basic-structures

scutellatebooted  asked:

Hi Doc! Love reading your blog, I found you first through the Lucifer story (reminded me of a friend of mine actually) and then again through your mermaid post and have been hanging around ever since. I looked thru your archive but didn't find this question so hopefully it hasn't been asked before: what is it about horse anatomy that makes their legs so (seemingly) fragile? You'd think being as big as they are, they'd be more all-around solid. Thanks for reading, have a good one!

The horse, Equus caballus, is one of my favorite arguments against Intelligent Design. I’ve spoken before about why I no longer see them, but even as a student I would wonder why and how this species existed when there were apparently so many things that could go wrong with its own anatomy, especially next to something tough like a trusty cow.

I don’t know how it’s possible to believe in a benevolent, loving, wise creator when creatures like the horse come to exist.

So I’m going to use your question as an excuse to write a post that had been on my mind for a while:

Things That Are Wrong With Horses

The basic structure of a horse has a few significant design flaws.

  1. Cannot vomit. This means that anything which would make another species sick enough to vomit results in a horse getting s distended stomach and colic, where the stomach can rupture and the horse can die. Also means symptoms of illness are hidden longer
  2. The large bowel (hind gut) of the horse is fricking huge, but can actually displace itself and bend around the wrong way, resulting in obstruction, colic and death without surgical intervention. This can commonly happen after exertion (splenic contraction) and giving birth. Colic due to nephrosplenic entrapment is particularly common after the horse has an adrenaline release, which causes the spleen to temporarily contract, and this seems like a poor design to risk death every time you spook or go for a fast run, especially in a species known for spooking and running fast.
  3. Giving birth is a fast and explosive affair in the horse. The whole pushing business should be over and  done with in about 20 minutes, however this assumes that everything is lined up just right for a normal delivery. Foals are all long legs and necks, which are easy to get tangled or bent around the wrong way. A mare is strong enough to push her foal’s feet through her uterine wall, which is death all round.
  4. Speaking of strength, sometimes horses will kick each other when they have attitude, and they can do so with enough strength to rupture each other’s spleens.
  5. When galloping most horses, best studied in thoroughbreds because they are made to gallop on a regular basis, horses routinely bash their diaphragm with such force against their liver that their liver bruises.
  6. Galloping also often makes their lungs bleed. That’s why racehorses have their head held up after a race, so you don’t see any blood come out their nose and disqualify them. Even horses that you don’t see bleed have evidence of pulmonary bleeding after a gallop if you scope them.
  7. Their leg bones are actually pretty damn tough, but the ends are spindly little things compared to the mass of musculature up top. Their legs are subjected to huge biomechanical forces when a horse runs which can often subject them to ligament damage and lameness. A fractured leg bone can heal like any other, but if a horse can’t bear weight evenly on all four legs for an extended period of time (eg after a fracture) then they are at risk of laminitis.
  8. Laminitis can cause the hoof to slough off. (Aaargh!) They can also get laminitis from eating a bit too well.
  9. Speaking of eating, they can also get colic (and risk death) from eating not enough fiber or the wrong sort of plants or from eating too much dirt.
  10. Oh, and just to mess with you, horses have a space in their head called a guttural pouch which seems to exist for no other reason as far as I can tell (okay, maybe it’s about heat regulation) other than to get fungal infections that eat through the exposed artery and cause the horse to die from blood loss through it’s nose.

And Bonus: Exquisite sensitivity to tetanus and vulnerability to Hendravirus

This list is by no means complete. I haven’t even touched on their anesthetics or drug reactions, but it’s a simple start.

BASIC KOREAN SENTENCE STRUCTURE

♡ in korean, it is important to use the correct sentence structure, or your sentences may seem really confusing :

-> in english : Subject Verb Object
-> in korean : Subject Object Verb

now, let’s look at some examples!

we are gonna use this simple sentence :
“i bought a book”,
in korean it would be :
“i a book bought”

저는 책을 샀어요
책 = book
샀어요(past tense) from the verb 사다 = to buy
it’s really different, right?


the object ALWAYS comes BEFORE the verb, and the verb is ALWAYS at the END of the sentence.

locations are also used BEFORE verbs :

“저는 학교에 가요” i go to school
학교 = school
에= location particle (to)
가요 (present tense) from the verb 가다 = to go

“저는 학교에서 공부해요” i study at school
학교 = school
에서 = location particle (at)
공부해요 (present tense) from the verb 공부하다 = to study

