biga

2

Roman Imperatorial Silver Denarius of L. Hostilius Saserna, Possibly Depicting Vercingetorix on the Obverse

This silver denarius was struck at the Rome mint in 48 BC by the moneyer L. Hostilius Saserna under the rule of Julius Caesar. It displays the head of a Gallic captive (Vercingetorix?) with a chain around his neck. He has flowing, long hair and a long, pointed beard. There is a Gallic shield behind him. The reverse shows two warriors in a galloping biga, one is driving while holding a whip in his right hand and the reins in his left. The other is facing backwards, holding a shield in his left hand and brandishing a spear in his right. The name L • HOSTILIVS is written above and SASERN is written below.

Caesar’s Gallic War Coins:

A series of coins celebrating Caesar’s victories in Gaul appear in 48 BC. It was in this year that Caesar began hostilities against Pompey. In the previous year Pompey had released coins proclaiming his naval power. Caesar’s coins might be seen as a response. These coins were not minted by Caesar himself, but by two of his supporters who became moneyers in this year. One of these was L. Hostilius Saserna who released the coin above. The bearded male on the obverse of is often identified as Vercingetorix, the chieftain of the Arverni tribe, who united the Gauls in a revolt against Rome. Putting his face on a Roman coin is a strong symbol of the victory over and subjugation of the Gauls.

2

Very Rare Celtic Gold Coin with a Chariot and Carnyx

This ¼ stater was struck by an uncertain tribe in Northwest Gaul during the third to second centuries BC. The obverse is a beardless male with curly hair facing to the right, however, the reverse is what’s special about this coin. It shows a Celticized version of a biga (chariot), a horse standing to the right with a male figure on its back. He is blowing an ancient musical instrument, a carnyx. There is a long-fingered figure below the horse with both hands raised. An arrow is behind the rider and a sickle shaped razor is in front of the horse. This is a very rare coin with a remarkably attractive and curious reverse. The obverse is struck from a worn die, otherwise, the coin is extremely fine.

Known as the ‘Trumpet Type,’ its obverse is clearly an early member of the long series that ended up with the extraordinary heads from the Channel Islands and the coast nearby. However, the reverse is simply astounding with its remarkable horse, and the ‘rider’ blowing his horn. As for the rather orans-like figure with his arms raised in praise or prayer below the horse, there are virtually no parallels.

The carnyx was a bronze wind instrument used by Iron Age Celts to rally troops and strike fear into the heart of their enemies from around 200 BC to 200 AD. It took the form of a very elongated ’S’ shaped tube. The horn’s bell was usually shaped like an animal’s head with its mouth wide open. Seven carnyces were discovered at Tintignac, France; six of them have boar-shaped heads and the seventh takes the shape of a a serpent-like beast.  

You can hear the awesome sounds of a carnyx here in a video of John Kenny playing a modern carnyx reproduction.

PLL Aria

Friendly reminder to all Aria is A theorist including me.

  • We have a extremely big chance that in fact she is hiding something seeing that someone we don’t know only took Aria’s and Noel’s file (who has been comfirmed as partner in the dollhouse). 
  • She has a weird personal relationship with mona even further explored this season. Mona giving her personal updates, meeting her off screen, calling her, giving her creepy dolls, always paring up with her in the dollhouse etc.
  • She also had a weird personal relationship with Jenna in previous seasons. Playing flute with her and stuff at jenna’s house.
  • She was been seen multiple times texting/ talking to people we do not know off. For example at the unmasked ball we see her talking to someone but the camera does not show the person/ let us hear the dialogue at all.
  • She was at the Dilaurantes family dinner. (family picture was in her room in the dollhouse)
  • She was the only one who was personally investigated my the police last season (we never got a answer why)
  • Multiple times in all the seasons we got hints towards one of the 4 girls or multiple not being trustworthy.. (the first secret when alison tells spencer while looking at emily/aria ‘’i thought you where going to look who voted for you spens, you be surprised who your friends are and who aren’t’)
  • Aria’s middle name for some reason has been revealed this season to be ‘’Marie” (how odd?)
  • If the pattern of liars who sush go like they always do. Aria will sush the summer finale and the series finale. Don’t tell me after 5 seasons of only her doing it and ‘’coincidently’’ doing it on the biggest/ last finals is just luck. Nothing is a coincidence. 
  • Loads more of shady things over all the seasons as you all know but way toooooo long to list them all.

Rejoice my fellow theorist and just to be certain, pray. (pls do)

Commissions

Helloooo bitches I’m poor so commissions are open!!! I actually draw pretty well wtf, if u want a drawing/paiting hmu 

Here are some examples:

They’re between A3-A4 but I swear I’m not doing anything bigger than an A3. (The last picture is bigger than that).

A3 pencil

A4 pencil

A3 pencil

this one’s incomplete excuse me

A4 Acrilics

idk the size sorry  oil