best collection of the year

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Close Views Show Saturn’s Rings in Unprecedented Detail

Newly released images showcase the incredible closeness with which NASA’s Cassini spacecraft, now in its “Ring-Grazing” orbits phase, is observing Saturn’s dazzling rings of icy debris.

The views are some of the closest-ever images of the outer parts of the main rings, giving scientists an eagerly awaited opportunity to observe features with names like “straw” and “propellers.” Although Cassini saw these features earlier in the mission, the spacecraft’s current, special orbits are now providing opportunities to see them in greater detail. The new images resolve details as small as 0.3 miles (550 meters), which is on the scale of Earth’s tallest buildings.

Cassini is now about halfway through its penultimate mission phase – 20 orbits that dive past the outer edge of the main ring system. The ring-grazing orbits began last November, and will continue until late April, when Cassini begins its grand finale. During the 22 finale orbits, Cassini will repeatedly plunge through the gap between the rings and Saturn. The first finale plunge is scheduled for April 26.

For now, the veteran spacecraft is shooting past the outer edges of the rings every week, gathering some of its best images of the rings and moons. Already Cassini has sent back the closest-ever views of small moons Daphnis and Pandora.

Some of the structures seen in recent Cassini images have not been visible at this level of detail since the spacecraft arrived at Saturn in mid-2004. At that time, fine details like straw and propellers – which are caused by clumping ring particles and small, embedded moonlets, respectively – had never been seen before. (Although propellers were present in Cassini’s arrival images, they were actually discovered in later analysis, the following year.)

Cassini came a bit closer to the rings during its arrival at Saturn, but the quality of those arrival images (examples: 1, 2, 3) was not as high as in the new views. Those precious few observations only looked out on the backlit side of the rings, and the team chose short exposure times to minimize smearing due to Cassini’s fast motion as it vaulted over the ring plane. This resulted in images that were scientifically stunning, but somewhat dark and noisy.

In contrast, the close views Cassini has begun capturing in its ring-grazing orbits (and soon will capture in its Grand Finale phase) are taking in both the backlit and sunlit side of the rings. Instead of just one brief pass lasting a few hours, Cassini is making several dozen passes during these final months.

“As the person who planned those initial orbit-insertion ring images – which remained our most detailed views of the rings for the past 13 years – I am taken aback by how vastly improved are the details in this new collection,” said Cassini Imaging Team Lead Carolyn Porco, of Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colorado. “How fitting it is that we should go out with the best views of Saturn’s rings we’ve ever collected.”

After nearly 13 years studying Saturn’s rings from orbit, the Cassini team has a deeper, richer understanding of what they’re seeing, but they still anticipate new surprises.

“These close views represent the opening of an entirely new window onto Saturn’s rings, and over the next few months we look forward to even more exciting data as we train our cameras on other parts of the rings closer to the planet,” said Matthew Tiscareno, a Cassini scientist who studies Saturn’s rings at the SETI Institute, Mountain View, California. Tiscareno planned the new images for the camera team.

Launched in 1997, Cassini has been touring the Saturn system since arriving in 2004 for an up-close study of the planet, its rings and moons, and its vast magnetosphere. Cassini has made numerous dramatic discoveries, including a global ocean with indications of hydrothermal activity within the moon Enceladus, and liquid methane seas on another moon, Titan.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Italian Space Agency. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, manages the mission for the agency’s Science Mission Directorate in Washington. JPL is a division of Caltech in Pasadena. The Cassini imaging operations center is based at Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado.

TOP IMAGE….Moon Waves and Moon Wakes This Cassini image features a density wave in Saturn’s A ring (at left) that lies around 134,500 km from Saturn. Density waves are accumulations of particles at certain distances from the planet. This feature is filled with clumpy perturbations, which researchers informally refer to as “straw.” The wave itself is created by the gravity of the moons Janus and Epimetheus, which share the same orbit around Saturn. Elsewhere, the scene is dominated by “wakes” from a recent pass of the ring moon Pan.

Two versions of this image are available. This is a lightly processed version, with minimal enhancement, preserving all original details present in the image. The other version (Figure 1) has been processed to remove the small bright blemishes caused by cosmic rays and charged particle radiation near the planet – a more aesthetically pleasing image, but with a slight softening of the finest details.

The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Dec. 18, 2016. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 34,000 miles (56,000 kilometers) from the rings and looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings. Image scale is about a quarter-mile (340 meters) per pixel.


CENTRE IMAGE….The Propeller Belts in Saturn’s A Ring This image from NASA’s Cassini mission shows a region in Saturn’s A ring. The level of detail is twice as high as this part of the rings has ever been seen before. The view contains many small, bright blemishes due to cosmic rays and charged particle radiation near the planet.

