bill c 45

Pot-infused cuisine will be the next big trend, food expert predicts

A professor of food distribution and policy at Dalhousie University in Halifax predicts marijuana will be a growing trend in the food industry, and says policy needs to be implemented to minimize risk.

Bill C-45 does not include the legalization of edible cannabis products, and Ottawa has said it would deal with those products at a later date.

Sylvain Charlebois conducted research alongside Simon Somogyi, a Dalhousie University faculty of agriculture associate professor, surveying Canadians’ willingness to consider marijuana as a food ingredient and incorporate it into their diet.

“Some people may actually prefer to do that, but they need to understand the risks in doing so," said Charlebois.

Just over 45 per cent of respondents in the Canada-wide survey said they would be willing to buy food containing marijuana, if recreational use is legalized.

"This could be the next gluten-free phenomenon,” said Charlebois, citing the multimillion-dollar industry. “A lot of companies are seeing marijuana as the next trend.”

Edible marijuana products don’t represent the same threat to your lungs but can lead to more severe impairment, Dr. Benedikt Fischer, a senior scientist with Toronto's Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, has told CBC News.

Edible cannabis products often contain THC, the psychoactive substance that gives consumers that “high” feeling, and can come in many forms, including baked goods, candy and cannabis-infused butter.

For adults, overeating marijuana edibles rarely leads to serious consequences beyond intense anxiety or a strong urge to go to sleep, according to Dr. Patricia Daly, chief medical health officer for Vancouver Coastal Health. But for children, Daly has told CBC News, the consequences can be far more severe, and can include depressed respiration and possibly even coma.

She said seven per cent of reported cannabis poisonings in American children end up in critical-care units.

Ian Culbert, executive director of the Canadian Public Health Association, said there must be strict regulation and a limited range of products available initially. Edibles must have clear identification of dosage and servings, and come with education about how it takes longer to take effect than smoking.

Understanding the effects

Charlebois said Bill C-45 focuses on the exchange of marijuana, outlining regulations for who can buy, where and who will sell it. He said those guidelines are important, but aren’t helpful beyond the point of sale.

“People will go home and cook, maybe process it and make all sorts of food products,” he said.

“Canadians understand the effects of alcohol, but maybe not marijuana in their spaghetti sauce or extra spices in their pizza. The effects may actually be felt one, two, three, even four hours after eating it,” said Charlebois, also dean of the faculty of management.

‘Policy has a role to play’

The poll by Charlebois and Somogyi found that about 68 per cent of people across the country favour the impending legalization of pot, with the bulk of that support in B.C. and Ontario.

The survey was conducted on a sample size of 1,087 people over age 18, with a margin of error of 3.1 percentage points, 19 times out of 20.

Charlebois believes “rigorous policy has a role to play” in food-related use of marijuana.

Without proper regulation, Charlebois said buyers could see marijuana-infused products without the proper dosage or packaging.

“FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE (please forward): Individuals from Six Nations and their allies have interrupted work on a section of Enbridge’s Line 9 pipeline. The work stoppage began around 10am this morning. Individuals involved asked workers to leave, asserting that the land is Haudenosaunee territory guaranteed under the Haldimand deed, and that Enbridge’s workers were present without consent or consultation. 

“Meaningful consultation isn’t just providing information and going ahead without discussion – it’s giving the opportunity to say no and having a willingness to accommodate.” says Missy Elliot.

“Enbridge left a voice message on a machine with one person. That’s not meaningful – it’s not even consultation.” Emilie Corbeau, there in support of Six Nations points out. 

Those involved intend to host an action camp, filling the time with teach-ins about Six Nations history, indigenous solidarity and skill shares centering on direct action.

The group states that they’ve tried the other processes available to them and here out of necessity. “We’ve tried pursuing avenues with the NEB, the township and the Grand River Conservation Authority. Our concerns were dismissed. What other choice do we have if we want to protect our land, water and children?” Missy Elliot of Six Nations asks.

Under bill C-45 the section of the Grand River adjacent to the Enbridge work site and pipeline is no longer protected. Approximately half a million people rely on drinking water provided by the Grand River.

“This isn’t just about line 9 – or Northern Gateway, Energy East or Keystone XL. This is about pipelines – all of them.” Daniell Boissineau, of Turtle Clan, asserts. “This is about the tarsands and how destructive they are to expand, extract and transport.”

“This is a continental concern. It’s not just a Six Nations issue or an indigenous issue. We share the responsibility to protect our land and water as human beings.” Elliot states.”

Dear Ms. __,

Thank you for your correspondence regarding the conservative government’s recent budget enactment legislation.

Omnibus legislation of this kind is a sleazy trap. MPs and Senators are made to vote on massive bills which are subjected to little or no scrutiny or review, and then labeled ‘obstructionist’ when they object. Moreover, the fact that the vast majority of issues covered by the bill were not identified in the 2012 Budget raises additional concerns.

The most recent budget enactment bill is 433 pages long. Opposition parties had to fight doggedly to allow the legislation to even be studied by Parliamentary committees. And now the Conservatives, with the support of the NDP, have altered the rules so as to bar opposition amendments to the bill from even being considered in committee.

This is a sad, disingenuous way of doing business, and Canadians certainly deserve better from their elected representatives. There are serious oversights in this bill especially regarding environmental issues, which my colleague Kirsty Duncan has identified and explained at length in the House of Commons. Most glaring among them is the amendment of the Navigable Waters Act to dramatically reduce the number of waterways protected. Of the roughly 32,000 lakes in Canada, only 97 lakes are now considered worthy of protection. The same can be said of only 62 rivers across our great nation.  

And, chillingly, the omnibus legislation goes on to exempt pipeline impacts on waterways from being considered in environmental assessments. This is an invitation to environmental disaster. These issues need to be managed with an eye to evidence, and history. We know that, despite our best efforts, pipelines can rupture. Are we really supposed to believe that this fact should not be considered when we decide where to put our pipelines?

C-45 also addresses the sovereignty and inherent rights of Canada’s indigenous peoples without regard for the government’s compulsory duty to consult them. A number of bills have recently come before Parliament, in which the government claims to be acting in the interests of aboriginal peoples.  This is a cruel and cynical misrepresentation. Canada’s Aboriginal peoples and the organizations that represent them have been adamant in their opposition to C-45, and their demands for greater consultation. Their voices – better than any number of trite press releases from the Prime Minister’s Office – tell us something about exactly how poorly Aboriginal peoples’ interests are being represented by this government.

Thanks once again for your correspondence on this matter. I and my caucus colleagues will continue to oppose this government’s flagrant abuse of the environment and Canada’s indigenous peoples. Please do not hesitate to contact me if I can be of any further assistance.



Hon. Dr. Hedy Fry, M.P, P.C.

Liberal Party of Canada – Health Critic

Vancouver Centre

This is the response I received when I wrote to the Senators concerning Bill C-45. At this point, it is the only response I have received out of the 100 Senators.
10 Ways Harper’s Government Has F*cked The Environment
In a decade of power, the Conservative Party has shown it cares more about its friends in the oil industry than the people of Canada - especially Indigenous peoples. Here are 10 ways Harper’s government has f*cked over the environment.
By miwilson
  • 1. Pulling out of the ONLY international climate agreement we had
  • 2. Passing a Bill that’s as Bad for First Nations as it is for the Environment
    • “Bill C-45, passed in 2012, allows for easier opening of First Nations treaty lands and territory. It means major pipeline and power line project advocates aren’t required to prove their project won’t damage or destroy a navigable waterway it crosses, removing protection for 99.9% of lakes and rivers in Canada.”
  • 3. Making protecting the environment an act of terrorism
  • 4. Waging a War on First Nations
  • 5. Cheerleading Dangerous Pipelines
  • 6. Muzzling Scientists
    • “The Harper government spent several million dollars of taxpayers’ money on a tar sands advocacy fund. The government spent $30 million from the public purse over two years on public relations advertising and domestic and international ‘outreach activities’ to promote Alberta’s tar sands and cover up the climate impacts of the project.”
  • 7. Conducting Secret Tar Sands Advocacy
  • 8. Screwing up environmental assessment
    • “Under legislation passed by the Harper government, the ‘Canadian Environmental Assessment Act’ no longer requires all proposed projects to undergo a hearing. The government has basically stated that the reason for this change is to make it easier to dig up fossil fuel reserves and get them to market as quickly as possible. Big surprise: the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers endorses the plan.”
  • 9. Allowing oil spills off the coast of Nova Scotia
  • 10. Winning ‘Lifetime Unachievement’ Award at Climate Talks