Lab is all dressed up for Christmas! Lately I’ve been spending more time at the lab than I have been at home, especially since it’s a nice place to study. Studying with @photoplankton as per usual, eating pizza as per usual.
[ 16.01.17 ] ☕️ starting the day with coffee, biochem and tarot! i’m quite up to date on my schedule with biochem, which is good, because there’s a lot to memorize and that way i can consolidate my knowledge a bit more until saturday. also, this deck is one i got in 2015 but never really picked it up much since. lately though i’ve been feeling it a lot!
sourced from the seed capsule of poppy plants - opium is the extract
16% morphine, 4% codeine
poorly absorbed orally - potential realised with the invention of hypodermic syringe
used as an analgesic (pain relief/tolerance) eg american civil war - addictive potential realised
Morphine interacts predominantly with the opioid mu-receptor.
high densities of these receptors in the posterior amygdala, hypothalamus, thalamus, nucleus caudatus, putamen, and certain cortical areas, also in substantia gelatinosa of the spinal cord and in the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve
Provides analgesia and sedation
Euphoria, dysphoria, and drowsiness commonly occur
respiratory depression by direct action on brain stem respiratory centres.
Morphine binds to and inhibits GABA inhibitory interneurons
Which inhibit the descending pain inhibition pathway
Metabolism = primarily hepatic (90%), -virtually all morphine is converted to glucuronide metabolites; less than 5% = demethylated.
Finally got around to reviewing the epinephrine/glucagon and insulin signalling pathways and typing up some biology notes. I’m trying out a new study method; rather than spending hours handwriting my lecture notes I’m going to type them, then annotate then with textbook readings and tutorials.
Adrenaline (C9H13NO3), also known as epinephrine, is a naturally-occurring hormone and neurotransmitter found in our body. Along with noradrenaline, it is produced by the adrenal medulla, which is situated above the kidneys.
As a hormone, adrenaline stimulates the sympathetic nervous system, and is partly responsible for the “fight-or-flight” response.
It binds to adrenergic receptors, which are found in almost all tissues, inducing the breakdown of glycogen into glucose (see below), glycolysis, and also inhibits glycogen synthesis as well as insulin secretion. This results in a surge in glucose availability, providing a burst of energy needed to escape any danger.
Adrenaline also promotes vasoconstriction, the narrowing of blood vessels, as well as an increase in heart rate to raise the amount of blood being pumped throughout the body. This causes more oxygenated blood to reach the body at a faster rate, enabling cells to carry out respiration to produce more energy as well.
An interesting study revealed that adrenaline is associated with fear. A 1999 study showed that subjects injected with adrenaline experienced greater feelings of fear upon watching horror films. They also expressed greater negative emotions than the control group.
In nature, adrenaline is biosynthesised from phenylalanine through multiple enzyme-catalysed reactions:
On the other hand, adrenaline can be synthesised from resorcinol and 2-chloroethanoyl chloride in the lab: