosis: restrictive/infiltrative cardiomyopathy, thick fibroelastic tissue in endocardium of young children, <2yo
  • Familial Mediterranean Fever: chromosome 16, recurrent autoinflammatory disease, characterized by F°, PMN disfx, sudden attacks pain/inflammation (7 types of attacks (abdominal, joints, chest, scrotal, myalgias, erysipeloid, fever). Complication: AA-amyloidosis
  • Fanconi Anemia: genetic loss of DNA crosslink repair, often progresses to AML, short stature, ↑incidence of tumors/leukemia, aplastic anemia
  • Friedreich’s Ataxia: GAA triplet repeat, chromosome 9, neuronal degeneration, progressive gait & limb ataxia, arreflexia, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, axonal sensory neuropathy, kyphoscoliosis, dysarthria, hand clumsiness, loss of sense of position, impaired vibratory sensation.
  • Gaucher’s disease: glucocerebrosidase deficiency, glucocerebroside accumulation, femur necrosis, crumpled paper inclusions in macrophages.
  • Ganzman’s thromboasthenia: gpIIbIIIa deficiency, deficient platelet aggregation.
  • Hartnup Disease: tryptophan deficiency, leads to niacin deficiency, pellagra-like dermatosis
  • Hemochromatosis: HFE gene, C282Y MC mutation, chromosome 6, unrestricted reabsorption of Fe+ in SI, iron deposits in organs, bronze diabetes, DM1, malabsorption, cardiomyopathy, joint degeneration, increased iron, ferritin, TIBC. Complications: liver cirrhosis, hepatocelullar carcinoma
  • Homocystinuria: due to B6 deficiency (defective Cystathionine synthase) or due to B9,B12 deficiency (defective Homocysteine Methyltrasnferase), dislocated lenses (in & down), DVT, stroke, atherosclerosis, MR.
  • Krabbe's Disease: Galactocerebrosidase deficiency, galactocerebroside accumulation, gobloid cells, optic atrophy, peripheral neuropathy.
  • Leukocyte Adhesion Defect (LAD): CD-18+ deficiency, omphalitis in newborns, chronic recurrent bacterial infxs, increase WBC count, no abscess or pus formation.
  • Metachromic Leukodystrophy: Aryl-sulfatase A deficiency, sulfatides accumulation, Demyelination (central & peripheral), Ataxia, Demantia (DAD)
  • Niemann-Pick Disease: sphingomyelinase deficiency, sphingomyelin accumulation, HSM, cherry-red macula, foam cells.
  • Phenylketonuria (PKU): phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, Phe accumulation, MR, microcephaly, diet low in Phe!!! also in pregnancy, avoid aspartame, musty odor.
  • Polycystic Kidney Disease (children): ARPKD, rogressive & fatal renal failure, multiple enlarged cysts perpendicualr to renal capsule, association with liver cysts. Bilateral palpable mass.
  • Rotor Sd: direct hyperBbnemia, cMOAT deficiency, no black liver
  • SCID: ADA def. & rag-1, rag-2 def, bubble-boy
  • Shwaman Diamond Sd: exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (2°MCC in children after CF), bone marrow dysfunction, skeletal abnormalities, short stature.
  • Situs inversus: assoc w/ Kartagener sd
  • Sicke Cell Disease and Trait: Hb S, beta globin chain, chromosome 11, position 6, nucleotide codon change (glutamic acid --> valine), vaso-occlusive crisis (pain), autosplenectomy, acute chest pain sd, priapism, hand-foot sd, leg ulcers, aplastic crisis, drepanocytes & Howell-Jolly bodies, hemolytic anemia, jaundice, bone marrow hyperplasia
  • Tay-Sachs Disease: Hexoaminidase A deficiency, GM2 accumulation, cherry-red macula, onion skin lysosomes.
  • Thalasemia: alpha (chromosome 16, gene deletion), beta (chromosome 11, point mutation)
  • Werner Disease: adult progeria
  • Wilson’s Disease: Chromosome 13, WD gene, ATP7B gene (encondes for Copper transporting ATPase), copper accumulation in liver, brain (putamen), eyes (Descemet membrane - Kayser-Fleischer ring), decreased ceruloplasmin.
  • Xeroderma Pigmentosa: defective excision endonuclease, no repair of thymine dymers caused by UV radiation, excessive freckling, multiple skin cancers.
Ghoulology 101: kakuhous, RC pathways and RC cells

