belknap press

anonymous asked:

Awhile ago you mentioned you were reading quite a bit, would you mind listing the books you've been reading?

yeah definitely! idk how to put it under the cut on an ask, so sorry if this gets long, but here are the books i have finished since january 1st:

  1. Aly, Gotz. Hitler’s Beneficiaries: Plunder, Racial War, and the Nazi Welfare State. Picador, 2008.
  2. Baranowski, Shelley. Nazi Empire: German Colonialism and Imperialism from Bismarck to Hitler. Cambridge University Press, 2010.
  3. Beinart, Peter. The Crisis of Zionism. Picador, 2013.
  4. Biale, David. Eros and the Jews: From Biblical Israel to Contemporary America. University of California Press, 1997.
  5. Boyarin, Daniel. Unheroic Conduct: The Rise of Heterosexuality and the Invention of the Jewish Man. University of California Press, 1997.
  6. Brossat, Alain, and Sylvia Klingberg. Revolutionary Yiddishland: A History of Jewish Radicalism. Verso, 2016.
  7. Buber, Martin. A Land of Two Peoples: Martin Buber on Jews and Arabs. University of Chicago Press, 2005.
  8. Budnitskii, Oleg. Russian Jews Between the Reds and the Whites, 1917-1920. University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.
  9. Cohen, Hillel. Year Zero of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: 1929. Brandeis, 2015.
  10. Cohen, Jack J. Democratizing Judaism. Academic Studies Press, 2010.
  11. David-Fox, Michael, Peter Holquist, and Alexander M. Martin, ed. Fascination and Enmity: Russia and Germany as Entangled Histories, 1914–1945. University of Pittsburgh Press, 2012.
  12. Dekel-Chen, Jonathan L. Farming the Red Land: Jewish Agricultural Colonization and Local Soviet Power, 1924–1941. Yale University Press, 2005.
  13. Deutscher, Isaac. The Prophet Armed: Trotsky 1879-1921. Verso, 2015.
  14. Deutscher, Isaac. The Prophet Outcast: Trotsky 1929-1940. Verso, 2015.
  15. Deutscher, Isaac. The Prophet Unarmed: Trotsky 1921-1929. Verso, 2015.
  16. Dupont, Monsieur. Nihilist Communism. Online.
  17. Ferguson, Niall. Paper and Iron: Hamburg Business and German Politics in the Era of Inflation, 1897-1927. Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  18. Fitzpatrick, Sheila, and Michael Geyer, ed. Beyond Totalitarianism: Stalinism and Nazism Compared. Cambridge University Press, 2008.
  19. Fitzpatrick, Sheila. Everyday Stalinism: Ordinary Life in Extraordinary Times: Soviet Russia in the 1930s. Oxford University Press, 2000.
  20. Fitzpatrick, Sheila, Alexander Rabinowitch, and Richard Stites, ed. Russia in the Era of NEP: Explorations in Soviet Society and Culture. Indiana University Press, 1991.
  21. Fitzpatrick, Sheila. The Russian Revolution. Oxford University Press, 2008.
  22. Gessen, Masha. Where the Jews Aren’t: The Sad and Absurd Story of Birobidzhan, Russia’s Jewish Autonomous Region. Schocken, 2016.
  23. Gitelman, Zvi. A Century of Ambivalence: The Jews of Russia and the Soviet Union, 1881 to the Present. Indiana University Press, 2001.
  24. Gitelman, Zvi. Jewish Nationality and Soviet Politics: The Jewish Sections of the CPSU, 1917-1930. Princeton University Press, 2015.
  25. Gorny, Yosef. Zionism and the Arabs, 1882-1948: A Study of Ideology. Clarendon Press, 1987.
  26. Gross, Jan. Neighbors: The Destruction of the Jewish Community in Jedwabne, Poland. Penguin Books, 2002.
  27. von Hagen, Mark. Soldiers in the Proletarian Dictatorship: The Red Army and the Soviet Socialist State, 1917-1930. Cornell University Press, 1993.
  28. Halpern, Ben, and Jehuda Reinharz. Zionism and the Creation of a New Society. Oxford University Press, 1998.
  29. Heller, Joseph. The Stern Gang: Ideology, Politics and Terror, 1940-1949. Routledge, 2015.
  30. Hertzberg, Arthur, ed. The Zionist Idea: A Historical Analysis and Reader. The Jewish Publication Society, 1997.
  31. Hirsch, Francine. Empire of Nations: Ethnographic Knowledge and the Making of the Soviet Union. Cornell University Press, 2005.
  32. Hochschild, Adam. King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa. Houghton Mifflin, 1999.