“저는 집에 잤어요” i slept at home
집 = home
에 = location particle (at)
잤어요 (past tense) from the verb 자다 = to sleep

⚠ you can put the time before or after the subject though :

both of these sentences mean “today I will eat at home” :

before -> 오늘 저는 집에서 먹을 거예요
after -> 저는 오늘 집에서 먹을 거예요
오늘 = today
집 = home
에서 = location particle (at)
먹을 거예요 (future tense) from the verb 먹다 = to verb

tomorrow, i will study at school”
before -> 내일 저는 학교에서 공부할 거예요
after -> 저는 내일 학교에서 공부할 거예요
내일 = tomorrow
학교 = school
에서 = location particle (at)
공부하다 = to study
~ㄹ 거예요 (future tense)

adverbs are added before verbs :
저는 열심히 공부해요
I study hard
열심히 = hard

and finally, adjectives work the same way as they do in english! just put them before the noun they describe :

매운 라면 = spicy ramen
매운 = spicy
라면 = ramen

예쁜 여자 = beautiful woman
예쁜 = beautiful
여자 =  woman

Originally posted by monbebe-wonbebe

HOW TO STUDY/LEARN ANY LANGUAGE

Being a polyglot, I decided to make a post about how to study any language, Without further ado, here it is:

1) TRY TO STAY AWAY FROM ENGLISH

This is the most crucial step to studying/learning a new language. In order for your brain to pick up the new words and ideas, it needs to be more immersed in the language you’re learning. Now for most of us who are learning languages in school, that’s kind of hard, especially since most language classes do most of the work in English until you build a level of fluency. This is the primary reason why immersion programs or immersion schools are so much more successful in teaching a language: you’re forced to talk, write, speak, and think in the language you’re learning. Your brain makes connections faster and thus learns faster to understand and process the language. I would suggest that when you’re learning the language, whether it’s in class time or homework, try to work only in that language. Don’t automatically translate things into English because that’s only going to inhibit your process. Even if your knowledge of the language is limited, practicing thinking in the language, reading the language without translating, and speaking will greatly improve your progress. You’ll find yourself become more fluent and the language will flow rather than be halting because your brain is trying to translate things instead of thinking fluently.

2) LEARN AS MUCH VOCABULARY AS YOU CAN

Vocab is one of, if not the, most important aspect of learning a language. I would even go as far as saying it’s about 70-80% of effectively knowing a language. Think about it this way, if you’re at a restaurant and you’re asked to read the menu or if you’re out and you’re reading signs and advertisements, will knowing hundreds of verbs and their conjugations help you get by? Most likely not. Vocab on the other hand will make the difference between understanding and being totally clueless. If that example didn’t do it for you here’s another one: when you’re speaking to someone how can you express yourself if you don’t know the words? Chances are even if you know no grammar but know key words in the language someone will understand you. Most people don’t pay that much attention to grammar anyway when you’re speaking. As long as you have a basic understanding of it, you’ll be understood. I’m not saying that grammar isn’t important, far from it, but so many people underestimate vocab and focus on grammar and that hinders your learning. Try to learn as much vocab as you can because it will bring you one more step to being fluent. The key to knowing a language is to understand it to a high degree. You can’t understand if you don’t know the words. Find a list with the most common words in the language you’re learning and try to learn them all. Have a goal to learn 10-20 new words per day and you’ll go a long way. If you’re trying to learn vocab I would recommend to have a sheet with all the words you’re trying to learn and their definitions. Hide the words and try to write the vocab by seeing only the definitions. Writing down helps you remember and this method is foolproof. I’ve used it for 6+ years in French and it’s never failed me.

3) LEARN BASIC GRAMMAR

When I say basic grammar, I mean the typical verb tenses and some basic structures. This doesn’t mean learning every single verb conjugated in every single tense, but rather learning the patterns of grammar and how to apply them. Work smarter not harder. Learning the patterns makes it easier to recognize them when you’re reading and remember them when you’re writing. In my opinion, one fault with the way languages are taught in school is the way they teach grammar and how much time they spend on it. Most native speakers don’t worry as much about grammar as non-native speakers do. Again, I’m not saying grammar isn’t important because it is and  you have to know it, but the way it’s taught ruins it. Try to make a chart with all the verb tenses and the patterns that go with the different types of verbs and then a list with the irregular verbs/exceptions. This should be enough to help you gain a basic mastery of grammar. If you know the basic rules, it will become second nature as you speak, write, and read more.

