basque land

10

Contrary to popular belief, many Latin Americans do not have surnames that are of Castilian (Spanish) or Portuguese origin, just as many people from the United States do not posses surnames that are of English origin. [Part l]

Above: Celebrities from Latin America with surnames that are not of Castilian or Portuguese origin [from left to right]:

1. Salma Hayek, Mexican with a Lebanese surname;

2. Keiko Sofía Fujimori Higuchi, Peruvian with two Japanese surnames;

3. Norfalia Carabalí, Colombian with a surname that originates with the Kalabari people of Nigeria;

4.Ezequiel Lavezzi, Argentine with an Italian surname;

5. Fernando Aristeguieta, Venezuelan with a Basque surname;

6. Francisco Lachowski, Brazilian with a Polish surname;

7. Ollanta Humala, Peruvian with an Indigenous Quechua surname;

8. William Levy, Cuban with a Hebrew surname;

9. Carla Constanza Peterson, Argentine with a Swedish surname;

10. Scharllette Allen, Nicaraguan with a Scottish surname.

________________________________________________________

When the Iberians colonized Latin America, they began to force conversion to Catholicism onto the Indigenous populations of the areas they conquered. After an Indigenous person was baptized, they were assigned a Castilian or Portuguese surname, to signify a new life distanced from their pagan roots. The same fate befell the enslaved Africans that were brought to the Americas by the Spaniards and Portuguese. After the colonial era many Latin American countries started to receive a myriad of immigrants; mostly from Europe, but also from Asia, the West Indies, and the United States. Countless of these immigrants would Iberianize their surnames in order to assimilate smoothly, examples of this can be seen with the German immigrants who came to Brazil; names such as Birnbaum, Löwe, Zimmermann, Frazen were changed to Pereira, Leão, Simão, and França. For all the reasons mentioned above, the majority of Latin Americans (not including the Francophone regions) these days have Castilian or Portuguese surnames.

However, a significant number of Latin Americans have managed to resist the adoption of Portuguese and Castilian surnames.

Indigenous surnames can be frequently found in countries with large unmixed Amerindian populations, an example of this is Peru where surnames such as Quispe, Huamán, Mamani are some of the most frequent. In southern Mexico and Guatemala names of Mayan origin such as: Tecú, Tuyub, Zum, Xuluc, Tun, Canché, Tuyuc, Curruchich, Choc, and Xicara; are also commonly found.

West and Central African originated surnames can be found in areas of the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador where the African-descended populations have been historically isolated. They can also be found in the Caribbean regions of Colombia, Venezuela, and the Caribbean islands. Cuba is an example of this as it was the last nation in the Caribbean region to abolish slavery, and many of the enslaved Africans brought in the latter parts of the colonial era were not strictly enforced to accept their Christian surnames, so they would adopt ones that signified the tribe or region they descended from such as Boni, Carabalí, Biafara, and Cumbá.  

Nonetheless, the most common surnames that aren’t Castilian or Portuguese in origin, are those belonging to the descendants of post colonial immigrants. Although many immigrants Iberianized their surnames, others chose not to. The first wave of immigrants came from regions of Spain that weren’t traditionally part of the colonizing Castilian-speaking areas (which includes Castile/Andalusia/Extramdura) such as the Basque, Catalan, and Galician lands. Surnames from these sub-ethnic groups can be found throughout Latin America in abundance, but especially in Cuba, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Venezuela, Mexico, Colombia and even Brazil the countries which received the most post-colonial immigrants from Spain. Furthermore, immigrants from outside of Spain(and Portugual) began to migrate to Latin America in latter waves, most coming from Europe: mainly Italy, Germany, France, and Eastern Europe and most settling in the countries mentioned previously. In Argentina, Southern Brazil, and Uruguay; Italian, German, and Slavic surnames are almost as common as Iberian ones and in some areas even more common. Immigrants also came from Western and East Asia, namely Christian Arabs from Lebanon/Syria and Japanese people. Indentured laborers were brought to places like Peru and Cuba, most of them being of Chinese background. West Indian migrants to Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala (when these nations Caribbean coasts were British protectorate’s) and Panama (during the building of the Panama Canal) brought with them a multitude of British and Irish surnames as well. For this reason, many of the descendants of all these migrants mentioned above, still bear the surnames of their ancestors, despite historical pressures to assimilate/change them. 