  33. Kaplan, Eran. The Jewish Radical Right: Revisionist Zionism and Its Ideological Legacy. University of Wisconsin Press, 2005.
  34. Kaplan, Mordecai M. The Future of the American Jew. Reconstructionist Press, 1981.
  35. Karp, Matthew. This Vast Southern Empire: Slaveholders at the Helm of American Foreign Policy. Harvard University Press, 2016.
  36. Kershaw, Ian, and Moshe Lewin, ed. Stalinism and Nazism: Dictatorships in Comparison. Cambridge University Press, 1997.
  37. Khalidi, Rashid. Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness. Columbia University Press, 2009.
  38. Kieser, Hans-Lukas, and Dominik J. Schaller, ed. Der Völkermord an den Armeniern und die Shoah. Chronos Verlag, 2002.
  39. Kimmerling, Baruch. The Invention and Decline of Israeliness: State, Society, and the Military. University of California Press, 2005.
  40. Kotkin, Stephen. Magnetic Mountain: Stalinism as a Civilization. University of California Press, 1997.
  41. Kotkin, Stephen. Stalin: Paradoxes of Power, 1878-1928. Penguin Books, 2015.
  42. Laqeuer, Walter. A History of Zionism: From the French Revolution to the Establishment of the State of Israel. Schocken, 2003.
  43. Liulevicius, Vejas G. The German Myth of the East: 1800 to the Present. Oxford University Press, 2010.
  44. Lockman, Zachary. Comrades and Enemies: Arab and Jewish Workers in Palestine, 1906-1948. University of California Press, 1996.
  45. Lower, Wendy. Hitler’s Furies: German Women in the Nazi Killing Fields. Mariner Books, 2014.
  46. Lower, Wendy. Nazi Empire-Building and the Holocaust in Ukraine. University of North Carolina Press, 2006.
  47. Mandel, David. The Petrograd Workers and the Fall of the Old Regime: From the February Revolution to the July Days, 1917. Palgrave Macmillan, 1983.
  48. Mandel, David. The Petrograd Workers and the Soviet Seizure of Power. Palgrave Macmillan, 1984.
  49. Martin, Terry. The Affirmative Action Empire: Nations and Nationalism in the Soviet Union, 1923–1939. Cornell University Press, 2001.
  50. Mazower, Mark. Hitler’s Empire: How the Nazis Ruled Europe. Penguin Books, 2009.
  51. McMeekin, Sean. The Berlin-Baghdad Express: The Ottoman Empire and Germany’s Bid for World Power. Belknap Press, 2012.
  52. Mieville, China. October: The Story of the Russian Revolution. Verso, 2017.
  53. Morris, Benny. 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War. Yale University Press, 2008.
  54. Morris, Benny. The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem, 1947-1949. Cambridge University Press, 1989.
  55. Morris, Benny. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-2001. Vintage, 2001.
  56. Moss, Kenneth B. Jewish Renaissance in the Russian Revolution. Harvard University Press, 2009.
  57. Neumann, Boaz. Land and Desire in Early Zionism. Brandeis, 2011.
  58. Nietzsche, Friedrich. Basic Writings of Nietzsche. Modern Library, 200.
  59. Nur, Ofer N. Eros and Tragedy: Jewish Male Fantasies and the Masculine Revolution of Zionism. Academic Studies Press, 2014.
  60. Pappe, Ilan. A History of Modern Palestine: One Land, Two Peoples. Cambridge University Press, 2006.
  61. Petrovsky-Shtern, Yohanan. The Golden Age Shtetl: A New History of Jewish Life in East Europe. Princeton University Press, 2014.
  62. Pinkus, Benjamin. The Jews of the Soviet Union: The History of a National Minority. Cambridge University Press, 1990.
  63. Rabinowitch, Alexander. The Bolsheviks Come to Power: The Revolution of 1917 in Petrograd. Haymarket Books, 2017.
  64. Rabinowitch, Alexander. The Bolsheviks in Power: The First Year of Soviet Rule in Petrograd. Indiana University Press, 2008.
  65. Rabinowitch, Alexander. Prelude to Revolution: The Petrograd Bolsheviks and the July 1917 Uprising. Indiana University Press, 1991.
  66. Reynolds, Michael A. Shattering Empires: The Clash and Collapse of the Ottoman and Russian Empires, 1908-1918. Cambridge University Press, 2011.
  67. Rubenstein, Sondra M. The Communist Movement in Palestine and Israel, 1919-1984. Westview Press, 1985.
  68. Saposnik, Arieh B. Becoming Hebrew: The Creation of a Jewish National Culture in Ottoman Palestine. Oxford University Press, 2008.
