Warrior Culture : Spartan
Sparta with its combination of Warrior Ethos, cutting edge technology, and iron discipline turned it into the military powerhouse of the age.
Sparta was unique amongst the other city states however, while its main focus was on martial prowess, it was also rather progressive. Spartan women enjoyed considerably more rights and equality to men than elsewhere in the classical world. With the only mandated female education of the time, with women being allowed to own property, and death in childbirth being on par with death in combat.
Spartiates are perhaps most famous for the rigorous public training in the agoge from the age 8 on up. And for the battle of Thermopylae where 300 Spartan warriors laid down their lives in a holding action so that the rest of their coalition forces could retreat and regroup. Ending in the inevitable defeat of Persian forces.