Schumpeter always argued that capitalism, as an intrinsically amoral economic system driven by the pursuit of profit, dissolvent of all barriers to market calculation, depended critically on pre-capitalist — in essence nobiliary — values and manners to hold it together as social and political order. But this aristocratic “under-girding,” as he put it, was typically reinforced by a secondary structure of support, in bourgeois milieux confident of the moral dignity of their own calling: subjectively closer to portraits by Mann than Flaubert. In the epoch of the Marshall Plan and the genesis of the European Community, this world lived on. In the political realm, substantial figures like Adenauer, De Gasperi, Monnet embodied this persistence — their political relationship to Churchill or De Gaulle, grandees from a seigneurial past, as if an after-image of an original compact that socially was no longer valid. But, as it turned out, the two braces in the older structure were more interdependent than they once had seemed.

For within the span of another twenty years, the bourgeoisie too — in any strict sense, as a class possessed of self-consciousness and morale — was all but extinct. Here and there, pockets of a traditional bourgeois setting can still be found in provincial cities of Europe, and perhaps in certain regions of North America, typically preserved by religious piety: family networks in the Veneto or Basque lands, conservative notables in the Bordelais, parts of the German Mittelstand, and so on. But by and large, the bourgeoisie as Baudelaire or Marx, Ibsen or Rimbaud, Grosz or Brecht — or even Sartre or O'Hara — knew it, is a thing of the past. In place of that solid amphitheatre is an aquarium of floating, evanescent forms — the projectors and managers, auditors and janitors, administrators and speculators of contemporary capital: functions of a monetary universe that knows no social fixities or stable identities.

Not that inter-generational mobility has greatly increased, if at all, in the richer societies of the post-war world. These remain as objectively stratified as ever. But the cultural and psychological markers of position have become steadily more eroded among those who enjoy wealth or power. Agnelli or Wallenberg now evoke a distant past, in a time whose typical masks are Milken or Gates. From the seventies onwards, the leading personnel of the major states was moulting too — Nixon, Tanaka, Craxi were among the new plumes. More widely, in the public sphere democratization of manners and disinhibition of mores advanced together. For long, sociologists had debated the embourgeoisement of the working-class in the West — never a very happy term for the processes at issue. By the nineties, however, the more striking phenomenon was a general encanaillement of the possessing classes — as it were: starlet princesses and sleazeball presidents, beds for rent in the official residence and bribes for killer ads, disneyfication of protocols and tarantinization of practices, the avid corteges of the nocturnal underpass or the gubernatorial troop. In scenes like these lies much of the social backdrop of the postmodern.

—  Perry Anderson, “The Timing of Post-Modernity”
2

Some very interesting similarities between Euskara and Hungarian:

- Plural form is built by adding a “-k” at the end of the word:
—- Apple, apples = alma, almak (Hungarian) = sagar, sagarrak (Euskara)
—- Car, cars =  kocsi, kocsik (Hungarian) = auto, autoak (Euskara)

- Locative case is formed adding a final “-n” to the place (in Hungarian that “-n” is just used with cities of Hungary).
—- In Budapest = Budapesten (Hungarian & Euskara)
—- I’m in Budapest = Budapesten vagyok (Hungarian) = Budapesten nago (Euskara)

There’s even a similar anecdote: when we were in Hungary, we were told that the Hungarian language was created by the Devil after a few drinks. In Euskal Herria, there’s a legend that says the Devil spent 7 years here learning Euskera, but he had lots of difficulties and decided to leave. When he passed over the last bridge before getting out of the Basque lands, he tried to remember his Euskara and realized that he could only say “bai” (yes) and “ez” (no).

Maybe he began drinking out of frustation and created Hungarian in revenge?? Hahaha.

10

Contrary to popular belief, many Latin Americans do not have surnames that are of Castilian (Spanish) or Portuguese origin, just as many people from the United States do not posses surnames that are of English origin. [Part ll]

Above: Celebrities from Latin America with surnames that are not of Castilian or Portuguese origin [from left to right]:

1. Dilma Rousseff, Brazilian with a Bulgarian surname;

2. Rigoberta Menchú Tum, Guatemalan with an Indigenous Mayan surname;

3. Yumileidi Cumbá, Cuban with a surname that originates with the Mandinka people of West Africa;

4.Bruce Kastulo Chen, Panamanian with a Chinese surname;

5. David Nalbandian, Argentine with an Armenian surname;

6.Juan Soler Valls Quiroga, Argentine with a Catalan surname;

