bonding angles

anonymous asked:

what kind of chemistry do you do?

I’m an inorganic synthetic chemist who specializes in a few heavy metals and a specific type of structure using different flexible ligands (I’m afraid I can’t be less vague; my research is specialized enough that it would be rather identifiable).

In general, I design molecules with my metal/ligand components and synthesize (or attempt to synthesize) them in lab. I then work the compounds up through crystallization so I can utilize single crystal x-ray diffraction on an instrument like this:

This bombards the crystal with x-rays and allows me to collect data to produce a structure of the molecule, which gives me bond lengths, angles, etc. This is the crystal I’m currently running (it’s huge and awful, really, but I just need to confirm what it is before I care about a better collection). The crystal looks enormous on the screen - and it is large by my usual standards - but in actuality, the loop the crystals sit on are quite small:

The crystals go on the very tip of that loop, so I do a lot of work under a microscope.

It’s a pretty neat process (when reactions behave), and for the most part I do enjoy my work. Bonus perk is that many of my compounds display luminescence, so I keep a black light handy:

(00)Q in SPECTRE: An Addendum on the Gun Scene

I got the idea to do this from a conversation thread on one of my other posts (thank you, fagghaggg!), because whenever we talk about subtext, and particularly gay subtext, part of the fun is that there’s nearly always an argument to be made for or against it. One may raise the question of why certain scenes evoke (homo)erotic tension very clearly while others don’t – and while that’s far too big a question for one short post, there’s no reason we can’t deal in particulars. What is it about Q’s gun grab in SPECTRE that seems so suggestive, other than the obvious Freudian implications? Shameless 00Q-ers (or at least Bond fans) that we are, let’s hunker down and shot-by-shot this sucker.

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2

- lust-for-pan request

“HELP!” you screamed, struggling against the ropes that bound you to the chair. The flames were licking closer and closer to you, and the heat poured off them, scorching your skin. “HELP!”

A dark figure- whom you recognised from the news as the Dark Knight (or more commonly, as Batman)- was fighting his way to get to you, throwing men out of the way left, right and centre. But he wouldn’t be able to reach you in time…

Suddenly, you felt a grating sensation on the tight bonds and tried to angle your head to see who your rescuer was, to no avail. As soon as you were free, you were swooped up into the mystery saviour’s arms and they ran right out of the burning building with you.

When you were outside, he lay you down gently on the cool pavement and you tried to get your bearings and wait for the world to stop spinning so much. Nausea burned in your stomach and throat; you could still feel the smoke and soot in your mouth and in your lungs.

“Are you alright?" the person asked- their voice definitely masculine. "Can you stand? Here, have a drink of water.”

Absently taking a swig from the bottle he thrust into your hands, you blinked heavily a few times to clear your foggy sight. Looking up, you tried to focus on the man, but frowned when all you could see was gaudy face make-up, scraggly dyed green hair and a vibrant purple jacket.

Wait, that didn’t make sense.

He was still asking you questions, mainly about who you were, where you lived, how you were feeling and if there was anyone he should call. “There’s an ambulance on its way,” he told you, “He should be here soon, I’ll have to leave before it gets here.”

Reaching out, you grabbed the cuff of his jacket in your fist and mumbled a groggy, “Stay. With me. Please.”

About to form a reply, the man was cut short when the Dark Knight himself leapt out of the building and towards you- looking smugly noble and majestic like a narcissistic lion. “Joker!” he boomed, “Step away from her!”

Joker?

You turned to look at the man and realised, with a small gasp, that he was the Joker. The make-up, the hair, the clothes, but why the hell had he pulled you from a burning building and called you an ambulance?

“He saved my life,” you breathed, repeating yourself louder for Batman’s benefit. “He-he got me out of there…he saved me,” you said in wonder, squeezing his hand, you said, “Thank you. So much. I’ll never be able to repay you.”

About to leave, he grinned wickedly at you- his characterism revealing itself- and said jovially, “Well, give me a call sometime. Here’s my card.” And with that, he tossed you a slip of card and vanished into the shadows.

Picking it up, you saw that it was just an old Joker’s card from a deck of cards, with something scrawled along the bottom:

You’re welcome.

Kathleen Lonsdale

Kathleen Lonsdale was a British crystallographer who proved, in 1929, that benzene exists as a flat  hexagon by using X-ray diffraction methods. Up until this point Kekule’s  structure was accepted. Kathleen was essential in disproving him as her work makes up one of three pieces of evidence that disprove Kekule’s structure which is shown below.