4) READ, LISTEN, AND SPEAK

The language you learn at school is very very different from the language actually spoken in its native country. Most of the language you learn is very formal while in real life, formality is disregarded to a degree and slang is prevalent. In order to build a fluency, you need to read and listen to the language in its natural form to pick up the slang and words that are actually used and not the archaic words that nobody ever says. Listen to music from that language, watch the news in that language, read a book or magazine in that language etc. This will again help your brain learn and process the language better. It will also help with vocabulary and general understanding. Children’s books are the best when you’re starting out. The language is simple and the grammar isn’t to complicated. Start with children’s books and then work your way up to novels and other forms of literature. Listening to the language is also crucial. Try to find mediums where the language is spoken and just listen. Don’t translate or stress yourself out trying to understand it all because you won’t the first couple of times. Just let it sink in. Gradually, you’ll find yourself understanding more and more and you’ll improve. With the speaking aspect, speak as much as you can. Don’t be embarrassed if you stumble, can’t express yourself as much as you would like, or have an accent. I also find that watching/reading/listening to translated works is helpful. Find your favorite book and read it in the language you’re learning, it will help you understand and learn more because you already know what’s going on and can focus on the vocab and grammar. Find your favorite movie and watch it in the language you’re learning. Again, it will help you learn more vocab. The more you practice the better it will get. If you distance yourself from speaking you’ll never improve. Balancing reading, listening, and speaking is the key to being successful.

5) DON’T BE AFRAID TO MESS UP

Nobody becomes fluent over night. Cliche but true. Don’t expect to instantly know everything. It’s normal to struggle and have trouble. Failing is part of the learning process and if you stop practicing because you’re afraid, you’re never going to learn anything. Let go of your fears and insecurities and go for it. If you fall down, pick yourself up and start again. Don’t be embarrassed if you mess up but rather learn from your mistakes and grow. The things we remember most are usually the things where we’ve messed up or had a negative experience with. So use the hiccups as a learning experience and your language skills will improve. 

If you follow these steps, I’m confided that you’ll be better in no time :) The key is to enjoy what you do and have fun! Good luck!

Voyager: The Spacecraft

The twin Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are exploring where nothing from Earth has flown before. Continuing their more-than-40-year journey since their 1977 launches, they each are much farther away from Earth and the Sun than Pluto.

The primary mission was the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn. After making a string of discoveries there – such as active volcanoes on Jupiter’s moon Io and intricacies of Saturn’s rings – the mission was extended. 

Voyager 2 went on to explore Uranus and Neptune, and is still the only spacecraft to have visited those outer planets. The adventurers’ current mission, the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM), will explore the outermost edge of the Sun’s domain. And beyond.

Spacecraft Instruments

‘BUS’ Housing Electronics

The basic structure of the spacecraft is called the “bus,” which carries the various engineering subsystems and scientific instruments. It is like a large ten-sided box. Each of the ten sides of the bus contains a compartment (a bay) that houses various electronic assemblies.

Cosmic Ray Subsystem (CRS)

The Cosmic Ray Subsystem (CRS) looks only for very energetic particles in plasma, and has the highest sensitivity of the three particle detectors on the spacecraft. Very energetic particles can often be found in the intense radiation fields surrounding some planets (like Jupiter). Particles with the highest-known energies come from other stars. The CRS looks for both.

High-Gain Antenna (HGA)

The High-Gain Antenna (HGA) transmits data to Earth on two frequency channels (the downlink). One at about 8.4 gigahertz, is the X-band channel and contains science and engineering data. For comparison, the FM radio band is centered around 100 megahertz.

Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS)

The Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) is a modified version of the slow scan vidicon camera designed that were used in the earlier Mariner flights. The ISS consists of two television-type cameras, each with eight filters in a commandable Filter Wheel mounted in front of the vidicons. One has a low resolution 200 mm wide-angle lens, while the other uses a higher resolution 1500 mm narrow-angle lens.

Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer and Radiometer (IRIS)

The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer and Radiometer (IRIS) actually acts as three separate instruments. First, it is a very sophisticated thermometer. It can determine the distribution of heat energy a body is emitting, allowing scientists to determine the temperature of that body or substance.

Second, the IRIS is a device that can determine when certain types of elements or compounds are present in an atmosphere or on a surface.

Third, it uses a separate radiometer to measure the total amount of sunlight reflected by a body at ultraviolet, visible and infrared frequencies.

Low-Energy Charged Particles (LECP)

The Low-Energy Charged Particles (LECP) looks for particles of higher energy than the Plasma Science instrument, and it overlaps with the Cosmic Ray Subsystem (CRS). It has the broadest energy range of the three sets of particle sensors. 

The LECP can be imagined as a piece of wood, with the particles of interest playing the role of the bullets. The faster a bullet moves, the deeper it will penetrate the wood. Thus, the depth of penetration measures the speed of the particles. The number of “bullet holes” over time indicates how many particles there are in various places in the solar wind, and at the various outer planets. The orientation of the wood indicates the direction from which the particles came.

Magnetometer (MAG)

Although the Magnetometer (MAG) can detect some of the effects of the solar wind on the outer planets and moons, its primary job is to measure changes in the Sun’s magnetic field with distance and time, to determine if each of the outer planets has a magnetic field, and how the moons and rings of the outer planets interact with those magnetic fields.

Optical Calibration Target
The target plate is a flat rectangle of known color and brightness, fixed to the spacecraft so the instruments on the movable scan platform (cameras, infrared instrument, etc.) can point to a predictable target for calibration purposes.

Photopolarimeter Subsystem (PPS)

The Photopolarimeter Subsystem (PPS) uses a 0.2 m telescope fitted with filters and polarization analyzers. The experiment is designed to determine the physical properties of particulate matter in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn and the rings of Saturn by measuring the intensity and linear polarization of scattered sunlight at eight wavelengths. 

The experiment also provided information on the texture and probable composition of the surfaces of the satellites of Jupiter and Saturn.

Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) and Plasma Wave Subsystem (PWS)

Two separate experiments, The Plasma Wave Subsystem and the Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment, share the two long antennas which stretch at right-angles to one another, forming a “V”.

Plasma Science (PLS)

The Plasma Science (PLS) instrument looks for the lowest-energy particles in plasma. It also has the ability to look for particles moving at particular speeds and, to a limited extent, to determine the direction from which they come. 

The Plasma Subsystem studies the properties of very hot ionized gases that exist in interplanetary regions. One plasma detector points in the direction of the Earth and the other points at a right angle to the first.

Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG)

Three RTG units, electrically parallel-connected, are the central power sources for the mission module. The RTGs are mounted in tandem (end-to-end) on a deployable boom. The heat source radioisotopic fuel is Plutonium-238 in the form of the oxide Pu02. In the isotopic decay process, alpha particles are released which bombard the inner surface of the container. The energy released is converted to heat and is the source of heat to the thermoelectric converter.

Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS)

The Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) is a very specialized type of light meter that is sensitive to ultraviolet light. It determines when certain atoms or ions are present, or when certain physical processes are going on. 

The instrument looks for specific colors of ultraviolet light that certain elements and compounds are known to emit.

Learn more about the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft HERE.

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

How to write a bomb ass personal statement

I’ve had a few asks about how to write - as one of you put it - a bomb ass personal statement. I’m a bit reluctant to write this, seeing as I haven’t actually got an interview/offer yet! But I guess it might be helpful to those of you applying around now :)

HOW TO START

  • Bullet point what you want to include - I suggest listing out what you want to include. It’s a good idea to do this at the beginning, to make sure you don’t leave anything out; and it can help form the basic structure of your statement.
  • Do not start at the start - this is one of the most important things I learnt when writing mine. It is so hard to write that first sentence - so just leave it until the end, and begin writing with the actual content, something you’re more comfortable writing about.
  • When you do get down to writing that first sentence - do not start with a cheesy quote or the typical “I have always bee passionate about…” as these are things that can immediately put off an admissions tutor. Try and be original, or just simple: “I want to study X because…”

THE CONTENT

  • Just keep writing - don’t worry about the 4,000 character and 47 line limits. Literally just write, and keep going, even if you think what you’re writing is bad - just get all your ideas out there, and put down everything you would want to include. It’s so much easier to take things out rather than adding things in. My personal statement was around 8,000 characters at one point!`
  • Get the balance right - different unis want different things from personal statements, so check their websites to make sure you’re getting in what they want. You need to get the balance of intellectual curiosity/passion for the subject with your personal qualities and extra-curriculars. 
  • Back up everything with evidence - don’t just say you are great at working in a team, give examples that demonstrate that you have worked well in successful teams in the past.What to include?