7. Montserrat Oliver, Mexican with a French surname;

8. Armando Cooper, Panamanian with English surname;

9. Karin Roepke, Brazilian with German surname;

10. Catharina Choi Nunes, Brazilian with Korean surname.

_______________________________________________________

When the Iberians colonized Latin America, they began to force conversion to Catholicism onto the Indigenous populations of the areas they conquered. After an Indigenous person was baptized, they were assigned a Castilian or Portuguese surname, to signify a new life distanced from their pagan roots. The same fate befell the enslaved Africans that were brought to the Americas by the Spaniards and Portuguese. After the colonial era many Latin American countries started to receive a myriad of immigrants; mostly from Europe, but also from Asia, the West Indies, and the United States. Countless of these immigrants would Iberianize their surnames in order to assimilate smoothly, examples of this can be seen with the German immigrants who came to Brazil; names such as Birnbaum, Löwe, Zimmermann, Frazen were changed to Pereira, Leão, Simão, and França. For all the reasons mentioned above, the majority of Latin Americans (not including the Francophone regions) these days have Castilian or Portuguese surnames.

However, a significant number of Latin Americans have managed to resist the adoption of Portuguese and Castilian surnames.

Indigenous surnames can be frequently found in countries with large unmixed Amerindian populations, an example of this is Peru where surnames such as Quispe, Huamán, Mamani are some of the most frequent. In southern Mexico and Guatemala names of Mayan origin such as: Tecú, Tuyub, Zum, Xuluc, Tun, Canché, Tuyuc, Curruchich, Choc, and Xicara; are also commonly found.

West and Central African originated surnames can be found in areas of the Pacific coast of Colombia and Ecuador where the African-descended populations have been historically isolated. They can also be found in the Caribbean regions of Colombia, Venezuela, and the Caribbean islands. Cuba is an example of this as it was the last nation in the Caribbean region to abolish slavery, and many of the enslaved Africans brought in the latter parts of the colonial era were not strictly enforced to accept their Christian surnames, so they would adopt ones that signified the tribe or region they descended from such as Boni, Carabalí, Biafara, and Cumbá.  

Nonetheless, the most common surnames that aren’t Castilian or Portuguese in origin, are those belonging to the descendants of post colonial immigrants. Although many immigrants Iberianized their surnames, others chose not to. The first wave of immigrants came from regions of Spain that weren’t traditionally part of the colonizing Castilian-speaking areas (which includes Castile/Andalusia/Extramdura) such as the Basque, Catalan, and Galician lands. Surnames from these sub-ethnic groups can be found throughout Latin America in abundance, but especially in Cuba, Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Venezuela, Mexico, Colombia and even Brazil the countries which received the most post-colonial immigrants from Spain. Furthermore, immigrants from outside of Spain(and Portugual) began to migrate to Latin America in latter waves, most coming from Europe: mainly Italy, Germany, France, and Eastern Europe and most settling in the countries mentioned previously. In Argentina, Southern Brazil, and Uruguay; Italian, German, and Slavic surnames are almost as common as Iberian ones and in some areas even more common. Immigrants also came from Western and East Asia, namely Christian Arabs from Lebanon/Syria and Japanese people. Indentured laborers were brought to places like Peru and Cuba, most of them being of Chinese background. West Indian migrants to Honduras, Nicaragua, Guatemala (when these nations Caribbean coasts were British protectorate’s) and Panama (during the building of the Panama Canal) brought with them a multitude of British and Irish surnames as well. For this reason, many of the descendants of all these migrants mentioned above, still bear the surnames of their ancestors, despite historical pressures to assimilate/change them. 

youtube

History of the Basque people in 10 minutes (in Spanish).

Some things were not EXACTLY like that…This is not criticism, we just want you to know how things actually were. The most scandalous mistakes we’ve identified:

- Pamplona wasn’t called “Pompeya” when Romans founded it. It was founded by Pompeyo and called Pompaelo, actually. It may be just a detail, but it’s still a wrong detail.

- The Basque lands weren’t the only ones the Muslim Empire didn’t conquest. All the northern regions were free. In fact, the Reconquista was started by Asturians.

- Before the Kingdom of Navarre, it existed a Basque independent territory (where the Spanish language was born, by the way) called County of Castile.

- Bizkaia wasn’t part of Castile until 1379, almost 200 years later than stated in the video. Furthermore, the señorío of Bizkaia (which is never mentioned in the video) lasted from 1040 to the 19th century.

- Isabella and Fernando NEVER called themselves queen and king of Spain. It wasn’t until the 18th century when monarchs began to use that title.

- Isabella and Fernando not only respected Navarrese Fueros, but the ones of nowadays Euskadi too.