"37 Slogans For College Majors If They Were Actually Honest"

Accounting: selling your soul for money.

Aerospace Engineering: “it actually is rocket science.”

Anthropology: it’ll get you laid, but it won’t get you paid!

Archeology: if you don’t know what it is, it’s probably ceremonial.

Art History: and you thought making art was pointless!

Astrophysics: “Eh, I’m within an order of magnitude…”

Biochemistry: spend 4 years aspiring to discover the cure for cancer, and the rest of your life manufacturing shampoo.

Chemistry: where alcohol is a solution.

Communications: “we’ll teach you everything you need to know about convincing your friends that your degree is actually meaningful.”

Computer Engineering: tons of chicks, just not very many.

Computer Science (for a straight girl): the odds are good, but the goods are odd.

Creative Writing: because job security is for pussies.

Criminal Justice: we’re here because of Law & Order reruns.

Dental Hygienist: “something to do until you get knocked up.”

Engineering: the art of figuring out which parameters you can safely ignore.

English: so you want to be a teacher.

Film: forks on the left, knives on the right.

Finance: “accounting was too hard.”

Graphic Design: no, we’re not artists.  We’re designers; there’s a difference.

History: history may repeat itself, but you definitely will.

Information Technology: let me Google that for you.

Journalism: learn how to construct an argument that no one will listen to.

Latin: because useful is overrated.

Linguistics: studied 17 languages, fluent in none of them.

Marine Biology: “I wanted to play with dolphins, but I’m looking at algae instead.”

Music Performance: if you don’t hate yourself, you’re doing it wrong.

Nursing: learning to save others’ lives while struggling not to take your own.

Philosophy: think about it.

Photography: it’s worth a shot.

Physics: “everything you learned last week was wrong.”

Political Science: your opinion is wrong

Pre-med: “I’ll probably switch majors in two years.”

Psychology: good luck doing anything until you get your Masters.

Speech Pathology: we have a way of making you talk.

Statistics: where everything’s made up, and numbers don’t matter.

Structural Engineering: because architects don’t know what physics is.

Zoology: because you can’t major in kittens.

Penicillin

Penicillin is a widely used antibiotic prescribed to treat staphylococci and streptococci bacterial infections. 

  • beta-lactam family 
  • Gram-positive bacteria = thick cell walls containing high levels of peptidoglycan
  • gram-negative bacteria = thinner cell walls with low levels of peptidoglycan and surrounded by a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) layer that prevents antibiotic entry 
  • penicillin is most effective against gram-positive bacteria where DD-transpeptidase activity is highest.

Examples of penicillins include:

  • amoxicillin
  • ampicillin
  • bacampicillin
  • oxacillin
  • penicillin

Mechanism(s)

  • Penicillin inhibits the bacterial enzyme transpeptidase, responsible for catalysing the final peptidoglycan crosslinking stage of bacterial cell wall synthesis.
  • Cells wall is weakened and cells swell as water enters and then burst (lysis)
  • Becomes permanently covalently bonded to the enzymes’s active site (irreversible)

Alternative theory: penicillin mimics D-Ala D-Ala

Or may act as an umbrella inhibitor

Resistance

  • production of beta-lactamase - destroys the beta-lactam ring of penicillin and makes it ineffective (eg Staphylococcus aureus - most are now resistant)
  • In response, synthetic penicillin that is resistant to beta-lactamase is in use including egdicloxacillin, oxacillin, nafcillin, and methicillin. 
  • Some is resistant to methicillin - methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).  
  • Demonstrating blanket resistance to all beta-lactam antibiotics -extremely serious health risk.
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[ 16.01.17 ] ☕️ starting the day with coffee, biochem and tarot! i’m quite up to date on my schedule with biochem, which is good, because there’s a lot to memorize and that way i can consolidate my knowledge a bit more until saturday. also, this deck is one i got in 2015 but never really picked it up much since. lately though i’ve been feeling it a lot!

Morphine
  • sourced from the seed capsule of poppy plants - opium is the extract
  • 16% morphine, 4% codeine
  • poorly absorbed orally - potential realised with the invention of hypodermic syringe 
  • used as an analgesic (pain relief/tolerance) eg american civil war - addictive potential realised 

Morphine interacts predominantly with the opioid mu-receptor. 

  • high densities of these receptors in the posterior amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, nucleus caudatus, putamen, and certain cortical areas, also in substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord and in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve
  • Provides analgesia and sedation
  • Euphoria, dysphoria, and drowsiness commonly occur
  • respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centres.
  • Morphine binds to and inhibits GABA inhibitory interneurons
  • Which inhibit the descending pain inhibition pathway
  • Metabolism = primarily hepatic (90%), -virtually all morphine is converted to glucuronide metabolites; less than 5% = demethylated.

Side effects

  • Drowsiness, disorientation, nausea, vision blurring (avoid driving)
  • Constipation and dysuria
  • Dry mouth.
  • Itching, sweating, flushing or rashes.
  • Mood changes
  • Hallucinations 
  • Headache
  • Loss of appetite and indigestion or abdominal pain
  • Slow, shallow breathing
  • constricted pupils
  • Low blood pressure.
  • Rigid or twitching muscles.
  • Awareness of heartbeat (palpitations).

November 15th, 2016

Finally got around to reviewing the epinephrine/glucagon and insulin signalling pathways and typing up some biology notes. I’m trying out a new study method; rather than spending hours handwriting my lecture notes I’m going to type them, then annotate then with textbook readings and tutorials.

Molecule of the Day - Adrenaline/Epinephrine

Adrenaline (C9H13NO3), also known as epinephrine, is a naturally-occurring hormone and neurotransmitter found in our body. Along with noradrenaline, it is produced by the adrenal medulla, which is situated above the kidneys.

As a hormone, adrenaline stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, and is partly responsible for the “fight-or-flight” response.

It binds to adrenergic receptors, which are found in almost all tissues, inducing the breakdown of glycogen into glucose (see below), glycolysis, and also inhibits glycogen synthesis as well as insulin secretion. This results in a surge in glucose availability, providing a burst of energy needed to escape any danger. 

Adrenaline also promotes vasoconstriction, the narrowing of blood vessels, as well as an increase in heart rate to raise the amount of blood being pumped throughout the body. This causes more oxygenated blood to reach the body at a faster rate, enabling cells to carry out respiration to produce more energy as well.

An interesting study revealed that adrenaline is associated with fear. A 1999 study showed that subjects injected with adrenaline experienced greater feelings of fear upon watching horror films. They also expressed greater negative emotions than the control group.

In nature, adrenaline is biosynthesised from phenylalanine through multiple enzyme-catalysed reactions:

On the other hand, adrenaline can be synthesised from resorcinol and 2-chloroethanoyl chloride in the lab: