bath planet



cosmic witchy wlw aesthetic:

  • staying up until all hours of the morning with her before taking a walk through the woods under the light of the moon to go stargazing whenever an important astronomical event happens
  • buying her crystals associated with the constellation that her eyes remind you of
  • buying her chocolate, tea and running her nice hot baths when her planet is in retrograde
  • spending hours upon hours in the company of her and the stars that bind you together
  • tracking the orbit and positioning of her favourite constellation and her planet
  • keeping a calendar so you can remind her of all the events that are coming up
  • naming a star in the night sky after her
  • whenever you read up on anything astrology related, you instinctively look at her signs as well
  • the moon is looking down on you and smiling. she knows your pain and she wants you to know that you are always welcome.

anonymous asked:

Hey, so I have a planet that has two suns. I was trying to have it so one sun would be up while the other sun was on the other side of the world, and then it would switch making it so everywhere was daylight all the time. Is this possible?

With science-as-we-know-it and only two suns, it is not. To set up the system as you’ve described it, it would have to look something like this.

(A, B, and C are positions in time, so that at time A, Planet and Star2 are at their respective As, and the same for B and C.)

This setup wont work to keep Planet in total daylight on all sides because Planet and Star2 orbit around Star1 at different speeds. The closer you orbit a body, the faster you need to go to stay in orbit.

So, while both Planet and Star1 are at position A, the Planet has no nighttime. But, when Planet moves to position B, Star2 hasn’t moved quite as far and there is a part of Planet that is turned away from both stars. When they’re at position C, Planet sees both stars during the day, and has a regular night side that is turned away from both stars.

But, fear not, there are some ways to have a planet with no night. What it results in is some very spectacular, and very strange systems.

Solution 1: Multiple Stars. I mean A Lot of Them.

Situation: Your planet is in a star system with multiple stars - a lot of stars - six, eight, maybe even a dozen or more. So many that anywhere you are on your planet you can see one or more stars. You would have periods of bright day, very bright day, and not-so bright day. Rarely would you have no stars in the sky, and this would bring the occasional truly dark night.

Azimov postulates a planet like this in his novel Nightfall. Lagash is a thriving planet in a system with six suns, and gets nighttime only once every 2000 years. The people know nothing of the rest of the universe and think their planet and suns are all that exists. A couple of scientists predict when the next nightfall happens. and realizes that people will be traumatized by the darkness. When night arrives and the citizens of Lagash see the universe of stars in the night sky, they panic and destroy their own civilization - something they do every time it gets dark.

Hard-Science: Smaran Deshmukh and Jayant Murthy of the University of Bonn, have done the math and concluded that a system like Lagash’s is plausible, but might only be stable over a few hundred years. They continue to state that other solutions may be possible that are much more stable over a much longer periods.

Summary: Plausible, but not likely. Of course. in science-fiction, that’s good enough.

Solution 2: Artificial Stars Around the Planet

Situation: Your planet orbits one star, but your planet has several satellites that radiate heat and light in orbit around it. These mini-suns keep your planet bathed in total daylight. Actually, with a belt of artificial sun-satellites, a planet wouldn’t even need a real sun, and could just be travelling between stars.

Hard-Science: Those mini-suns could be small fusion or anti-matter reactors, or be powered by some sort of magical energy, according to what flavor you want your world to have.

Summary: Plausible. Mini-suns powered by SCIENCE or SORCERY are quite believable. They’d have to use a lot of fuel or pull energy from another dimension or whatever, but that’s just details.

Solution 3: We’re Really at the Center of the Universe And OhMyGodWereAllGoingToDie!

Situation: Your planet is ‘orbited’ by it’s stars.

Hard-Science: I lied. It’s actually possible to have a planet without night with only two stars, but I wouldn’t want to live on that planet.

The binary stars orbit around their mutual center or gravity called the barycenter. In the diagram below, that’s marked with a small red cross. If your planet was located right at that balance point, it would look like the stars were orbiting around the planet, and your planet would have no night.

The barycenter is also a Lagrange point between the two stars - an L1 point, and we know they’re unstable.

Summary: While technically possible, this situation is very very very unstable and is very very unlikely to occur naturally - and if it did. it wouldn’t last long. Very soon (like within a couple of hundred years or less), the planet would either drift into one of the stars or be ejected from the system entirely. Neither one would be very good for the planet.

Did I mention that this situation is very unstable?

However, if you have some sort of super-technology or wizardry, which would prevent the planet from drifting off, it could work. But with that power, why have real stars? Put up some artificial ones, move the planet, and you don’t have to live in a cosmic death trap. :-)

Solution 4: My God - It’s Full of Stars!

Situation: Your planet and it’s star is inside a globular cluster - a region of space that is just lousy with stars. Someone on your planet could see 100 times more stars than we can see with the naked eye from Earth. The night sky would shine with a total brightness of a couple-dozen full moons. Nighttime would be a slightly dim twilight instead of dark night.

Hard-Science:  The stars around Earth are scatter about with an average density of 0.14 stars per cubic parsec (a parsec is 3.26 light-years). The stars within a dense globular cluster - like the one at 47 Tucanae - packs in several hundred stars in one cubic parsec.

Add more stars to the cluster to make the night sky brighter - but be careful! Adding in too many stars and you could cook your planet with too much radiation.

