shadow-of-a asked:

Is there any evidence for Europeans or sub-Saharan Africans in east Asia before Marco Polo? Honestly, your blog does seem like revisionist history.

It’s funny how you ask that as if you already know the answer. Hmm, could it possibly be because you’ve already decided any evidence that exists is insufficient before you’ve even seen it? No wonder, if you’re also using “revisionist” as an unqualified pejorative.

I’ll let you in on a little secret. History is constantly being revised. Revision is the only way it can lay any claim to truth in the long term, since we are always finding new objects, new information is being discovered, and new scholars are entering the discipline with diverse perspectives and making new connections. Revision also means we need to unearth the prejudices of the past, as well as those of the present, and analyze the way it affects how we write and think about our histories. Who we are affects what we believe is “relevant”; our lived experiences and culture affect what we believe has value and importance.

Acting like histories written fifty or a hundred years ago should remain carved in stone as if they’re sacred is patently ridiculous. We don’t believe that for medicine, or law. There are always new discoveries, new evidence, new people working today to take into account, and adjust our knowledge accordingly in order to serve society better. The problem is that most of what I post is known to academia, it’s just dispersed throughout several different disciplines and sub-disciplines, and pushed aside as exceptions to a dominant narrative that is preserved, not in academia, but in popular culture and the media we produce and consume.

If you’d looked at the bibliography for this blog, or the link dumps, or the resources tag, or the static resources page, or just used google instead of scoffing in my inbox with ideas you’re soooo suuure are completely ridiculous, you’d have seen there is evidence, plenty of it, and it’s becoming a more explored and documented topic every day.

You can read about trade routes between the Roman Empire and Asia in Antiquity here:

Long-distance trade played a major role in the cultural, religious, and artistic exchanges that took place between the major centers of civilization in Europe and Asia during antiquity. Some of these trade routes had been in use for centuries, but by the beginning of the first century A.D., merchants, diplomats, and travelers could (in theory) cross the ancient world from Britain and Spain in the west to China and Japan in the east. 

You can read more about the actual routes used and their accessibility here:

You can read even more about trade and cultural exchange between various Empires in the East and the West here:

By the end of the first century B.C., there was a great expansion of international trade involving five contiguous powers: the Roman empire, the Parthian empire, the Kushan empire, the nomadic confederation of the Xiongnu, and the Han empire. Although travel was arduous and knowledge of geography imperfect, numerous contacts were forged as these empires expanded—spreading ideas, beliefs, and customs among heterogeneous peoples—and as valuable goods were moved over long distances through trade, exchange, gift giving, and the payment of tribute. Transport over land was accomplished using river craft and pack animals, notably the sturdy Bactrian camel. Travel by sea depended on the prevailing winds of the Indian Ocean, the monsoons, which blow from the southwest during the summer months and from the northeast in the fall.

You can read an exploration of a relatively new translation from a 3rd Century Chinese explorer who called the Roman Empire “a land ruled by minor kings” here:

This country (the Roman Empire) has more than four hundred smaller cities and towns. It extends several thousand li in all directions. The king has his capital (that is, the city of Rome) close to the mouth of a river (the Tiber). The outer walls of the city are made of stone.

…The ruler of this country is not permanent. When disasters result from unusual phenomena, they unceremoniously replace him, installing a virtuous man as king, and release the old king, who does not dare show resentment.

The common people are tall and virtuous like the Chinese, but wear hu (‘Western’) clothes. They say they originally came from China, but left it.

I mean, you’re talking about people moving from east Asia to Europe, which can be achieved simply by walking far enough. The Silk Road has been in use for millennia, and before that, its prehistoric version, the Steppe Road, has evidence for even earlier travelers buried deep under it.

This isn’t new, and it isn’t some kind of secret. From the perspective of World History, the ease and ubiquity of trade between Europe, Asia, and Africa means we should consider the development of those areas as an interdependent network:

World historians are becoming increasingly aware of the underlying unity of Afro-Eurasian history. Andre Gunder Frank and Barry Gills have argued that the entire Afro-Eurasian region belonged to a single “world-system” from perhaps as early as 2000 B.C.E. And William McNeill and Jerry Bentley have recently restated the case for a unified Afro-Eurasian history. But Marshall Hodgson had made the same point as early as the 1950s, when he argued that “historical life, from early times at least till two or three centuries ago, was continuous across the Afro-Eurasian zone of civilization; that zone was ultimately indivisible… The whole of the Afro-Eurasian zone is the only context large enough to provide a framework for answering the more general and more basic historical questions that can arise.

If you’re concerned with the logistics of travel, well, there’s actually an entire interactive map for that. ORBIS is the Stanford Geospatial Network Model of the Roman World, and you can input where you’d like to go and your modes of travel, and it can give you a route and how long it would take you, depending on how much money you have to spend versus how much effort you’re willing to put forth.

As for “sub-saharan Africa”, Mediterranean Europe became rather dependent on the wealth of gold and salt that came from Ghana and Western Sudan. If you’re curious about the history of the Tran-Saharan Gold trade, you can read more about it here:

 From the eighth century onward, annual trade caravans followed routes later described by Arabic authors with minute attention to detail. Gold, sought from the western and central Sudan, was the main commodity of the trans-Saharan trade. The traffic in gold was spurred by the demand for and supply of coinage. The rise of the Soninke empire of Ghana appears to be related to the beginnings of the trans-Saharan gold trade in the fifth century.

From the seventh to the eleventh century, trans-Saharan trade linked the Mediterranean economies that demanded gold—and could supply salt—to the sub-Saharan economies, where gold was abundant. Although local supply of salt was sufficient in sub-Saharan Africa, the consumption of Saharan salt was promoted for trade purposes.

This is an image of Mansa Musa, ruler of the Malian Empire. He made that particular journey himself, as far as Cairo, where his exorbitant wealth broke the local economy just from his presence:

The flow of sub-Saharan gold to the northeast probably occurred in a steady but small stream. Mansa Musa’s arrival in Cairo carrying a ton of the metal (1324–25) caused the market in gold to crash, suggesting that the average supply was not as great. Undoubtedly, some of this African gold was also used in Western gold coins. African gold was indeed so famous worldwide that a Spanish map of 1375 represents the king of Mali holding a gold nugget. When Mossi raids destroyed the Mali empire, the rising Songhai empire relied on the same resources. Gold remained the principal product in the trans-Saharan trade, followed by kola nuts and slaves. The Moroccan scholar Leo Africanus, who visited Songhai in 1510 and 1513, observed that the governor of Timbuktu owned many articles of gold, and that the coin of Timbuktu was made of gold without any stamp or superscription.

So…are we still just gonna say I’m making stuff up? Because the fact is, I could keep going. In fact, I have been for more than two years now. The Tumblr alone here has more the 5,000 posts, because I keep finding more evidence that the dominant narrative of racial and cultural isolation in the past, especially the middle ages, is blatantly false. That this dominant narrative is perpetuated through whitewashed media, wildly mis-cast films, popular fiction and even textbooks that have been subject to financial and political pressures to conform to a white supremacist narrative, rather than showing a broad perspective of world history, especially in the case of Europe’s involvement in an interdependent global history.

So I’m talking to this girl from tinder. And it’s going super great. She’s cute, interesting, clearly interested. Like hell yes. Then she’s like “I feel like I should tell you… I consider myself bisexual.” And I was like “that’s cool.” And she was like “oh thank god. I just felt like I should tell you that as soon as possible because I know some lesbians won’t date bi girls.”

And I thought about it and I realized bi girls basically have to come out twice as much because people don’t consider them valid. This cute, interesting girl was actually worried I would not like her anymore just because she likes something I don’t. How fucking sad is that like how could someone dismiss that kinda potential based on something so stupid.


due South fanvid by Miruku Koohii
Midnights and Cups of Coffee (from Rent)

video for July 31st

When is Jack from?

So, that last ask I got reminded me of something that I’ve always been interested in. Which time period is Jack actually from?