Since its discovery in 1825 by Michael Faraday the structure of Benzene has baffled scientists. It has the formula C6H6 which means that, if you just look at the number of bonds needed to form a compound with this formula you can come up will all manner of possible structures. However, the difficulty of determining the structure of benzene comes when you begin to apply the principles of bonding to these structures. A lot of them seem possible until you look at the lengths of the bonds and the bond angles. Compounds with the bond angles the possible structures would produce simply don’t exist (to my knowledge) due to the bonds being unable to bend to produce extremely large angles. Kathleen’s work finally confirmed the cyclic nature of Benzene.

In 1924 Lonsdale joined the crystallography research team headed by William Henry Bragg at the Royal Institution. After her marriage to Thomas Jackson Lonsdale she worked at the University of Leeds. During the early 1930’s she cared for her young children almost full time before returning to work with Bragg at the Royal institution in 1934.

In addition to her discovery of the structure of benzene and hexachlorobenzene she also worked on the synthesis of diamond. Kathleen was also a pioneer in the use of X-rays to study crystals. Lonsdale also joins Biochemist Marjory Stephenson as the first women to be elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1945.

In 1949 Lonsdale was appointed head of the Department of Crystallography and professor of Chemistry at University College London. She was the first tenured female professor at that college. This was a position that she held until 1968 when she was name Professor Emeritus ( a retired professor).

Among her other achievements Kathleen was made a Dame in 1956, in 1966 she was elected as the first female president of the International Union of Crystallography, in 1967 she was elected as the first female president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, has buildings named in her honor at both University College London and the University of Bath, and an allotrope of carbon, Lonsdaleite was named in her honor; it’s a rare harder form of diamond found in meteorites.

Kathleen Lonsdale is a fantastic scientist who many people know nothing about.

sebstan studies! drafting stuff for goddessofidiocy‘s James Bond AU

8

Cloti Appreciation Week: Day 6 - Why do you love Cloti?

(PS: GIFs are deliberately used because what better way to think about Cloti emotionally than being reminded first of the Mideel sequence?)

Let me just start by defining them with one word: support

Cloud and Tifa are pillars of support and guide to one another, in both tangible and intangible ways. Cloud was there when Tifa was slashed by Sephiroth during the burning down of Nibelheim, he was there saving her at the end of OG from falling off a cliff; he was there reassuring her when everyone left the Highwind, he was there when she was crying in the Forgotten Capital, unable to forgive herself for letting Aerith die (COF), and many other times. Meanwhile Tifa was the key to figure out Cloud’s distorted entity in the OG. She remained by his side despite her confusion, and still did when he was severely incapacitated by Mako poisoning. And she was the person who helped Cloud get himself together in AC/C. They require each other’s support. They’re not necessarily unable to live without one another, rather they’re better with one another around. In short, they complement each other so well.

Of course, their relationship has its own flaws too, particularly in terms of communication. This is exactly why it took them quite some time to confront one another in AC/C. I think this is not only because of the nature of their personalities, but also it’s part of the process of them trying to get used to one another. And I choose to believe that, like any other relationships, they would work this out. Both the positive and negative aspects of Cloud and Tifa’s relationship is what makes it complex and realistic - and I like that a lot. 

On the other hand, in a more romantic angle, their bond can be perceived as being sealed by a promise - a common romantic trope. This aspect of their relationship lacks the realistic element, and more meaningful in terms of narratives but I still love it! 

madameblood-deactivated20170330  asked:

I am having trouble with IB Chemistry and I was wondering on how I can improve? Please help.

Hey :D Here are some suggestions:

Take syllabus notes

This applies for most IB subjects, with the exception of maths in my opinion. Taking notes was my method of understanding a new topic - I would try to change the stuff in the book into drawings / my own words (like I do here on Science Scribbles), thus making sure I truly understand it. Also for me it helped a lot to visualize the concepts & to make analogies, so you can try doing that as well ^^

Take notes according to the syllabus ASAP (using the Cornell method preferably), don’t worry if you’re behind your class - make sure you do it chronologically and make sure you understand everything in the chapter before moving on!