Ever since we found out about Shirazu’s sister Haru’s disease, my thirst for more info on RC cells and ghoul biology has been steadily growing and I’ve had this meta gathering dust in my drafts for months now. It seems a bit of this thirst has caught on in the rest of the fandom recently so I thought it was about time I channeled my inner Touka to finish this post.

Seeing as we don’t know a lot about ghoul biology and evolution apart from the basics, I guess these are more ‘Ghoulology’ headcanons, especially considering we don’t know how much detail Ishida plans to put into these topics.

The fact that ghouls and humans can produce offspring tells us that they are both genetically similar and most likely have common ancestry somewhere along the evolutionary chain. Because of this similarity, I used comparisons to aspects of human biology and diseases that I was reminded of while reading about ghouls as a starting point to think up ways in which RC cells, RC pathways and the kakuhou could work.

(Also, if you’re interested in this stuff you should go read @neropet and @absolutetimeandspace‘s amazing post here about RC cells as it complements parts of this post)

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THE POP LIFE; End of a Life, End of an Era
By Neil Strauss
Published: June 18, 1998

“And jumping into the No. 1 spot this week,” announced Hiroshi Morita from the studios of NHK radio here last week, “is ‘Pink Spider’ by Hide. As you may already know, Hide is the former guitarist of the group X Japan who shocked his fans by committing suicide recently.”

The studio began to buzz with murmuring. “His record company says it was an accident,” said one engineer, as those around him laughed. “The label also says it’s sticking with Hide’s original release plan,” said another. There was more laughter.

At newsstands, Hide’s face graces the cover of almost every music magazine; in shopping districts, outfits like his sell for several hundred dollars; on television, his videos are repeated as often as commercials, and in record stores his singles are everywhere. Below “Pink Spider” in the Japanese Top 10 was a previous Hide single, “Rocket Dive,” and this week “Pink Spider” was knocked out of the No. 1 slot by another single, “Stay Free,” also by Hide.

In just a few weeks, pop culture in Japan had gone from mourning Hide’s death to consuming it.

Hide (pronounced Hee-DAY) was the intensely charismatic guitarist in X Japan, one of the country’s first and most successful independent-label rock acts (though the band later signed with a major label) and the first Japanese rock band to sell out the 50,000-seat Tokyo Dome. Since it formed in the mid-1980’s, X Japan went from playing loud, fast thrash-metal to stadium-shaking pop ballads, in the process pioneering its own genre, a Japanese equivalent of glam rock known as “visual kei.”

For visual kei bands, outrageous, usually androgynous looks – gobs of makeup, hair dyed and sprayed in ways that made Mohawks look conservative, and a small fortune spent on leather and jewelry – were as important as music (or, in many cases after X, more important than music). When X members followed in the steps of American hard-rock bands like Metallica and cut their hair in the 90’s, thousands of Japanese girls wept openly in the streets.

X actually signed with Atlantic Records in the United States, but the band never released an album at home. It broke up late last year, and Hide began to emerge from the shadow of the band’s most popular member, the drummer Yoshiki (who released a classical album with the Beatles’ producer George Martin and the London Philharmonic Orchestra). With a blossoming solo career, everything seemed to be going well for Hide until May 2, when he was found dead in his apartment, a towel looped around his neck and tied to the bathroom doorknob. Within a week, five teen-age Japanese girls had tried to kill themselves while playing X music or wearing X merchandise. Three succeeded.

At his funeral, 50,000 young fans mobbed the streets. By the day’s end, some 60 of them were taken to hospitals, and nearly 200 received medical treatment in first-aid tents after passing out or injuring themselves. (One girl tried to slit her wrists with a plastic knife.) “Please do not follow him,” urged the surviving members of X. “Do not commit suicide. Send him off to heaven warmly.”