WHAT TO INCLUDE

  • Why you want to study that particular course
  • Why you are the right person to study the course
  • Extra things you have done to show commitment or interest about the course - volunteering, subscriptions to journals, further reading etc.
  • Any relevant work experience
  • Any relevant awards you’ve won (e.g. maths challenge or physics olympiad) or responsibilities within the school (e.g. prefect or house captain)
  • Demonstrate desirable skills for your course - problem solving, teamwork, leadership etc.

WHAT NOT TO INCLUDE

  • Cliches - like “Ever since I was born I have wanted to study…”
  • Quotes - this is a personal statement, so don’t start quoting other people! Plus way too many people do this to make it original.
  • Jokes - it may be that the person reading your statement has a very different sense of humour than you do.
  • Really long sentences - you want your personal statement to be as easy as possible to read, and long confusing sentences won’t help that.
  • Repetition - it’s such a short document, you don’t have space for this. Plus it gets boring!
  • Names of unis - the unis you apply to have no idea where else you have applied, so don’t name any of them in your statement.

THE ENDING

  • Do not end on a cheesy quote or joke. Just sum up why you’d be a great candidate and reinforce what you have told them throughout the main body of the statement - that you’re fabulous!
  • Once you have finished a draft you can start trying to cut down on the word count. Maybe ask a teacher to look at your spelling/grammar, and you can always get your friends’ opinions too, on what should come out, and what should be kept in. Make sure you don’t let other people have too much influence - it has to be a personal statement!

How to Learn a Language Naturally: Back to the Basics

        Lately as I’ve been gradually getting back into independent language learning I’ve found myself struggling with where to begin. Every textbook I would take out would leave me bored and frustrated with either the simplicity or the level it was placed at relative to where I was at that time; yet without some sort of direction, I felt lost. Already battling against lack of motivation, creating a self-study program from scratch seemed like an incredibly daunting task. However, after taking a step back I’ve begun to see other approaches that I can take to learn the language in a more natural way – turning away from standard study that leaves me unmotivated, and focusing instead on fun and entertaining ways of language application. Here is what I’ve come up with.


Starting off as a beginner:

        My greatest and first word of advice for starting off as a beginner in your target language would be to start looking around websites such as Memrise and Quizlet for lists of most commonly used words. The “Learn [Language] in 200/300 words” posts on Tumblr by @funwithlanguages are also a great place to start. Start working on pronouns, general sentence structure or basic phrases, and learning the overall conjugation patterns for the most basic verbs. Flashcards and index cards are incredibly useful here. This will give you a good foundation off of which you can build further.

        In addition, having some sort of structured course, such as the Teach Yourself series or many available courses on Memrise that teach vocabulary connected with dialogues, is extremely helpful. It has been scientifically proven that a person learns vocabulary much faster when they have some sort of emotional connection formed, and by learning words in context, it is much easier to remember what something means and how it is used.

Reading/Speaking:

Find some good, easy, dual-language books to start off with. Go through them chapter by chapter, making sure to read each paragraph in only the target language before going back and looking up/checking unknown words. Read each section multiple times as to ensure comprehension, and, even better, read it to yourself out loud while working on pronunciation. Later, as you become more advanced, you can move on to books entirely in your target language, and try to write your own definitions of unknown words using the given context before checking them yourself.

Search for different news sources from countries where your target language is spoken. Read through the article and write your own summaries of events.

Try changing the language settings on your phone or social media accounts to your target language, and make note of any new vocabulary – don’t allow yourself to go on autopilot.

Challenge yourself to make short vlogs or general videos in your target language. If needed, feel free to write a script to read off of; otherwise, challenge yourself to speak purely off the top of your head – using as much as you know, even if your sentences start off broken.

Set up Skype sessions with native speakers and practice communicating using whatever knowledge of your target language you possess. If you are unsure of a word, try to use others to describe it instead of resorting to your native language (or even just ask how you would say something using your target language).

Look up the lyrics to different songs in your target language and practice translating. Similarly, try translating other songs into your target language.

Writing:

Find native speakers who would be willing to communicate with and correct you, and practice conversing using only your target language (no matter how often you need to use a dictionary – but make sure you take note of any new vocabulary or concepts you come across!).

Practice writing status updates (whether on a private account or not), journal entries, essays, or fictional pieces in your target language. If able, see if you can find a native speaker who would be willing to give you corrections, or simply post your text on Lang8!

