birth defects


It seems like all of the resources I can easily find online for identifying wolves vs dogs are either massive and difficult to understand without prior knowledge of the subject, or extremely bare-bones and miss a lot of key information. I tried to hit a comfortable middle-ground. (sorry if it’s a little wordy)
This tutorial is made as a reference for drawing, so everything but purely visual differences between dogs and wolves have been left out.

I’ve been wanting to make this for a while now, so I’m glad I finally sat down and did it!

When it comes to the section on wolfdogs, please take it with a grain of salt. With something as complicated as genetics, they are of course, not going to be as simple as I make it seem. What features different levels of content can display, and even which percentages designate which levels of content are often hotly debated within the wolfdog community. At this point I’ve elected not to change the image set itself because:
a. it’s a huge pain in the ass
b. this is a tutorial for beginning artists. It’s meant to be a hugely simplified version of the topic, and I’ve stated clearly that it is NOT to be used in real-world identification.

**EDIT 2**
A couple people have noted that the puppies section is a little misleading. Wolf puppies will always be born a solid brown, but that brown can range from a very dark brown (appearing as black) to a llight, gray-ish brown. The important point is that wolf pups will always be a solid color with even less distinguishable markings than even adult wolves. 
(also this guide does not include color possibilities related to birth defects or other genetic anomalies such as albinism)

((Huge thanks to yourdogisnotawolf. who’s blog inspired me to make this and for digging up that amazing picture of the wolf/lab mix))


Monty was born without a nose bone or nasal bridge, giving him a unique appearance. Due to this birth defect, he sneezes a lot but is nevertheless still as healthy and happy as any other cat! Monty certainly is a testament to the fact that even if you may look different, you’re still fantastic and loved.


Amniotic band syndrome is a congenital disorder where a foetus becomes entangled in fibrous string-like amniotic bands while in utero. These bands restrict blood flow and can result in a number of different birth defects. If a band wraps tightly around a limb that can lead to amputation, if a band is constricting the child’s face it can result in a cleft lip or palate. In a majority of cases club feet can also occur. Whenever the bands constrict the umbilical cord a miscarriage can occur. Amniotic band syndrome is not genetic, it happens by pure chance and there is nothing a pregnant woman can do to increase or decrease her risk of it developing. 


When Kathleen Muldoon had her second child everything was going smoothly. The delivery was short, the baby’s APGAR score was good and he was a healthy weight.

But when a doctor noticed that Gideon was jaundiced, everything changed. Nurses put him under a fluorescent light to treat the problem. But it didn’t work. Instead, he developed a red rash all over his body. Blood work indicated newborn Gideon was infected with a virus Muldoon had never heard of: Cytomegalovirus or CMV – a virus that can cause severe birth defects.

Gideon was diagnosed with extensive brain damage, spastic quadriplegic cerebral palsy, visual impairment, epilepsy and microcephaly – that’s the neurological condition also caused by the Zika virus, where the baby’s head is abnormally small. Gideon spent the first four weeks of his life in the neonatal intensive care unit.

For Gideon, Infection With a Common Virus Caused Rare Birth Defects

Photos by Caitlin O'Hara for NPR

Pro-Life? Pro-Choice?

So, I’m going to state my opinion on abortion.

I’m actually rather neutral.

I think that abortion should allowed, but in certain cases.

If the child will come out with a serious birth deformity, such as sirenomelia, fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, a severe case of osteogenisis imperfecta, or severe defects similar to any of those, should be aborted because all they will have is a life of suffering.

Minor birth defects can be fixed with little complication, so I don’t think children with such should be aborted.

I also think if someone was raped and they suffered such severe trauma from it, they can be aborted. But that depends on the person.

However, if a woman goes around having unprotected sex, the woman in question should not be allowed to have an abortion. She can put the child up for adoption or raise it herself. It’s her own fault she got pregnant and she be held responsible for her actions.

We have things like condoms, the pill, birth control implants, the morning after pill, etc. You have no excuse unless you were wearing a condom while the woman was on birth control. And even then, they should only have one, maybe two abortions before they have to deal with their consequences.


Syndactyly represents fusion of two or more digits. It can be an isolated finding or part of syndromes that define patterns of anomalies. Most of these syndromes do not have a specific genetic defect yet defined, though some do. Seen above are photographs of a foot that has rudimentary, partially fused digits, and a hand with the digits fused together. 

I am so tired of how horrifically people treat animals. And I’m not just talking about the obvious stuff like poaching/hunting/fishing and animal agriculture.

