During the height of the Black Power movement of the late 1960s and 1970s, dozens of Pan African nationalist private schools, from preschools to post-secondary ventures, appeared in urban settings across the United States. The small, independent enterprises were often accused of teaching hate and were routinely harassed by authorities. Yet these institutions served as critical mechanisms for transmitting black consciousness. Founded by activist-intellectuals and other radicalized veterans of the civil rights movement, the schools strove not simply to bolster the academic skills and self-esteem of inner-city African-American youth but also to decolonize minds and foster a vigorous and regenerative sense of African identity.

In We Are An African People, historian Russell Rickford traces the intellectual lives of these autonomous black institutions, established dedicated to pursuing the self-determination that the integrationist civil rights movement had failed to provide. Influenced by Third World theorists and anticolonial campaigns, organizers of the schools saw formal education as a means of creating a vanguard of young activists devoted to the struggle for black political sovereignty throughout the world. Most of the institutions were short-lived, and they offered only modest numbers of children a genuine alternative to substandard, inner-city public schools. Yet their stories reveal much about Pan Africanism as a social and intellectual movement and as a key part of an indigenous black nationalism.

Rickford uses this largely forgotten movement to explore a particularly fertile period of political, cultural, and social revitalization that strove to revolutionize African American life and envision an alternate society. Reframing the post-civil rights era as a period of innovative organizing, he depicts the prelude to the modern Afrocentric movement and contributes to the ongoing conversation about urban educational reform, race, and identity.

“A man is not truly educated until he realizes the urgency in which he must rebuild his community.” ~Isaac Kwabena

Watching hidden colors all day, reading every black power book, listening to Malcolm X speeches is all cool but if you can’t apply the knowledge that you’re learning to bring about some change to your people then it’s all useless. Being a good teacher/coach takes skill. There’s much more that goes into it than just quoting documentaries. SanCopha Jewels…..
Post by @KingKwajo



Soldier A
Occupation : Soldier Apprentice
Sex : Man
Level : 2
HP : 18
MP : 7
Left Hand : Soldier’s Sword
Body : Soldier’s Armor
Waist : Leather Belt
Shoes : Leather Boots
Power : 11
Speed : 87
Physical Fitness : 22
Intelligence : 27
Luck : 1
Maximum HP : 18
Maximum MP : 7
Attack : 2
Defense : 5
Loyalty of Heart: 279
Ex : 14

Occupation : Magician
Sex : Woman
Level : 30
HP : 214
MP : 153
Right Hand : Wiseman’s Rod
Head : Three-Cornered Hat
Back : Jet-Black Cape
Personal Item : Jet-Black Book
Power : 38
Speed : 68
Physical Fitness : 31
Intelligence : 96
Luck : 121
Maximum HP : 214
Maximum MP : 153
Attack : 50
Defense : 62
Chuuni Level : 279
Ex : 241766

Occupation : Priest
Sex : Man
Level : 31
HP : 238
MP : 25
Right Hand : Hardcore Mace
Body : Holy Clothes
Head : Holy Hat
Personal Item: Bible
Power : 253
Speed : 60
Physical Fitness : 140
Intelligence : 96
Luck : 78
Maximum HP : 238
Maximum MP : 25
Attack : 219
Defense : 121
Faith in God : (Crossed Out (15)) (Written In (999))
Ex : 298105

Occupation : King (The Greatest)
Sex : (Crossed Out (Woman)) (Written In (Girl))
Level : 1
HP : 10
MP : 10
Head : Crown of Ramitonia
Body 1 : Cashmere Clothes
Body 2 : King’s Robe
Personal Item : Girl’s Secret Pouch
Power : 3
Speed : 8
Physical Fitness : 2
Intelligence : ???
Luck : 255
Maximum HP : 10
Maximum MP : 10
Attack : 1
Defense : 4
Financial Assets : National Budget
Ex : 0

Occupation : Demon Lord Army Soldier
Sex : Man
Level : 37
HP : 402
MP : 185
Right Hand : Demon Blade Kusanagi
Body : Armor of Legend
Back : Cloak of Curse
Power : 249
Speed : 130
Physical Fitness : 167
Intelligence : 140
Luck : 21
Maximum HP : 402
Maximum MP : 185
Attack : 320
Defense : 140
Evil Eye Power Level : 333
Ex : 417771

Sisters in the Struggle : African-American Women in the Civil Rights-Black Power Movement edited by Bettye Collier-Thomas and V.P. Franklin

Women were at the forefront of the civil rights struggle, but their individual stories were rarely heard. Only recently have historians begun to recognize the central role women played in the battle for racial equality.

In Sisters in the Struggle, we hear about the unsung heroes of the civil rights movements such as Ella Baker, who helped found the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, Fannie Lou Hamer, a sharecropper who took on segregation in the Democratic party (and won), and Septima Clark, who created a network of “Citizenship Schools” to teach poor Black men and women to read and write and help them to register to vote. We learn of Black women’s activism in the Black Panther Party where they fought the police, as well as the entrenched male leadership, and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, where the behind-the-scenes work of women kept the organization afloat when it was under siege.


Black Power TV by Devorah Heitner

In Black Power TV, Devorah Heitner chronicles the emergence of Black public affairs television starting in 1968. She examines two local shows, New York’s Inside Bedford-Stuyvesant and Boston’s Say Brother, and the national programs Soul! and Black Journal. These shows offered viewers radical and innovative programming: the introspections of a Black police officer in Harlem, African American high school students discussing visionary alternatives to the curriculum, and Miriam Makeba comparing race relations in the United States to apartheid in South Africa.