  69. Schopenhauer, Arthur. The Essential Schopenhauer: Key Selections from The World As Will and Representation and Other Writings. Harper Perennial, 2010.
  70. Schulman, Faye. A Partisan’s Memoir: Woman of the Holocaust. Second Story Press, 1995.
  71. Scult, Mel. The Radical American Judaism of Mordecai M. Kaplan. Indiana University Press, 2015.
  72. Segev, Tom. One Palestine, Complete: Jews and Arabs Under the British Mandate. Picador, 2001.
  73. Shafir, Gershon. Land, Labor and the Origins of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict, 1882-1914. University of California Press, 1996.
  74. Shapira, Anita. Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force, 1881-1948. Stanford University Press, 1999.
  75. Shapiro, Yonathan. The Formative Years of the Israeli Labour Party: The Organization of Power, 1919-1930. Sage Publications, 1976.
  76. Shapiro, Yonathan. The Road to Power: Herut Party in Israel. SUNY Press, 1991.
  77. Shavit, Ari. My Promised Land: The Triumph and Tragedy of Israel. Spiegel & Grau, 2015.
  78. Shavit, Yaacov. Jabotinsky and the Revisionist Movement, 1925-1948. Routledge, 1988.
  79. Shindler, Colin. The Land Beyond Promise: Israel, Likud and the Zionist Dream. I.B. Tauris, 2002.
  80. Shindler, Colin. The Triumph of Military Zionism: Nationalism and the Origins of the Israeli Right. I.B. Tauris, 2009.
  81. Shneer, David. Yiddish and the Creation of Soviet Jewish Culture: 1918-1930. Cambridge University Press, 2009.
  82. Shlaim, Avi. The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World. W. W. Norton & Company, 2014.
  83. Shternshis, Anna. Soviet and Kosher: Jewish Popular Culture in the Soviet Union, 1923-1939. Indiana University Press, 2006.
  84. Smith, S.A. Red Petrograd: Revolution in the Factories, 1917-1918. Haymarket Books, 2017.
  85. Snyder, Timothy. Black Earth: The Holocaust as History and Warning. Tim Duggan Books, 2015.
  86. Snyder, Timothy. Bloodlands: Europe Between Hitler and Stalin. Basic Books, 2012.
  87. Stalin, Josef. Marxism and the National and Colonial Question. Online.
  88. Stanislawski, Michael. Zionism and the Fin de Siècle: Cosmopolitanism and Nationalism from Nordau to Jabotinsky. University of California Press, 2001.
  89. Sternhell, Ze'ev. The Founding Myths of Israel: Nationalism, Socialism, and the Making of the Jewish State. Princeton University Press, 1997.
  90. Suny, Ronald G. The Baku Commune, 1917-1918: Class and Nationality in the Russian Revolution. Princeton University Press, 1972.
  91. Suny, Ronald G., and Lewis H. Siegelbaum, ed. Making Workers Soviet: Power, Culture, and Identity. Cornell University Press, 1994.
  92. Suny, Ronald G., Diane P. Koenker, and William G. Rosenberg, ed. Party, State, and Society in the Russian Civil War: Explorations in Social History. Indiana University Press, 1989.
  93. Suny, Ronald G., Fatma M. Gocek, and Norman M. Naimark, ed. A Question of Genocide: Armenians and Turks at the End of the Ottoman Empire. Oxford University Press, 2011.
  94. Suny, Ronald G., and Terry Martin, ed. A State of Nations: Empire and Nation-making in the Age of Lenin and Stalin. Oxford University Press, 2001.
  95. Suny, Ronald G. “They Can Live in the Desert but Nowhere Else”: A History of the Armenian Genocide. Princeton University Press, 2015.
  96. Troen, S. Ilan. Imagining Zion: Dreams, Designs, and Realities in a Century of Jewish Settlement. Yale University Press, 2003.
  97. Troen, S. Ilan, and Maoz Azaryahu, ed. Tel-Aviv, the First Century: Visions, Designs, Actualities. Indiana University Press, 2011.
  98. Ullrich, Volker. Hitler: Ascent, 1889-1939. Knopf, 2016.
  99. Veidlinger, Jeffrey. In the Shadow of the Shtetl: Small-Town Jewish Life in Soviet Ukraine. Indiana University Press, 2013.
  100. Weiner, Amir, ed. Landscaping the Human Garden: Twentieth-Century Population Management in a Comparative Framework. Stanford University Press, 2003.
  101. Weiner, Amir. Making Sense of War: The Second World War and the Fate of the Bolshevik Revolution. Princeton University Press, 2002.