Listening:

Youtube is a great resource for all levels of language learning. Try searching for content creators that make videos in a genre you enjoy, and utilize their channels to practice your listening skills and inferring from context while immersing yourself. Write down any words you are unsure of to look up later.

Music in your target language – listen for words you recognize, and look up those you don’t. Things like lyrics are much more likely to stick in your memory, so use that to your advantage!

Look around for an online radio that broadcasts news in your target language, or even an online news source that posts or broadcasts video.

Watch films in your target language, even if it’s content that was originally in English. Many DVDs come with dubs in other languages depending on where you’re from, and Netflix (especially Netflix Original Series) also offers many different dub and subtitle options depending on the content. Even YouTube occasionally has films or TV episodes uploaded in other languages, so long as you look hard enough.

Grammar:

When it comes to grammar, it is important to have a good, solid grammar book that breaks down all basic ideas into something that is comprehensible. Don’t start off with learning grammar right away, however; give yourself some time to really soak up the language itself and get used to basic concepts first. Once you’re at a higher level, being able to properly break down your target language and put it back together will substantially help your progression to fluency.

Incorporate practice sentences into your writing, utilizing each concept. By forcing yourself to physically use each grammatical structure in a context you’ve come up with yourself, it will be much easier for you to master each idea, as well as help it to become more natural.

Hopefully this was helpful in some way! Good luck, and happy language learning!

Low Genetic Diversity Confuses Aliens

Hear me out… So amongst our fellow animals we have very low diversity due to a bottle necking of our population like 70,000 years ago. Genetically speaking, humans are literally almost identical to one another and the outside identifiable features really aren’t that radical a concept when location/ exposure to radiation from the sun is taken into account… and our insides basically identical. Seriously, humans aren’t all that different from each other when compared to the genetic diversity found in other animals.

So just picture aliens coming only to find us all being basically identical to one another… Yeah, there are some color/height differences and some other things here and there but overall pretty similar. Same basic structure and really the colors are on the same color spectrum so really not all that different. What if they couldn’t see colors the way we can? What if their sight is based on parts of the light spectrum we can’t see making our visual color markers meaningless? What do we have left on a purely visual scale? 

So, maybe they somehow test our genetics? Well, we’re still basically the same and they have to look. Remember, first contact and they don’t really know anything about us. Maybe our DNA system is different to their genetic system, idk. But still, the point stands, we’re still pretty much the same. So that’s an out for them figuring us apart. 

My point is, to aliens humans can basically be a hive of clones and they wouldn’t be all that wrong. I’m just picturing them confusing us with one another like someone who confuses a pair of nearly identical twins they don’t know that well… Just you know, on a larger scale.


“Human Ariel, I need some help with this. Can you spare a moment?” I asked confident I was speaking to the right human. Human Ariel and I are nearly friends, I know her general height, coloring, and even her radiation range! I can pick her out of crowd easily.

I wait a moment for Human Ariel to respond. When she does’t I try again.

“Human Ariel… Human Ariel!” This startles a response from her.

“Ugh… Were you talking to me?” She looks confused.

“Yes, Human Ariel, could you help me carry this down to the bay?” I ask confident.

“Oh… Sorry bro, I’m not Ariel. My name’s John, but sure I’ll help you.” He smiles and offers a hand. 

I don’t understand. All the basic markers are the same. Brown hair that’s short compared to some others, about 1.7 meters tall, same basic anatomical structure and proportions, some light radiation markers. I just don’t know where I went wrong.

After Human John helped me down to the bay I realized personality wise Human John and Human Ariel were nothing alike. However, I was still not convinced there was any outward difference between the two.

“The Basics”

The basic structure of the sortinghatchats system is that you aren’t just sorted into one House, but into two tiers of Houses: Primary and Secondary. Your Primary House defines WHY you do things. Your Secondary defines HOW. To build this system, we’ve drawn on the Sorting Hat’s songs, general HP canon, extracanonical data (ex. interviews with JKR)… and then extrapolated.

People are complex– for joy or for utility, due to social pressure or careless recreation, people often use the reasoning or methods of Houses that aren’t their Primary or Secondary. We call this “modelling” or “performing” a house and we will explain it in greater detail later. These additional layers help us capture some complexities in characters that we couldn’t get using Primary and Secondary alone. People can vary hugely in how they embody their Houses; in this system, Aang, the heroic pacifist protagonist from Avatar the Last Airbender, shares most of his Houses with HP’s Lord Voldemort.