Do all the exercises in the book

Whenever you’re done with a chapter, try to do all the exercises in the book for the chapter. I remember those exercises being pretty good. If you know how to do them, you’re usually pretty well off for the exam. It doesn’t hurt to do them several times! If you have time, dig up old papers and do them as well - but prioritize the exercises in the book if you’re short on time ^^

Divide into “long-term and short-term memory”

Okay this is a quick tip: open up your book, go to the contents page, and sort all the sub-chapters into “long-term” and “short-term” memory. Everything mathematical goes to the long-term category, because once you learn it, it will take a while before you forget it. Everything that’s pure memorizing (like bond angles & all the reaction equations etcetc.) goes to short-term (not the organic compounds stuff though, they come way too often so try to memorize them ASAP).

Now you can forget about the short-term stuff for a while. If you stumble upon them in past papers, just look up the answers. Focus on the long-term things, and make sure you know how to do them. 

A couple days before a test / exam, start working on the short-term things. Take out a piece of paper and write down everything you need to memorize. Then try to do it without looking - and once you make a mistake, correct the mistake, then start all over. Repeat until you manage to do EVERYTHING correctly, without making a single mistake. Then do it at least once everyday until the exam. This is a little pointless to do a long time before the exam, because you’ll end up forgetting either way, so don’t waste time doing it hahah

Make sure you understand chapter 1 

The entire chapter 1 (stoichiometry) falls into the “long-term memory” category, and it’s vital you know this chapter well! Everything in this chapter will come over and over again. All the exam questions have something from this chapter. Don’t move on before you’ve understood everything!!

Make sure you understand EXACTLY where you don’t understand

Don’t go “I don’t know chemistry” or “I understand nothing”. Try to remember where you last did understand something, and figure out exactly where it went wrong. Then work from there ^^

Read from different resources

Once you’ve figured out where you don’t understand, try to read about it from as many different resources as possible. Read from different books, study guides, online resources, videos, and get as many different people to explain to you as possible. This will help you understand & remember the new concepts, and help you use it in a lot more flexible way, because people tend to use different examples / understand it differently, so you get to see the big picture.

2

Single Crystal X-Ray Diffraction is a highly useful technique for chemists and biologists, because it allows us image molecules with virtually atomic fidelity, and is responsible in part for helping realise the structure of DNA and many important proteins 

X-Ray Diffraction [XR-D] works by firing X-rays at a target (in this case, a very small crystal that has been mounted upon a goniometer - the circular object in the second picture), and observing the scattering pattern the X-rays make as they diffract. By rotating the crystal around and striking it from a variety of locations a huge assembly of diffraction patterns can be collected. These form the basis of an electron density map. Since different atomic nuclei have differently sized electron clouds, an experienced crystallographer can assign atoms to certain spots in the electron density map. If the assignment agrees well with the data then he can build a crystal structure. 

The great thing about crystal structures is that they give chemists and biologists a peek at what the molecule really looks like, in an unambiguous sense. We can determined the geometry of the molecule. the bond angles between atoms and even the strength of those bonds (given by their bond length). For medicinal chemists and biologists, this kind of data (when taken from enzymes, and proteins) can be used to see if molecules fit into receptor sites or the active sites of biologically relevant molecules. A good crystal structure is often essential to producing medicinally relevant studies and compounds. 

Single Crystal XR-D is not infallible or easy to accomplish though. You must first obtain an X-ray quality crystal of your compound. This means you must have a very pure sample, and that it will in fact crystallize well. Often purification is a limiting factor for crystal studies - but very often you will encounter chemicals that are very reluctant to crystalize. Greasy compounds, like those with long hydrocarbon chains or which are found in cell membranes may be hard to crystallize, and extreme methods may be employed. 

This also highlights the other downfall of XR-D studies; the crystal form may not be the “native” conformation. If we crystallize a compound that is usually a liquid environment or is suspended in a cell membrane, then that compound will be in a different geometry than where it would be naturally. This can make assigning interactions even more difficult. 

None-the-less, most chemists and biologists are quite excited to produce high quality crystals, and to get structures from them. XR-D still tells us allot about a molecule. Where its strongest bonds are. Where its best sites of interaction are. How it may align itself with other molecules. That, and it is very gratifying to be able to show a chemical structure to your non-scientist buddies and say “I made this,”. 

anonymous asked:

do a blurb based on your favorite song from four!!!!

Harry gnawed on the lip he had trapped inbetween his teeth as he tested his bonds, having to angle his chin back so he could admire the handiwork you had done to the knot in the synthetic fabric of the rope. The muscles in his arms bulged every time he tried to budge - to find slack, anything - and the stark white color of the rope looked so nice against his tan. His eyebrows were furrowed, his wrists jolting forward and then back some as he tried twisting his way out of an escape, and you were there at the end of the bed, smirking as he groaned, the noise coming from deep within his stomach and throat. 