“Language has unmistakably made plain that memory is not an instrument for exploring the past, but rather a medium. It is the medium of that which is experienced, just as the earth is the medium in which ancient cities lie buried. He who seeks to approach his own buried past must conduct himself like a man digging. Above all, he must not be afraid to return again and again to the same matter; to scatter it as one scatters earth, to turn it over as one turns over soil. For the ‘matter itself’ is no more than the strata which yield their long-sought secrets only to the most meticulous investigation. That is to say, they yield those images that, severed from all earlier associations, reside as treasures in the sober rooms of our later insights–”

Walter Benjamin, from “Excavation and Memory,” Selected Writings, Vol. 2, part 2, 1927–1934,  ed. Michael W. Jennings, Howard Eiland, and Gary Smith, trans. Rodney Livingstone et al. (Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1999)

anonymous asked:

Did Stalin actually have that much power in the government? Did he personally send people to the gulag?

Bill Bland makes a compelling case in this brief article of his that Stalin’s authority was by no means unlimited during his tenure as General Secretary. The degree of authority he held waxed and waned, and there were a number of instances in which he found himself at odds with other Central Committee members who would not let him have his way. He tried four times to resign and was denied every time. His proposals for contested elections in the 1936 Soviet Constitution were flat-out rejected by the Central Committee. Though it may seem obvious, Stalin did not exercise complete autocratic control over every single state function,

Stalin did not initiate or control everything that happened in the party and country. The number of hours in the day, divided by the number of things for which he was responsible, suggests that his role in many areas could have been little more than occasional intervention, prodding, threatening, or correcting. In the course of a day, Stalin made decisions on everything from hog breeding to subways to national defense. He met with scores of experts, heard dozens of reports, and settled various disputes between contending factions for budgetary or personal allocations. He was an executive, and reality forced him to delegate most authority to his subordinates, each of whom had his own opinions, client groups, and interests.” (Getty, John Arch. Origins of the Great Purges: The Soviet Communist Party Reconsidered, 1933-1938. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1985, pp. 203)

With regards to Stalin’s role in sending people to gulags or to their deaths, it is important to establish that Stalin did not bear responsibility for all of the excesses which occurred in the USSR (for the most part in the period known as the “Great Terror”). Nikolai Yezhov, head of the NKVD from 1936 to 1938, fabricated a number of cases against innocent people with the intention of arousing dissent among the Soviet people while acting as a spy for Germany (Yezhovschina), and in the process withheld important information from Stalin. (Mark Jansen & Nikita Petrov, Stalinskii pitomets – Nikolai Yezhov, Moscow 2008, 367-79).

By the fall of 1938 Yezhov’s leadership of the NKVD was under steady fire from various directions. The regime responded officially on Nov. 17, in a joint resolution of the Sovnarkom and the party Central Committee. This document went to thousands of officials across the USSR in the NKVD, the Procuracy, and the party, down to the raion level. Thus, the acknowledgement that grotesque mistakes and injustice had occurred spread widely–hardly the action of a government that wanted to continue fighting its citizens.
The resolution began by stating that in 1937-38 the NKVD had carried out “major work” in destroying enemies of the people. More remained to be done in this sphere, but the struggle now had to adopt more “perfect and reliable methods.” This was all the more necessary because the “mass operations” of the preceding period, with their “simplified conduct of investigations and trials,” had led to “a number of serious shortcomings and distortions in the work of the organs of the NKVD and the procuracy.” Enemies of the people and foreign spies had penetrated the security police and the judicial system and had “consciously…carried out massive and groundless arrests.” NKVDisty had completely abandoned careful investigative operations and had recently adopted “so-called ‘limits’ [quotas]” for arrests. Agents had wanted only to obtain confessions from arrestees, regardless of evidence or lack of it.” (Thurston, Robert. Life and Terror in Stalin’s Russia, 1934-1941. New Haven: Yale University Press, c1996, p. 114)