Now, even if we disregard involvement of magic, it is clear that the world of where samurai Jack grew up in is some form of alternate history due to a high amount of inconsistent civilizations apparently existing all in the same time. Despite that, I’d like to try and see what exactly they included and if there are some consistencies.

I’ll go step by step through Jack’s training sequence to make some sense of it. Archaeologist mode activated!

Keep reading

Oh man, my history assignment is doing diary entries of a 50’s-60’s integrationist and segregationist and I’m doing the segregationist right now but there’s no way I can use the N word. We’re supposed to pretend to be as racist as possibly because we’re being a segregationist but I wince every time I write “Negro”. How the hell am I supposed to type white integrationists as “n*gg*r lovers” (the line I’m on right now)???

Everyone in my class is doing the assignment and writing n*gg*r because that’s part of it but oh man this is hard.

notallthosewhowanderarelost--yet asked:

There being only men's and women's dressing rooms, Grantaire casually switches between them. Mid-change. Like, you have this person walking between dressing rooms in everything but their pants; when security grabs him, he explains that he found himself in the wrong dressing room and had to find the right one as soon as possible, because gender is THE MOST IMPORTANT THING.

“I don’t want to offend anyone by being in the wrong dressing room I MUST GO NOW DON’T YOU KNOW HOW SOCIETY WORKS, OFFICER, THESE HUMANS ARE OFFENDED AT MY PRESENCE I MUST FLEE.”

anonymous asked:

I hope you die in hell. These deviantartists work hard on their art you're the worst possible person because, 1: look at that friken User-ID. -.- And second off, you shouldn't be hating because I bet your just a seven year old who has no talent.

Friken? Oh, yes, I’m the seven year old here. You can’t even say “fuck”, or use the correct form of “you’re”.

–Mod R

I’m already there, sweetie.

-Mod Tk


it’s that time again, finally! i’m going back to seoul, going to meet my dear tumblr wifeu, kaimint, as well. so kaibility will run a queue from august 1st to august 15th. just like the last time i’m going to come online every now and then to post some photo’s. you will be able to find all my seoul-related posts here. a lot of the queued posts will consist of edits/ gifs i have liked some time ago and never reblogged..

of course you can still send me messages, i need to stay updated about jonginnie! besides that i just want to collect as much good memories as even possible, because it will take me some time to go there for a third time.

please have a nice summer break/ vacation/ trip or whatever you’re going to do. create a lot of good memories and don’t forget to smile a lot and then smile even more. see you soon, thousands of kisses!

little-primalwolf asked:

OH MY GOSH. Could you / would you do a custom rolling board with some nature and wolves / wolf and moon on it? Is that a possible thing? Because if it were I will give you my dollars so fast it isn't even funny.

I can do anything. How many wolves? Do you want cool rock formations? The moon? Do you want it to look realistic or trippy?

We need to talk about this picture more. Not only can we likely see all four diamonds in this picture but we can see the ritual extermination of the humans. The picture on the bottom right is humans falling into lava or fire. The one on the middle is a descending spikes towards the humans. The picture on the left is the ground crumbling beneath the humans and they plummet to their demise. Each picture has three stages after all. Before where the humans are all alive, during in which they show the peril, and after which has no humans and only the ruins of the trap. Above we see Rose protecting the humans from a Diamond and to the right we see hands reaching towards a different diamond as if trying to save themselves. The Diamonds were definitely intentionally murdering as many of the humans as possible, because as Peridot said humans are an infestation. This is likely when Rose couldn’t bear it anymore and decided to rebel.  

I was tagged by stupidsexymustang and pahndah for a new tag game: Confess something your followers don’t know about you and then tag five others.

So instead of doing two confessions (because I can’t think of more than one) I’ll just do a personal one, and if anyone wants to tag themselves, then go for it! <3

Keep reading


125 Days Of Summer

When I was given the chance to take a four-month vacation, I was already picturing myself travelling and trying out new coffee shops, strolling on white sand beach, getting tan lines and working on making them disappear, chasing ocean waves and fading sunsets; for short, #summergoals

But that didn’t happen. 