“This is so fucking…” He took the moment to pout and catch his breath as he stared at you from across the way. “Look what you’ve done to me." 

Carefully, you clambered towards his body, grazing your fingertips up the side of his thigh and letting him mewl at your touch. You felt like you had to double-check, and you would hate yourself if you didn’t, so you slipped your finger inbetween one of the passes of rope and wriggled around to see if he still had circulation. 

"Is it alright? Not too tight?” you asked quietly.

There was a moment of silence between the two of you, and then a gasp of pleasure (mixed in with pain) when you pinched the skin of Harry’s stomach and straddled his hips, making sure your knees were pressed on either side of him so he wouldn’t have any resistance if he tried angling up. 

“Fine,” Harry murmured and he squeezed his eyes shut when your tongue darted out to lick a bold stripe from his Adam’s apple to his sternum. “Fuck, yeah - you’re, it’s perfect, you’re perfect, please, please, please…" 

With a grumble underneath your breath, you cut Harry’s mantra off with a firm press of your palm against his mouth. "Quiet,” you commanded gently, watching in near amusement when he went pale in the face and quickly stopped talking. Just to make sure, you kept your hand muffling his lips, ducking down so your own was pressed against his jaw. You made sure it hurt when you bit down against the conjunction of his jawline and neck. “That was a ‘yes’ or 'no’ question, nothing more. Be good." 

Your hand was cupping Harry’s lower face so tightly he wasn’t sure if he could nod. He did after a moment or two, and when your fingers slipped from the hold you had on his jaw, he worked feeling back into his lips. However, every sensation he had in his body was heightened when you pulled the sash from your robe and held it in front of his eyes, a smile gracing your lips that Harry wanted to kiss so badly; lips he knew he wouldn’t be able to kiss until you wanted him to, because you were the one in charge. 

Seconds after you tied the fabric tightly over Harry’s eyes, completely ridding him of his sight, he could feel your hand sweep over his abdomen and work straight up until your fingers were poised against his pulse point. When he whined as your other hand scratched the light happy trail that met his pelvic bone, you took your fingers away and waited for him to settle back down as your hips created figure eights above him. 

Harry could not see, he could not speak, he could not move. You had complete control over him and he wouldn’t have it any other way. 

Well Dean barked, and Cas just pretended to listen and then did what ever the fuck he wanted to do anyway. So, redoing of my earlier submitted drawing, which was all manners of messed up ‘cause it was done on a rattly train and I was sick and I guess that is all just excuses. 

So yeah, redone…line art? I think this is what qualifies as line art. It will get a nice paint job later.

Update: eeeeh, folks? I got a coloured version of it…if you like?

[Here]

I’m broken

A/N: Just want all of you to know that I have made a masterlist and have also allowed you guys to ask me anything you want! So visit my page and ask me or request shit.

It was a horrible day for you already. It hadn’t even begun and you just felt…sad. You always felt like you were begging yourself to hold on for a little bit longer. You always tried to push through for your mother. When she died the last thing she said to you was, “I don’t want to see you for a while, baby girl. I need you to push through. You don’t think I hear your cries for help at all hours of the night, but I do. Please, stay on Earth.”. You’d never imagined she had actually heard your cries or shouts. You thought you’d kept it well enough hidden.To put in into simpler terms you were depressed and the thought of your family knowing just made it worse.

Just as your mother had wished, you held on for a straight month. Things took a turn for the worse however, when your father decided to end it all and put a bullet through his head. It was a sad, tragic way to go. This would be a never ending family cycle because you too, felt like you were going to be pushed over the edge. Sometimes, you already felt like you were gone. There was no one there for you anymore; until you met him.

You met a boy in geometry class. You’d bonded over right angles and isosceles triangles. You’d had the perfect friendship as it seemed until he found out. He found out you were depressed when you leaned over to get your pencil and he saw the artwork you had drawn with a razor on your wrists. He begged you to stop, but it was far too late.

It was so easy for him to tell you to quit. He hadn’t been through as much pain in his whole life compared to what you had felt in the past few months. He’d never understand your story ,no matter how hard he tried. It was so simple for an outsider like him to tell you to just stop feeling this way or to stop cutting. He was popular, tall, handsome, had siblings and a mother, he had friends, he was Ashton Irwin.

Ashton was everything you’d look for in a best friend. He had the basic qualities and some weird quirks, but you found them hilarious. You remember laughing at basically everything he said. His laugh alone could make you giggle until your stomach hurt.