The way you decide which Houses are yours is not necessarily by looking at what you do, but at what would make you proudest and most content if you were strong enough to do it. Your sorting is what you want to be and what you believe you should do, whether or not you actually live up to it. That’s how people like Peter Pettigrew can end up in Gryffindor.

PRIMARIES

Your Primary is your why. It’s your motivations, your values, and the way you frame the world around you. It’s how and what you prioritize, and what you weigh most heavily when making your decisions. People often also assume that others share those priorities. A common response to our system is “but you must oversort into Gryffindor/Slytherin/Ravenclaw/Hufflepuff–everyone has that type of morality, deep down!”

Gryffindor Primaries trust their moral intuitions and have a need and a drive to live by them. They feel what’s right in their gut, and that matters and guides them. If they don’t listen to and act on that, it feels immoral.

We call Gryffindor morality “felt” but that doesn’t mean they’re all impetuous, emotional hellions. Gryffindors can still be intelligent, deliberate creatures who weigh their decisions and moralities carefully. Reasoning, intellectualizing and debate can be support for a Gryffindor’s felt morality– but those things can never make a fully satisfying morality in themselves. Some things are just wrong, no matter what pretty words you use to explain them.

Ravenclaw Primaries have a constructed system that they test their decisions against before they feel comfortable calling something right. This system might be constructed by them, or it might have been taught to them as children, or it might have been discovered by them some point later in life. But it gives them a way to frame the world and a confidence in their ability to interact with it morally.

Ravenclaws do not lack an intuitive sense of morality or gut feeling about things, but they distrust those instincts and have a need to ignore or to dig down deep and dissect those internal moral impulses. Living within their built moral system is as important to a Ravenclaw as to a Gryffindor; it’s the source of the morality that differs between them–what they trust.

Hufflepuff Primaries value people–all people. They value community, they bond to groups (rather than solely individuals), and they make their decisions off of who is in the most need and who is the most vulnerable and who they can help. They value fairness because every person is a person and feel best when they give everyone that fair chance. Even directly wronged, a Hufflepuff will often give someone a second (or fifth) chance.

This doesn’t mean all Hufflepuffs are inherently tolerant human beings, any more than all Gryffindors are inherently good, moral creatures. Hufflepuffs tend to believe that all people deserve some type of kindness, decency, or consideration from them–but they can define “person” however they want, excluding individuals or even whole groups.

Slytherin Primaries are fiercely loyal to the people they care for most. Slytherin is the place where “you’ll make your real friends”– they prioritize individual loyalties and find their moral core in protecting and caring for the people they are closest to.

Slytherin’s reputation for ambition comes from the visibility of this promotion of the self and their important people– ambition is something you can find in all four Houses; Slytherin’s is just the one that looks most obviously selfish.

Because their morality system of “me and mine first” is fairly narrow in scope, Slytherins often construct a secondary morality system to deal with situations that are not addressed by their loyalty system.

SECONDARIES

Your Secondary is your how. It’s how you approach the world as a person interacting with it, and how you make your way. It’s how you problem-solve. It’s not necessarily what you’re best at, or even what’s the most useful to you, but about what skills and methods you value as being intrinsic to you. Do you improvise, do you plan? Do you work on something a little bit every day? Do you charge into the fray and tell people exactly what’s on your mind? What do you do? How would you describe the way you meet the world?

Note: the term “Secondary” is not meant to imply that how you do things is any less important than why (the Primary House). It’s simply the way our terminology fell out and we’re too lazy to change it. The importance of motivations v. methods is a personal sliding scale– it’s perfectly valid for a person to identify with their Secondary House over their Primary. (When drawing from canonical sources, we assumed each character likely was in a House that matched to either their Primary or their Secondary. For instance, Harry is in Gryffindor for his heroic Gryffindor Primary, but Ginny Weasley is there for her brash and bold Gryffindor Secondary.)

Gryffindor Secondaries charge. They meet the world head-on and challenge it to do its worst. Gryffindor Secondaries are honest, brash, and bold in pursuit of things they care about. Known for their bravery, it is almost a moral matter to stay true to themselves in any situation that they’re in.