The view shows a section of the A ring known to researchers for hosting belts of propellers – bright, narrow, propeller-shaped disturbances in the ring produced by the gravity of unseen embedded moonlets. Several small propellers are visible in this view. These are on the order of 10 times smaller than the large, bright propellers whose orbits scientists have routinely tracked (and which are given nicknames for famous aviators).

The prominent feature at left is a density wave created by the ring’s gravitational interaction with the moon Prometheus (the 12:11 resonance). Density waves are spiral-shaped disturbances (similar to the spiral arms of galaxies) that propagate through the rings at certain distances from the planet. (For more about density waves, see PIA09894)

Three versions of this image are available. This image is a lightly processed version, with minimal enhancement, preserving all original details present in the image. A second version has circles to indicate the locations of many of the small propellers in the image (Figure 1). The third version has been processed to remove the bright blemishes due to cosmic rays and charged particle radiation – a more aesthetically pleasing image, but with a slight softening of the finest details (Figure 2).

The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Dec. 18, 2016. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 33,000 miles (54,000 kilometers) from the rings and looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings. Image scale is about a quarter-mile (330 meters) per pixel.

LOWER IMAGE….Saturn’s B Ring, Finer Than Ever This image shows a region in Saturn’s outer B ring. NASA’s Cassini spacecraft viewed this area at a level of detail twice as high as it had ever been observed before. And from this view, it is clear that there are still finer details to uncover.

Researchers have yet to determine what generated the rich structure seen in this view, but they hope detailed images like this will help them unravel the mystery.

In order to preserve the finest details, this image has not been processed to remove the many small bright blemishes, which are created by cosmic rays and charged particle radiation near the planet.

The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Dec. 18, 2016. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 32,000 miles (51,000 kilometers) from the rings, and looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings. Image scale is about a quarter-mile (360 meters) per pixel.


BOTTOM IMAGE….Straw in the B Ring’s Edge This image shows a region in Saturn’s outer B ring. NASA’s Cassini spacecraft viewed this area at a level of detail twice as high as it had ever been observed before.

The view here is of the outer edge of the B ring, at left, which is perturbed by the most powerful gravitational resonance in the rings: the “2:1 resonance” with the icy moon Mimas. This means that, for every single orbit of Mimas, the ring particles at this specific distance from Saturn orbit the planet twice. This results in a regular tugging force that perturbs the particles in this location.

A lot of structure is visible in the zone near the edge on the left. This is likely due to some combination of the gravity of embedded objects too small to see, or temporary clumping triggered by the action of the resonance itself. Scientists informally refer to this type of structure as “straw.”

This image was taken using a fairly long exposure, causing the embedded clumps to smear into streaks as they moved in their orbits. Later Cassini orbits will bring shorter exposures of the same region, which will give researchers a better idea of what these clumps look like. But in this case, the smearing does help provide a clearer idea of how the clumps are moving.

This image is a lightly processed version, with minimal enhancement; this version preserves all original details present in the image. Another other version (Figure 1) has been processed to remove the small bright blemishes due to cosmic rays and charged particle radiation near the planet – a more aesthetically pleasing image, but with a slight softening of the finest details.

The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Dec. 18, 2016. The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 32,000 miles (52,000 kilometers) from the rings and looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings. Image scale is about a quarter-mile (360 meters) per pixel.

anonymous asked:

Hey raspomme! I kinda wanted to ask for your help since I tried learning japanese a couple years ago but I stopped after learning hiragana and katakana, now I want to resume learning but I'm really unsure where to start or keep studying from, I was wondering if you could tell me where I should start or some good resources since I'm learning by myself. Thanks!

I’ve never self-taught Japanese so I’m not really sure what’s the best way, honestly… I do have some links collected from over the years but I don’t know how well they work.

Guide to self-studying Japanese

Misc. Japanese learning resources

A bunch of links from last time I answered this sort of question

boundwithindarkness replied to your postLIKE / REBLOG if you’d be interested in writing…

//Literally replaying jak2 RN, and on that damned city rce mission omg, childhood.

RACING ….Be sure to destroy my son for me.

Patchwork

Boboiboy has nightmares, Yaya is a collector. Gopal loves the sea, and Ying can play the piano. Fang is prone to stupid decisions, and Tok Aba deserves the best grandfather of the year award. A collection of drabbles about the little things these characters may or may not hold.

Keep reading

Various Quotes from Out Pathfinder Game

I didn’t want to spam (well, spam anymore), so here’s a collection of our three-year-long-campaign party’s OOC best. Presented mostly without context, all of these were made by a variety of all of the players in the game, including myself (I’m the Human Sorcerer, in case anybody is wondering). 

