black river and western

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Albanian Dialects  

GHEG DIALECT

Spoken in most of Albania north of the Shkumbin river, as well as in Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, most of the western part of the Republic of Macedonia, and Arbanasi near Zadar in Croatia.

Northern Gheg subdialect

Spoken in most Albanian-speaking regions north of the Mat river. These include Ulqin [Ulcinj], Kraja and Podgorica in Montenegro, the Shkodra region, Lezha, Malësia e Madhe, Dukagjin, Puka, Mirdita, Plava, Malësia e Gjakovës, Luma, Has, Kosovo and Presheva [Preševo].

Western variant: Spoken in regions to the west of a vertical line from the Montenegrin-Albanian border initially down the boundary between the Prefecture of Shkodra and the Prefecture of Kukës, including Theth and Shala in Dukagjin and areas west thereof such as Shkodra, Lezha, Malësia e Madhe and Montenegro.

Eastern variant: Spoken in regions to the east of a vertical line from the Montenegrin-Albanian border initially down the boundary between the Prefecture of Shkodra and the Prefecture of Kukës, including Nikaj-Merturi and Puka, and areas east thereof such as Gashi, Tropoja, Malësia e Gjakovës, Has, Kukës, Kosovo and Presheva.

Southern Gheg subdialect

Spoken in northern central Albania south of the Mat river and north of the Shkumbin river, including Mat, Lura, Peshkopia and most of western Macedonia (Dibra to Skopje and Kumanova), as well as Kruja, Tirana and Elbasan.

Central variant: Spoken in the interior basin of the Mat river, extending eastwards to and beyond the Black Drin river, including Mat, part of Mirdita, Lura, Luma, Peshkopia and western Macedonia (the left bank of the Black Drin around Struga, Dibra, Kërçova [Kičevo], Tetova, Gostivar, Skopje and Kumanova), as well as Kruja and Fushë Kruja.

Southern variant: Spoken in most of the coastal region from the mouth of the Mat or Ishëm rivers to the mouth of the Shkumbin river, including Durrës, Tirana, and Kavaja, as well as inland areas such as the Tirana mountain range, Martanesh and Çermenika, Elbasan and the valley of the Shkumbin river.

TRANSITIONAL FORMS

Spoken in a ten to twenty kilometre horizontal belt along the Shkumbin river valley, mostly on the left (south) side of the river, including the northern Myzeqe plain, Dumreja, Shpat, Polis and Qukës.

TOSK DIALECT

Spoken in most of Albania south of the Shkumbin river and into Greece, as well as in the traditional Albanian diaspora settlements in Italy, Greece, Bulgaria and the Ukraine.

Northern Tosk subdialect

Spoken in most of Albania south of the Shkumbin river, with the exception of southern coastal areas on the left (southwestern) side of the Vjosa river. On the coast, the southern border of this area is just south of the town of Vlora.

Western variant: Spoken in the regions of Myzeqeja, Mallakastra, Berat, Fier, Skrapar, Tepelena on right (eastern) side of Vjosa, Përmet and Vlora, including the area to the north and northeast of the town of Vlora.

Eastern variant: Spoken in the regions of Pogradec, Korça, Kolonja and Devoll, as well as the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia (the right bank of the Black Drin around Struga, Ohrid, Prespa and Monastir [Bitola]).

Southern Tosk subdialect

Spoken in coastal regions south of the town of Vlora and extending downinto Greece.

Lab variant: Spoken in the Laberia region, being Kurvelesh and Himara down to the Shalës and Pavlle rivers, including Delvina and Gjirokastra.

Cham variant: Spoken in the Albanian part of the Chameria [Çamëria] region south of Shalës and Pavlle rivers, and in the Greek part of Chameria sporadically down to Preveza.

Arvanitic Tosk subdialect

Spoken traditionally in about 300 villages of central Greece, in particular in Attica, Boeotia, southern Euboia, the northeastern Peloponnese around Corinth, the islands of the Sardonic Gulf, including Salamis, northern Andros, as well as some other parts of the Peloponnese and Phthiotis. This archaic dialect is moribund, though there may still be from 50,000 to 250,000 speakers, mostly older people.

Italo-Albanian Tosk subdialect

This archaic variant of Albanian is spoken by about 90,000 people in southern Italy. Speakers are to be found, usually in remote mountain villages, in the regions of Calabria, Molise, Puglia, Basilicata, Campagnia, Abruzzi and Sicily.

1816 Black River Igbo Rebellion Plot, western Jamaica

“Before the generalized uprising of Christmas 1831, there were a number of attempts by slaves to organize local movements of resistance, all of them originally tinted to coincide with Christmas. In 1816 a conspiracy was discovered at Black River [St. Elizabeth, Jamaica] that according to Lewis (1834:227–28) involved only slaves of Eboe ([Igbo]) origin, but in whose organization “a black ascertained to have stolen over into the island from St. Domingo” and “a brown Anabaptist missionary” were said to have played a leading part. The conspirators elected a “King of the Eboes” and two “Captains,” the plan being “to effect a complete massacre of all the whites on the island, for which laudable design His Majesty thought Christmas the very fittest season of the year.” His captains, however thought otherwise and urged immediate action, thus perhaps contributing to the undoing of the plot, which was discovered when an overseer (also from Saint-Domingue) on the Lyndhurst Penn estate happened to observe “an uncommon concourse of stranger negroes to a child’s funeral, on which occasion a hog was roasted by the father" and, stealing closer, heard in addition to details of the plot being discussed, the following song sung by the “King of the Eboes” while his fellow conspirators joined in the chorus:

           Oh me good friend Mr. Wilberforce, make we free!
        God Almighty thank ye! God Almighty thank ye!
              God Almighty, make we free!
        Buckra in this country no make we free:
        What Negro for to do? What Negro for to do?
              Take force by force! Take force by force!
        CHORUS: To be sure! to be sure! to be sure!”

— Richard D. E. Burton (1997). Afro-Creole: Power, Opposition, and Play in the Caribbean. Cornell University Press. p. 84.

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