Each star would still be quite a distance away. Far enough that they would appear as points of light to the naked eye. But, there would be so many of them and they would be so very bright. From Earth, we can see 29 1st magnitude (very bright, like Sirius or Canopus) stars. From inside a globular cluster, you could see 10,000 or them,

Summary: Quite plausible, and very beautiful.



Pluto has some characteristics less like that of a comet and more like much larger planets, according to the first analysis of Pluto’s unique interaction with the solar wind, scientists say.

Using data that an instrument aboard the New Horizons spacecraft gathered on its Pluto flyby in July 2015, scientists have for the first time observed the material coming off of Pluto and seen how it interacts with the solar wind, and found it completely new – and unexpected.

“This is a type of interaction we’ve never seen before anywhere in our solar system,” said David J. McComas, lead author of the study. McComas, professor in Princeton University’s Department of Astrophysical Sciences and university vice president for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, leads the Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) instrument aboard New Horizons; he also led development of SWAP when he was at the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) in Texas. McComas started as Princeton University’s Vice President for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and Professor of Astrophysics Science in April after a long stint of leadership in space physics at the Southwest Research Institute. The New Horizons program is one of his ongoing astrophysics projects. The study was published today in the Journal of Geophysical Research - Space Physics by the American Geophysical Union (AGU). The research was funded as a part of the New Horizons project by NASA.

Space physicists say that they now have, for the first time, a treasure trove of information about how Pluto’s atmosphere interacts with the solar wind. Solar wind is the plasma, or charged particles, that spews off from the Sun into the solar system at a supersonic 1 million mph, bathing planets, asteroids, comets and interplanetary space in a soup of mostly electrons and protons.

“The results are astonishing. We were fascinated and surprised” by the findings, McComas said. Previously, most researchers thought that Pluto was characterized more like a comet, which has a large region of gentle slowing of the solar wind, as opposed to the abrupt diversion solar wind encounters at a planet like Mars or Venus. Instead, like a car that’s part gas- and part battery-powered, Pluto is a hybrid, the researchers say.

“This is an intermediate interaction, a completely new type. It’s not comet-like, and it’s not planet-like. It’s in-between,” McComas said. “We’ve now visited all nine of the classical planets and examined all their solar wind interactions, and we’ve never seen anything like this.”

“These results speak to the power of exploration. Once again we’ve gone to a new kind of place and found ourselves discovering entirely new kinds of expressions in nature,” said Alan Stern, New Horizons principal investigator at the Southwest Research Institute. “Many people were surprised by Pluto’s complex geology and atmosphere. This paper shows there’s even more that’s surprising there, including its atmosphere-solar wind interaction.”

Pluto continues to confound. Since it’s so far from the Sun – an average of about 3.7 billion miles – and because it’s so small, scientists thought Pluto’s gravity would not be strong enough to hold heavy ions in its extended atmosphere. But, “Pluto’s gravity clearly is enough to keep material sufficiently confined,” McComas said.

Further, the scientists found that very little of Pluto’s atmosphere is comprised of neutral particles converted to electrically charged ions and swept out into space.

“This is backwards for many other planets, where the neutral particles stay relatively close to the planet,” said Michael Liemohn, a University of Michigan astrophysicist not involved with the research but who helped edit the paper for JGR Space Physics. “An ion particle becomes influenced by the electric and magnetic forces present in the solar system, which can be a very efficient acceleration processes. But at Pluto, McComas et al found that only a wisp of atmosphere leaves the planet as ions.”

The researchers were able to separate the heavy ions of methane, the main gas escaping from Pluto’s atmosphere, from the light ions of hydrogen that come from the Sun using the SWAP instrument.

Among their Pluto findings:

* Like Earth, Pluto has a long ion tail, that extends downwind at least a distance of about 100 Pluto radii (73,800 miles, almost three times the circumference of Earth), loaded with heavy ions from the atmosphere and with “considerable structure;”

* Pluto’s obstruction of the solar wind upwind of the planet is smaller than had been thought. The solar wind isn’t blocked until about the distance of a couple planetary radii (1,844 miles, about the distance between Chicago and Los Angeles); * Pluto has a very thin “Plutopause” – or boundary of Pluto’s tail of heavy ions and the sheath of the shocked solar wind that presents an obstacle to its flow.

The scientists write: “Pluto interaction with the solar wind appears to be a hybrid with the bow shock generated by mass-loading like at a comet, but the obstacle to the solar wind flow – the Plutopause – sustained by atmospheric thermal pressure as at Venus and Mars.”

Heather Elliott, astrophysicist at Southwest Research Institute and co-author on the paper, said that the study provides interesting comparisons. “Comparing the solar wind-Pluto interaction to the solar wind-interaction for other planets and bodies is interesting because the physical conditions are different for each, and the dominant physical processes depend on those conditions,” Elliott said.

What is significant, McComas said, is the range of diversity that bodies in the solar system have with the solar wind. Further, the findings offer clues to the magnetized plasmas that one might find around other stars. “The range of interaction with the solar wind is quite diverse, and this gives some comparison to help us better understand the connections in and beyond our solar system,” McComas said.

The scientists conclude: “The SWAP data will…be reanalyzed…for many years to come as the community collectively grapples with Pluto’s unique solar wind interaction – one that is unlike that at any other body in the solar system.”