Half Orc Fighter: *does 42 damage with an axe* “Also, last time we spoke, I forgot to AXE you a question!”

DM: If I’d known it would take Star Trek to unify the party, I would have introduced it in session one!

Sorcerer: So do we sail the ship now?“

DM: No! Everyone’s confused, everyone dies!

Party: *Kills undead (again)*

Half Orc Fighter: Well i guess we made no BONES about that. 

DM: You try to say that but you just cough up blood

Player: I don’t think dinosaurs CAN swim, can they?

DM: The dinosaur has a +8 to swim, actually

Elven Bard: Sometimes you best you can do with a spell is protect allies,

Human Sorcerer: And Sometimes you need to Dimension Door the f*** out

Human Sorcerer: I’m going to roll Intimidate*…. [Elf Bard], I hope that’s a laugh of happiness.

   * I have a +10 on intimdiate ffs. 

Half Orc Fighter: Can i give [Human Rogue] a potion of You’re An Idiot?”

DM: to MAKE him an idiot, or to give intelligence?

Half Orc Fighter: To make him aware he’s an idiot!

Human Rogue: I’m sorry; there is no magic strong enough to make Dirk aware of his own idiocy.

Half Orc Fighter: I’m gonna smash the door open.

DM: What?! It has a doorknob!

Half Orc Fighter: …I’m gonna smash the door open.

Human Rogue: *Is under fear effect*

Human Sorcerer: *Gets a crit, does 70 dmg with one spell, and marches over to rogue* GET. UP.

DM: Gives him a Will ave Roll just for that. 

Human Rogue: *passes, loses fear effect*

And last but not least… 

Things the party should probably try to forget less: We have an enchanted stone griffon that turns into a real one when you say it’s name and would’ve been very useful to remember this entire goddamn three year long campaign. 1

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Happy New Year everyone ! 🎉🍾

I hope everyone had an amazing night just like i did, because there is nothing better than to spend new years eve with the two most important people in my life.

On the one side the love of my life, better half and future husband who always supports me in everything and anything i do, who makes me happy like nobody else ever could and who i love more than anything in the world.

And on the other side my bestie, and future flower “girl” at my wedding lmao. Who is always there for me no matter what and supports every decision i make.. Who i can count on without doubts and who knows what i think before i even say it.

You two, thank you so much for everything. I honestly couldnt imagine my life without you both and i wouldnt want to. I cant wait for the next amazing year and all the memories we will make together. <3

@levibryce  @pandamajestysims


[And to all of my follower here on tumblr, who support me and show love to the things i do… thank you so much 💜 I will try my best to make you happy with many new projects, collections and pictures. Happy New Year! ]

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February 22, 2000
15 years ago today, Aaliyah’s song “Try Again” was released as the lead single for the soundtrack to the film “Romeo Must Die”. “Try Again” was the first song ever to reach #1 on the Billboard Hot 100 based solely on the strength of its radio airplay. It earned Aaliyah a Grammy Award nomination for Best female R&B Vocal Performance and its music video won two MTV Video Music Awards for Best Female Video and Best Video from a Film.

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2015

A little late but I wanted to compile a little collection of my best shots from last year. Turns out these are actually most of what I shot last year. It’s been hard to stay motivated to do much of anything the last year or two. Depression stripped me of my drive and passion big time. Now that I finally feel like I’m getting close to actually being able to say I’m in recovery I wanted to remind myself of the things I do love, even if I forgot it for a while. Namely photography and dolls and that oh, yeah, okay, maybe I don’t suck as much as the gremlins were claiming.

It’s almost like remembering how to breath.

Below the cut you’ll find a good amount of various movie and television quotes that you can use for your character. It is sorted after years until 2008, after that you’ll find quotes from different years. I’ve tried my best to collect quotes that aren’t too common, but yet need to be used more. Please don’t copy and claim this list as your own. It took me quite long to find them all. A like or reblog would make me really happy!

Keep reading

We’re taking a leaf out of @nglspecialcollectionsandarchives‘s book from last year and having our own @yearinreview of the best Museums, Libraries and Collections of the year:

@thegetty

@huntingtonlibrary

@gifitup2015

@upennmanuscripts

@uwmarchives

@uwmspeccoll

@historicroyalpalaces

@brooklynmuseum

@lindahall

@detroitlib

@othmeralia

@uispeccoll

@cityoflondonlibraries

@smithsonianlibraries

You have no idea how much it pains us not to make this list longer, but it’s based on our Likes over the past year so it’s as scientific as it gets! All of the Tumblrs listed have gone above and beyond in terms of interesting content, fantastic GIFs and very many laughs.