Keep reading

to all those science nerds who believe astrology is bullshit:

hear me out. i do not believe in general horoscopes, first of all. i also do not view astrology as a religion. i view it as a way to be more in tune with the universe as well as with my body, my surroundings, and my mindset.

what i believe is that the universe is far too exponential and mysterious to deny that astrology is accurate. this is the same way i view God/Goddess or gods/goddesses or other forces. i believe anything could be possible because of how complex the universe is.

you should also read this. it’s pretty cool:

but please, don’t mock or look down upon people who study astrology or take part in finding themselves out through it. it gives many people a sense or reassurance. and on top of that, it’s just fun to learn about. and there’s nothing wrong with that

FNAF 4 Theory

So yesterday was the game theorist’s video on fnaf 4 on how Scott had some inconsistency with the crying child being the character we play throughout the game because his frontal lobe was gone from the bite of ‘87 (at least we think due to the TV ‘83 thing). Due to that, the child can experience no fear so it’s impossible to be scared by the nightmare animatronics or see them in the first place. This confused me until my girlfriend came up with an interesting counter theory. What if we are not playing as a crying child in the first place but someone close to him. She speculated that it could be we are playing his older brother. It makes sense because possibly killing his brother could cause psychological damage. He could now could be hallucinating the animatronics from the scene of the act haunting his mistake every night. Also the flowers, pills, and IV bag could be hallucinations of him having to witness his brother on his possible deathbed. My last deduction is that Fredbear is trying to attack the player in later nights possibly to seek revenge on the murder and maybe due to giving his restaurant a bad reputation. All this can lead the older brother into fear and eternal suffering which can cause the nightmares to ensue as he reminisces about the 5 days up to his younger brother’s demise. I’m not sure if this theory has been made yet, but I thought I’d share because it was too interesting of a thought not to leave out.

ok so trying to pin an actual timeline on The Unlimited/Wanderer is really hard to do in correlation to the actual canon ZKC storyline but I think I’ve got it figured out to some extent

we know that:

  • The Unlimited takes place sometime between ZKC volumes 16 (the graduation of The Children into middle school, the appearance of Yuuri/Phantom Daughter) - 29/30 (the disappearance of Hyoubu while going to meet Black Phantom)
  • Wanderer also takes place in this time period

so I can safely assume that:

  • The fact that Mio, Kazura, and Kagari were not present in The Unlimited is due to the fact that they were all living somewhere closer to school. Why Patty remained is unknown; possibly because Kyosuke wanted to keep a closer eye on her, regarding her connections to Black Phantom.
  • The destruction of The Catastrophe was not covered in the ZKC storyline solely because it was featured in The Unlimited as a special. There was no need to feature it twice (though some more of a reference to it as a major event would have been nice). 
  • Muscle Okama, as the ambassador to the Roviet government, was able to use his influence to get the Catastrophe repaired from the first incident with The Children/BABEL. It’s not out of the question to assume that he could have used that same influence to bring up the wreckage and have the ship rebuilt. 
    • As further evidence to reinforce this, Minamoto is shown conversing with PANDRA members in volume 37; instead of being on The Catastrophe, they are instead using their submarine, The Untouchable. 
  • After the departure of Andy Hinomiya from PANDRA, and his short travel to Buenos Aires, Kyosuke could have (likely did) use the situation to his advantage; he used Andy to eliminate a potential threat to PANDRA with Fabio’s group, re-triggered his power, and saved an esper child, all in one fell swoop. 
  • He may have also tipped Sophie off to his location, and placed Yuugiri into her custody, knowing that he would be putting himself in danger with the very people who created her, thus putting her at risk (again). 
  • By ensuring that Andy would have a reason to go to Monarch, he installed the closest thing to an inside agent within The Foundation. 
  • It also appears that Andy has been watching Black Phantom for some time–this is likely how he has been able to do that. So when he meets up with Minamoto and Sakaki in volume 39, he has already been with The Foundation from the time of Hyoubu’s “death” to that moment. 

tl;dr - The Unlimited + Wanderer probably takes place between ZKC volumes 16 - 29/30, not counting flashback scenes.