My favourite response to all the talk of riots not doing anything is the contrast between the Birmingham Campaign and the Birmingham Riot in 1963. The former was led by the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (mainly Martin Luther King, Fred Shuttlesworth, and James Bevel) and was focused entirely on maintaining nonviolence against whites, although they were willing to attack black people who violated the boycott and destroy the goods they had bought from white-owned businesses. For 5 weeks of protests, with children as young as 8 being attacked by police water cannons and dogs and arrested en masse in order to get the best pictures out to the international press and starve local businesses of profits, they achieved desegregation in a single city. The next night, the KKK bombed the motel where Dr. King had been saying and the black people of the city took to the streets in anger. A cop was stabbed, dozens of buildings were burned, and the army was deployed to police the streets. The prize for that single night of action, as confirmed in declassified White House recordings, was JFK’s support for the landmark legislation that would become the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the first civil rights legislation to pass Congress in nearly 100 years. Tell me, which do you think was more successful?