Bryan Burton-Lewis, a radio- and video-show host who toured with Hide as a disk jockey, said the funeral was the most crowded ever for a postwar Japanese musician, which was surprising considering that hardly anyone over 30 knew who he was. “The wake was sad,” he remembered. “I was sitting in there for two hours, and all you heard outside was kids screaming from the bottom of their stomachs. They sounded like demons. In Japan, the image that we have of the X audience is rural kids going through a rebellion phase. They put their life into being X fans: they dress like it, they breathe it, they all talk about how he gave them something to live for.

’'A lot of what Hide did was grotesque. He’s talked about suicide in his records for five years. But the fans who followed him always knew there was a Hide behind that who was a very solid character. He was very outspoken about freedom and doing what you want, and he took on a fan who had a rare bone marrow disease as a personal crusade.”

While the authorities decided that Hide killed himself, his friends and former band members said they felt certain it was not suicide, despite the dark lyrics of some X and Hide songs. Most remembered Hide as a character who would go out of control when he was drunk, often getting himself into some sort of trouble and then claiming not to remember a thing the next day. His death in this strange circumstance, they said, was a drunken accident.

“I saw him a few days before he passed away, and I had no indication from him that anything was wrong other than that he was exhausted,” said Paul Raven, an English musician who played bass in Killing Joke and Prong. Mr. Raven recently formed an industrial hard-rock band with Hide called Zilch. Its debut album will be released in Japan on July 23 and features former members of Nine Inch Nails and the Cult.

“He was under a lot of pressure to finish his solo record,” Mr. Raven continued. “He had three songs completed the day before he died, and now mysteriously a full album is coming out nine days before ours.”

In some ways, Hide was reminiscent of Kurt Cobain of Nirvana, although Hide had a less bleak world view. Hide, like Cobain, said he felt like a marginal alternative-minded figure trapped in the image of a pop star. He despised the music business and wanted to change it; he represented a generation of fans who felt alienated, and his death represented the end of a genre.

“To a certain extent, Hide’s death means the end of an era,” said Steve McClure, Tokyo bureau chief for Billboard, the music-industry magazine. “X were the first generation of visual kei bands, but the novelty has worn off. For the next generation of bands, it’s like: 'That’s it. The torch has been passed to us.’ ”

BULLYING CELEBRITIES (The Case of Yeng Constantino)

Very recently, Yeng Constantino got attacked on her Instagram page for showing so much care for a pet she dearly loves, Julia the kitten.

Those who follow her would know that she is a cat person.  But, only recently did she really get a cat to personally take care of.  

Yeng treats it like how a Mom would treat her own kid.  (Yes, she even video chats with it.)

Why am I even spending time to do this?  To answer the attacks being thrown at her because:

1)  She is a FRIEND, a true one.  She helped me when I was battling CANCER in more ways than one. 

2)  She may not be perfect but she is a GOOD PERSON with a BEAUTIFUL HEART.  She AGREED to work on a project to help an 8-YEAR OLD BOY fighting a RARE BONE MARROW DISEASE for FREE.  She doesn’t even know the boy.

3)  She is an EXAMPLE of how it is to be a PET OWNER.  While some would only go as far as buying them and have someone else do the rest, she personally makes time for her own.

I’ve known Yeng, since Pinoy Dream Academy.  Her looks and style might have changed a lot, but her head, heart and soul have remained grounded and humble.

I might be older than her, but I am not even a bit embarrassed to say that I look up to her.  I continue to learn from her - from the way she moves on-stage to how she keeps herself passionate and make sure she’s excellent with her craft; the way she helped and took care of her family at a very young age; the way she treats her fans; and the way she’s grown with God.

And to reiterate, no, she is not perfect.  But she finds ways everyday to be a better person.

This blog doesn’t just go out to Yeng, but for all the celebrities out there.  At times, we fans are quick to judge without really knowing the person inside because all we see are the things showbiz reveal about them.  

