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PHYSICISTS and MATHEMATICIANS of the ANCIENT WORLD
Images and descriptions (with revision here) reprinted from: Perimeter Institute

AnaximanderἈναξίμανδρος(c. 610-546 BCE)  is widely regarded as the world’s first physicist – the first to record his belief that nature followed fixed laws. He conducted the earliest recorded experiment, and introduced the sundial and other instruments.

Pythagoras of Samos / Πυθαγόρας ὁ Σάμιος (c. 570-495 BCE) discovered the Pythagorean Theorem: that a square laid along the long side of a triangle covers the same area as the two squares laid along the two shorter sides.

Euclid /  Εὐκλείδης (c. 325-265 BCE) built up a complete description of space from a handful of axioms, such as “two parallel lines never cross.” He’s remembered as the “father of geometry,” and the particular kind of space he described, where parallel lines never cross, is now called “Euclidian space.”

Archimedes / Ἀρχιμήδης (c. 287-212 BCE) was an early scientist and engineer, maybe one of the most brilliant mathematicians of all time. He designed a number of innovative machines and discovered the principle of displacement: that the weight of an object floating in water is equal to the weight of the water it shoves aside.

Hypatia / Ὑπατία (c. 360-415 CE) was the headmaster of the Platonist school at Alexandria, where she taught mathematics and astronomy. She invented the astrolabe and perhaps the hydrometer, and wrote several major books on geometry.

Āryabhaṭaआर्यभट (476-550) was a pioneer of mathematics and astronomy in India. He is believed to have devised the concept of zero and worked on the approximation of pi.

Abū ʿAlī al-Ḥasan ibn al-Ḥasan ibn al-Haytham / أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم‎ [Latinized as Alhazen or Alhacen]  (965-1040) was a mathematician, astronomer, and philosopher, sometimes known in Europe as simply “the physicist.” He invented the camera obscura and is the father of modern optics.

Wikipedia adds: “He has been described as the father of modern optics, experimental physics and scientific methodology and could also claim to be the first theoretical physicist.”

THE SCIENTIFIC TYPOGRAPHIES OF Dr. Prateek Lala: artistic representations of more than 50 influential physicists, cosmologists, and mathematicians – from Anaximander up to Stephen Hawking.

Images and descriptions reprinted from: Perimeter Institute

UP NEXT:  Galileo, Kepler, Descartes, Pascal, Newton, and Leibniz

Cities of Mesopotamia

Baghdad (بغداد‎) - Iraq

Al-Raqqah (الرقة) - Syria

Basra (البصرة‎) - Iraq

Deir ez-Zor (دير الزور) - Syria

Fallujah (الفلوجة‎) - Iraq

Hesice ( Hesîçe‎  ܚܣܟܗ) - Kurdistan/Assyria

Karbala (كربلاء‎) - Iraq

Mardin (Mêrdîn ܡܶܪܕܺܝܢ‎) Kurdistan/Assyria

Mosul (الموصل‎) - Iraq

Najaf (النجف‎) - Iraq

Qamislo (Qamişlo‎ ܩܡܫܠܐ) - Kurdistan/Assyria

Ramadi (الرمادي‎) - Iraq

Tikrit (تكريت‎) - Iraq

Iraq Is Turning Saddam Hussein’s Palace Into a Museum

BASRA, Iraq—Mahdi al-Musawi has a problem. His construction company is rushing to complete work on Iraq’s newest and most ambitious museum, which is slated to open by September. But above the main door, carved in sweeping Arabic calligraphy in beautiful wood, is the name of former Iraqi ruler Saddam Hussein and the soubriquet “Prince of Arabs.”

“Politicians will be here for the dedication,” al-Musawi says, eyeing the elaborate script. “They won’t be happy with this.”

Iraqi officials, however, are confident that converting one of Saddam’s former palaces into a museum—the first museum to open in the country in decades—will help spark a cultural revival in Basra, a southern port city and the country’s second largest and fastest growing urban center. Read more.

Get up brother, the war is over. They have taken your tank to the smelter but your rifle still lies on the mountain. At last, the sands have erased your courage and farmers now plant leaves where you fell. The trees you planted have died. The enemy have taken the mountain that you vowed you would never abandon. From the ice-covered summits, they’ve lowered your banner, which was raised until your downfall. They’ve plundered your uniform and your plunder. And no matter how dead you were, they kept riddling your corpse with bullets. Though the worms crawled out of your eyes - and your large heart - they still couldn’t believe that you were dead. You had been their worst nightmare. Get up my brother, the war is over (…) My mother is still in bed. I spoke with her of your height and your strong arms. How delighted she was when they couldn’t find any shoes that would fit you. She asked me how you were sleeping and I was filled with sorrow to tell her that you hadn’t slept for seven years. That a shell from an enormous gun shattered your ribs, and stripped you of your youth. So I let the sun set upon your name and dreams, put to rest the settled dust that you have become. Between your life, your death, there is a distance of six children.