Two years of arrests and executions had occurred, and it was known that a high proportion of the victims did not belong to the categories of people describable as “anti-Soviet elements.’ It is quite possible too that Yezhov misled Stalin about aspects of the process.” (Service, Robert. Stalin. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press, 2005, p. 369)

He [Yezhov] confessed to having been recruited as a spy for German intelligence in 1930, when by order of the People’s Commissariat of Agriculture he had visited Konigsberg for the purchase of agricultural machines and to having spied on behalf of Poland, Japan, and England, to having directed a conspiracy within the NKVD, and to having plotted against Stalin and other leaders.” (Jansen, Marc & Petrov, Nikita. Stalin’s Loyal Executioner: Yezhov, Stanford, Calif: Hoover Institution Press, c2002, p. 183.)

Stalin must undeniably shoulder some blame for the excesses which occurred by the very fact that he was the head of the CPSU while all of this occurred. If one, however, wishes to know to what extent he was directly responsible, this is something of a point of contention. Ian Grey’s biography of Stalin cites Medvedev as the source for the statistic of 44,000 people whose deaths were directly attributable to the signatures of Stalin and Molotov,

According to Medvedev, Stalin with Molotov signed during the years 1937-39 some 400 lists, containing the names of 44,000 people, authorizing their execution. Stalin could not have known or studied the cases of so many people, and he had to accept the advice of men who he disliked and distrusted like Ezhov. He would have acted, however, on the principle that such sacrifices were completely justified by the purpose being pursued.” (Grey, Ian. Stalin: Man of History. New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1979., pp. 290.)

However, on page 497 of his book, he notes that there actually exists no source for this; in Molotov Remembers, we actually find evidence which suggests that this statistic is probably not entirely truthful,

GOLOVANOV: Stalin also tried to find out from me who had me expelled from the party. I realized that if I indicated that person to him, the next day the man would be out of the Politburo. I never divulged the name to him…. 

MOLOTOV: Khrushchev brought his lists of enemies of the people to Stalin. Stalin doubted the numbers reported–“They can’t be so many!” “They are–in fact, many more, Comrade Stalin. You can’t imagine how many they are!” 

GOLOVANOV: I have a friend who used to work with me as a flight engineer when I was a pilot in civil aviation. He studied at the political academy, switched to research work, and taught at the general staff academy. As the campaign of exposures and denunciations was launched, he was transferred to the Institute of Marxism-Leninism to pour over documents in search of execution orders and so forth signed by Stalin. He did not find a single paper of that kind bearing Stalin’s signature.“ (Chuev, Feliks. Molotov Remembers. Chicago: I. R. Dee, 1993, p. 296)

Certainly, this does not prove that Stalin never authorized any executions, but rather suggests that the figure of 44,000 people is suspect to say the least. For the occasions in which Stalin did sign death sentences, he was by no means solely responsible,

I was never really in on the case [the Leningrad trial] myself, but I admit that I may have signed the sentencing order. In those days when a case was closed–and if Stalin thought it necessary–he would sign the sentencing order at a Politbureau session and then pass it around for the rest of us to sign. We would put our signatures on it without even looking at it. That’s what was meant by ‘collective sentencing.’” (Talbott, Strobe, Trans. and Ed. Khrushchev Remembers. Boston: Little Brown, c1970, p. 256)

Just as Stalin was, to some extent, guilty for the excesses that occurred, so too was he responsible for ceasing future excesses. Stalin ordered the arrest and later execution of Yezhov for extreme excesses committed against the Soviet population.  Under Beria, Yezhov’s successor who Stalin appointed, mass arrests declined and an increasing number of prisoners were released.

anonymous asked:

hello, i am writing a research paper about porn, the porn industry, and its effects on people/behaviors... i haven't looked into it very much as the idea of porn itself makes me very uncomfortable but i do know a little about it and want to write a paper about the negatives of it. i was wondering if you knew of any resources i could look into that might help? thank you so much for your time! i hope i'm not bothering.

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