I’m talking about people who buy a pet without doing any research first and then keeping them in terrible conditions because the pet was more work than they were expecting. People who overbreed animals for new and interesting traits, despite the fact that many of these animals suffer from birth defects and hereditary diseases. People who buy foxes, monkeys, and other wild animals that should not be kept as pets, especially since there are already countless animals spending their lives alone in shelters. People who allow small prey animals to interact with predators such as dogs and cats and claim that it’s fine because they “always supervise them.” People who literally ship animals in the mail because someone in another city or state *has* to have a certain breed, species, or coloration that isn’t available near them. People who keep fish in tiny, cold, unfiltered bowls because “it’s just a fish.”

Animals are not products, decorations, or accessories. Every animal is a living individual and most of them (with the exception of some invertebrates) can feel pain and fear. If you truly loved animals, you wouldn’t treat them with such disrespect and cruelty.

Do extensive research before getting a pet. Adopt instead of buying from a store or a breeder. Speak up for those who cannot speak for themselves.

Why Stanford Pines is So Important to Me:

Okay, sure, part of it is because he’s just a glorious dimension-jumping old man who just so happens to have a fabulous taste in sweaters, but there’s a lot more to it.

So lemme just throw this out there:

As someone with a birth defect, Ford Pines’ six fingers and the way his condition is handled mean the world to me.

Yes, I know Ford’s polydactylism wasn’t created with the intention of being overly progressive or representative–it’s a clever trait that gave the author a sense of quirkiness and mystery, and ultimately became an identifiable trademark for both Stanford and the journals.

But in truth, things would’ve been a lot different if the six-finger thing had been just cast aside as “Oh, look at me, I’m the six-fingered author, I just have cooltastic hands and let’s never address this again!”  No, Stanford’s birth defect was, in fact, more than just a cool trademark.

It was a pivotal part of his life.

Right off the bat, the fact that Ford was born with an “anomaly” shapes his interests in the weird and unique.  It’s something he’s grown up with, and something that’s normal to him, but the fact that it’s abnormal to everyone else only piques his interest in digging deeper, even in childhood. 

It’s an authentic response—also, it’s just downright adorable.

And then there’s the teasing–This is something I’ve experienced firsthand as someone born with a congenital defect, and the fact that Ford is so eager to get away from it really hits close to home.  So many people have dubbed him a freak that he starts to believe it, and while heartbreaking, it’s also mega realistic.

But there’s one detail that makes Ford’s situation a million times better:

Stanford isn’t ostracized throughout the show for his defect, because there is acceptance in his life. Someone has his back.

Stan’s approach to making his brother feel “normal” was just amazingly genuine and heartwarming to me.  He’s never embarrassed, by, pitying towards, or burdened by his brother.  He never teases Ford for how he was born or uses it against him, even in moments of anger.  In fact, he uses it to emphasize positively why Ford is special.  From the “Sixer” nickname to their heartfelt tradition of “high-six,” Ford’s condition is treated as something unique and, in a sense, almost admirable.

And best of all, that admiration continues!  Mabel and Dipper both seem to think that Ford’s polydactyl hands are the coolest thing (“Wow, a six-fingered handshake! That’s a full finger friendlier than normal!”), and as he gets older, Ford never seems to be painted into a corner as a “deformed” or “defective” person.  He’s just the epic guy with the six fingers and he’s learned to live as such.

And by learning to live, we come to the thing that makes Stanford Pines—and his six fingers—absolutely awesome:

He takes his condition and he freaking owns it.

Not only did Ford overcome his self-judgement about physical things he just couldn’t help, but he actually took them and used them to his advantage. Twisting the teasing and ridicule he’d received into his passion and scientific talent, Ford was able to study something that interested him and that he connected to on a personal level.  And he was freaking good at it, too!

(Until the whole, y’know, partnership with a demon triangle. But that’s not what I’m ranting about right now.)

And the six-fingered journal was more than just a quirk—in my eyes, it really symbolized that Ford now saw his “defect” as something truly special.  It was a trait that symbolized him, but not one that condemned him.  No one is defined by their conditions, but they can sure as hell be empowered by them, and that’s exactly what Ford did.

So in conclusion, yeah, having six fingers is super-duper nifty, but as someone born in a very similar boat, it just takes on a whole new light for me.  Gravity Falls could’ve gone two different routes, either completely and grotesquely ostracizing Ford for his defect or completely ignoring it and acting like these things don’t affect real life at all; instead they went right down the middle and (to me at least) created a realistic yet subtle scenario overall.  

In truth, addressing Ford’s polydactylism could’ve gone ridiculously amiss. But in the show’s case, it felt super genuine.  Plus, Ford is just an epic character overall, birth defect or none!

Sure, it’s no revolutionary feat in the world of representation, but in the end, Stanford Pines just makes me feel confident in myself sometimes.  And if there’s some little kid out there with their own congenital “anomalies” that feels the same way?

Well, I think that’s what matters most.