And let me end with this, before you say anything bad about anyone, showbiz or not, THINK. If that’s not enough, look for the word, “RESPECT” in the dictionary.  Maybe that would help.

*I do not own the photos used in this blog. Photos were taken from the net including photos from wheninmanila.

Switched at Birth

Sherlock prompt: Alex and hamish both born on the same day in the same hospital. Something happens (Can be planned or not) and sherlock and john end up taking alex; jim and sebastian take hamish. They relise they have the wrong children when it is too late. –anon


Teeheehee, why is it I can never write a story involving Alex Moriarty-Moran without there being some sort of identity crisis? At least he exists now. And I might have thrown in some Hamex into the mix…



Got a prompt? Send it here!


Alex was 16 when he collapsed. Sebastian had been in the middle of an assignment, so it had been Jim who had found him first. To say that the consulting criminal had taken finding his only son in a crumpled mess on the floor less then well would have been an understatement.

He hadn’t even gotten Alex to the hospital yet before given Sebastian a call, ordering him to return home. Not like Sebastian would have needed the order, Alex was his son as well.

By the time that Sebastian had gotten back to the country and to the hospital, Jim had nearly driving half the doctors there to tears and was terrorizing the rest of them to find a cure for Alex.

“They’re wasting time.” Jim fumed to Sebastian, who was the only one who could keep him under control (somewhat, this was Jim Moriarty, after all).

Sebastian wasn’t stupid, he wasn’t about to give Jim the typical platitudes (“Alex is in good hands  now” “we have to trust the doctors” “everything is going to be fine”), but what he could do was keep Jim busy until someone could tell them what was wrong with their son.

Aplastic anemia.

When Sebastian first heard the diagnoses, he was relieved. He recognized the word anemia, it wasn’t that bad. They would just have to make sure Alex ate more spinach and took iron supplements, right?

The look on Jim’s face said otherwise.

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Hi! My name is Albertina and I’m from Argentina. This is my niece, she’s one year old and she has leukemia. She, like so many kids around the world, needs a bone marrow transplant and in order for that to happen they need to find a perfect match. 

All I’m asking is for you to spread the word. So many kids are going through this and so many can be saved if only more people decided to be a bone marrow donor. It’s really simple and it’s not risky nor painful

If you feel this is not for you, you can still help by sharing this. You can be a bone marrow donor in any place in the world and you can save a kid that lives on the other side of the earth.

It’s very important. You can give life while being alive. I deeply encourage for you to take a minute and search more information about this on the internet in order to find the answer to whatever question you may have. My ask is always open if you want to ask anything to me directly. All that I can say is thank you, from the bottom of my heart. 

(I sincerely apologize for my english, it’s not very good but I hope you’ve got the message)

Robin Roberts has been a part of viewers’ lives since joining Sportscenter in 1990 and Good Morning America in 1995—eventually rising to co-anchor and lead the show to some of its best ratings. She’s often entertained, inspired, and informed, such as when she reported from the Gulf Coast following Hurricane Katrina. Robin had the world rooting for her in a new way when she fought against breast cancer and, a couple of years later, a bone marrow disease. Having courageously battled against these hardships, Robin expressed her joy and gratitude in December 2013 for her health and support network, which included her girlfriend of ten years.

anonymous asked:

I noticed the last anon question and I hope you don't mind if I ask you about cancer and sickness and stuff? My friend has a disease called myleofibrosis and it's a bone marrow disease, it can also become leukemia she had to have chemo and a bone marrow transplant and now she's at home in like an isolation situation for about 9 month and she's my best friend and when I visit her I can't touch her or be sick and we have to meet outside. Did you have to go through anything like this? ily <3

haha it’s almost spot on to my situation. I had chemotherapy and a bone marrow transplant. I almost went into leukemia and if I would have I would’ve had a 30% chance of living. However I wasn’t allowed around people for a long time because you don’t have anything to fight off bacteria or disease. I couldn’t go outside without a mask and wasn’t allowed out of the house!