One day in the ending days of Summer, you decided that Ashton wasn’t what you were looking for in a best friend anymore. He had been what you were looking for in a boyfriend. You knew your silly dream would never amount to anything else. He would never date a loser. Some times, you thought he was only friends with you because he felt bad. Ashton just simply didn’t feel the same about you. He had a girlfriend and she was a cheerleader, so there’d be no use in trying to steal him away.

Because you were Ashton’s best friend you were all over his twitter. Him being in a band and having 13 year old horny girls all over him didn’t help. Hate. Hate. Hate. Millions of negative tweets directed towards you.

“She’s a fat ass”

“I don’t understand why all of you ship (you and Ashton’s ship name). I personally find them to be a horrible couple. Ashton’s daddy af and (y/n)’s ugly ahah”

“She posted a selfie omf I can’t stop laughing”

You’d read enough. You slowly closed your lap top and sat in your dark bedroom. The demons payed you a visit. Your horrible thoughts clouded your mind. Why did everyone hate you? What was wrong with you? Why didn’t Ashton love you?

You knew what to do when you felt this way. Ashton had specifically told you when he first found out you were suicidal, that he was just a phone call away and he’d be with you whenever you needed him no matter the circumstances. It was sweet, really. Sometimes, you thought about calling and lying about feeling so down, just so that he’d come over and cuddle you.

Your shaky hands typed the number you’d memorized by heart into your phone. Tear drops drizzled down onto your phone as the phone rang.

“Yes (y/n),” an annoyed Ashton spoke.

“A-ash…” you sobbed.

“What’s the matter?” he concernedly asked, as if he already didn’t know.

“I feel that way again.” you whispered.

“(y/n) I’m on a date with Melissa. Can it wait a few hours?” he spoke in an annoyed tone again.

“I guess. I just don’t want to do something stupid and you know your the only one who can calm me down,” you lied about it being okay. You couldn’t believe he was selling you out for a temporary girlfriend.

“Sorry. I have to go but try Calum.” he hung up.

“I love you,” you sobbed just as he ended the call.

Maybe it was time. Time to let go. You could reunite with your mum and dad. You could be happy once again. It was horrible to think that death could make some one so happy, but you’d thought about this for a long time. You were sure it was what you’d wanted.

It’d be so sad that Ashton could never hear you tell him that he isn’t just a best friend. He was more. You love him with every piece of your damaged, broken heart.

Part 2 http://50shades-of-irwin.tumblr.com/post/116822070868/im-broken-pt-2

jettatu-ra  asked:

hi! i'm currently taking ochem I and stuck on this one reaction. what would happen if you reacted an cyclohexane with an epoxide on it, with sulfuric acid? I know what happens when you use a metal like Na or Li, but I'm at a loss of what happens when you react it with a strong acid such as sulfuric acid.

You’re in luck because I’m currently doing a lot of research into the synthesis and reactions of epoxides

So I assumed your question looks like this

Epoxides readily undergo ring opening reactions due to their ring strain (the tetrahedral carbons are forced to have bond angles at 60 degrees, as opposed to their preferred 109.5 degree angle).
The acid will protonate the oxygen and cause the ring to burst open, leaving a positive charge on the adjacent carbon. This secondary carbocation will react quickly with any nucleophile present, in this case I assumed water to be present and used that. 
Two products can form, the trans or cis products based on how the nucleophile adds to the cyclohexane ring. Since their are no other substituents on the ring, I’d predict that both products will be formed, but with a slight preference for the trans product since it may have less steric hindrance that the cis product. 

Hope that helps! 

Prompt Fill - A King and His Knight

Requested by vilkasdaina who wanted a story based on this amazing artwork and with the prompt: Q being the king and Bond being his knight or bodyguard or similar. I’d love the gap in their status to be the focus, with their roles clearly defined in public, but behind closed doors, it’s different. Your choice as to what ‘different’ means :)

 

So this is the one I took too far, because I integrated it with another plot that I had been toying around with for a long time, but had no real drive or motivation to write until this prompt showed up. I’m not sure if this will truly satisfy all of the original plot (honestly, I’m still not quite happy with the ending, but…), but I hope it does!


Cue historical inaccuracies about northern Scotland, how monarchies work in general, and anything and everything to do with whatever the hell time period this is. Also, there are knights and, despite that being my surname, I know little of them aside from Arthurian legend. SO, winging this like whoa. Hope you enjoy!

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