Snuffles is an adorable dog with 2 noses. Instead of his nostrils being fused together, he’s got some sort of split. The anomaly is caused by a rare birth defect. Luckily, the issue doesn’t cause any health problems. He can be seen moving both sections of his nose independently.  (Source)


This adorable Australian Shepherd is Toby and while at first glance he may appear to look like any other Australian Shepherd but Toby is special - he has two noses! He was discovered wandering the streets of Fresno, California, and was picked up by a rescue group. However, the so-called rescue group considered him unadoptable and were ready to put him to sleep. That was until Todd Ray, a man who owns a number of animals with birth defects, adopted him and made him a member of his family. 


This is sirenomelia. The term comes from “siren” or “mermaid” because of the characteristic fusion of the lower extremities that results from a failure in the development of a normal vascular supply to lower extremities from the lower aorta in utero.


Originally posted by lawlliets

Genre: Fluff/Angst | Soulmate!AU

Word Count: 6914

Most people are born with three names tattooed on their wrist: Their true love, their biggest enemy, and their greatest ally. You only have one name. (X)

You were walking slower than normal, the tall stack of paper and envelopes weighing you down and throwing off your balance. You could feel your purse slipping from your shoulders, and your arms were growing tired as you walked across the lobby of your office building. You took a few rushed steps towards the stairwell, the elevator had unfortunately stopped working. You leant the stack of papers against the wall, readjusting your grip before attempting to ascend the narrow stairwell. Sadly, your efforts were in vain.

Rushed footsteps were approaching fast from behind until suddenly, a body slammed into your shoulder. You gasped in horror as you watched the stack of paper in your hands topple to the ground. You looked up, expecting an apology, but all you saw was the figure of an unfamiliar man with blonde hair, dressed in a suit, hastily dashing up the stairway, skipping every second step.

“Rude,” you muttered to yourself, hearing his footsteps grow quieter as he ascended. You glanced down at the mess in front of you, stretching out your hands to soothe the ache that had developed from carrying the stack. You glanced down at your wrists as you massaged the joint, watching the words written on the skin crease with your movements.

Keep reading

Changes in the heart at birth

A newborn’s body undergoes many changes to adapt to life outside the womb, one of the most dramatic being the heart. Before birth, very little blood is sent to the lungs - most is diverted away from the lungs through a vessel called the ductus arteriosus. Before birth, the ductus arteriosus is as large as the aorta.

  • The placenta helps the baby “breathe” while growing in the womb. 
  • Oxygen and carbon dioxide flow through the blood in the placenta
  • At birth, the baby’s lungs are filled with fluid. They are not inflated. 
  • The baby takes the first breath within about 10 seconds after delivery. This breath sounds like a gasp, as the newborn’s central nervous system reacts to the sudden change in temperature and environment.
  • Lungs inflate and begin working, moving oxygen into the bloodstream and removing carbon dioxide (exhalation).
  • Lungs become distended, the capillary network dilated and their resistance is reduced drastically so that a rich flow of blood can take place.
  • Pressure in the right atrium sinks in comparison to left 
  • pressure turn around in the atria causes the septum primum to be pressed against the septum secundum and the foramen secundum becomes functionally closed
  • Towards the end of the first year, it has also grown together in 99% of the babies –> the hole between the left and right atrium is closed.
  • Fluid drains or is absorbed from the respiratory system.

Cutting of the umbilical cord gets rid of the placental low resistance area, increasing peripheral resistance in systemic circulation

  • pressure in the aorta is now higher than that in truncus pulmonalis 
  •  pO2 pressure in the aorta increases since the blood is now oxygenated directly in the baby’s lungs
  • Triggering a contraction of the smooth musculature in the wall of the ductus arteriosus - closing

Atrial Septal Defects

  • The ductus arteriosus closes within the first day or two.
  • However this doesn’t always happen smoothly - resulting in a congenital (from birth) heart defect - ASD (atrial septal defect)
  • The severity of the defect depends on the size of the hole -it may be very small (less than 5mm) with minimal leakage, allowing the individual to live a normal life. Location also plays a role in blood flow and oxygen levels.
  • ASDs are defined as primum  (linked to other heart defects of the ventricular septum and mitral valve) and secundum defects (a single, small or large hole). They may also be more than one small hole in the septum or wall between the two chambers.
  • The hole may stay the same size, or grow with the rest of the heart during development and consequently will be monitored throughout childhood development, then more infrequently throughout adulthood.

This is a slight variation of a neural tube defect known as iniencephaly in which there is lack of proper formation of occipital bones with a short neck and defect of the upper cord. The head is tilted back. The most common outcome of this condition is a stillbirth, although rarely live births do occur. In these rare cases the infants invariably die after a short period of time (typically only a couple of hours).