Ravenclaw Secondaries plan. They collect information, they strategize. They have tools. They run hypotheticals and try to plan ahead for things that might come up. They build things (of varying degrees of practicality and actual usefulness) that they can use later– whether that’s an emergency supply pack, a vast knowledge of Renaissance artistic techniques and supplies, or a series of lists and contingency plans. They feel less at home in improvisation and more comfortable planning ahead and taking the time to be prepared.

Hufflepuff Secondaries toil. Their strength comes from their consistency and the integrity of their method. They’re our hard workers. They build habits and systems for themselves and accomplish things by keeping at them. They have a steadiness that can make them the lynchpin (though not usually the leader) of a community. While stereotyped as liking people and being kind (and this version is perhaps a common reality), a Hufflepuff secondary can also easily be a caustic, introverted misanthrope who runs on hard work alone.

Slytherin Secondaries improvise. They are the most adaptive secondary, finding their strength in responding quickly to whatever a situation throws at them. They improvise differently than the Gryffindor Secondary, far more likely to try coming at situations from different angles than to try strong-arming them. They might describe themselves as having different “faces” for different people and different situations, dropping them and being just themselves only when they’re relaxing or feel safe.

But the Journey Continues…

These four basic Primary and Secondary houses are summarized starting places that we use as a basis for further discussion. What are some ways this gets complicated?

Keep reading

9

Phrases you may hear or use in a Korean cafe!


Along with our Friendly Phrases tag, we’re now launching our Korean Phrases tag! Each of these posts will feature 8 sentences in any given topic, along with a breakdown of the vocabulary and sentence structure! 


BASIC SENTENCE STRUCTURE:  Subject - Time -  Object - Adverb - Verb


Let’s break down the vocabulary.

어서 오세요 - Welcome
주문하다 - to order
~하시다 - to do (high formal)

것 - thing(s)
확인한다 - to check
드리다 - to give, to offer (high formal)

데우다 - to heat, to warm up
드리다 - to give, to offer (high formal)

EG: “머핀 데워 드릴까요?” Would you like me to heat up the muffin?

여기 - here
드시다 - to eat (high formal)
~건가요?
아니면 - or
가지다 - to have, to carry
가다 - to go

영수증 - receipt
필요하다 - to need

올리다 - to lift up, to raise (in this case, “to put on top”)
드리다 - to give (high formal)

어떤 - what, which
사이즈 - size
원하다 - to want
하시다 - to do (high formal)

Disclaimer: I have never taken a non-science college class. Meaning, I have no idea how to take notes for humanities or social sciences. Not saying this method won’t work for that, just that I can’t guarantee it will. Also, this method is not about achieving pretty notes, only structured practical notes.

What you’ll need:

  • Notebook. I use a notebook. Most people I know use a notebook. Why should YOU use a notebook?
    • You won’t get as many handouts (if any) as in highschool.
    • Professors won’t ask to see hw in your notebook. For all they care, your notes could be a comic about the class. As long as you pass, you do you.
    • You don’t have as many classes in a day so even if you carry around notebooks, your bag won’t be all that heavy.
    • You can divide it into three sections: class notes, seminar notes/work and lab work. All in one for your studying comfort.
    • Professors WILL reference that formula from 3 classes ago and when you have no idea wtf they’re talking about, you can just flip a few pages.
    • Seriously, no one in your class wants to hear you snap loose leaf paper out of your ring binder.
    • And let’s be honest, your notes are going to get jumbled up any other way.
    • If you’re taking a continuation class and you’ll need to revise from these notes, it’s much easier to pull out a notebook than to look through the thousands of notes from all your classes and try to figure out which are the ones you need and what is the correct order.
  • Two pens, three tops. Blue for general notes, black for sections and the other color for subsections or underlining. Go for black for general note taking if you want to (I do it too sometimes) but blue strains your eyes less.

In class:

  • Structuring notes: not every structure works for every subject and professor so you should figure out a method for each one. That said, I usually start out with a basic structure and then tweak it along the way to better suit my needs:
    1. The name of the unit should be your ‘big title’. ‘ORGANELLES’
    2. Every ‘big topic’ (very easy to identify – usually the professor will make it really clear that you’re moving on to a different topic or it’ll be on the slides) inside the unit is assigned a number. ‘3. Mitochondria’
    3. Every ’big aspect’ of that topic is a subtopic. ‘3.4. Structure’.
    4. If there are even more sub subtopics, continue with the numeration system. Otherwise proceed to use bullet points for any enumerations. If there are enumerations inside these enumerations (wow enumerception), change your symbol for each level. Instead of bullet points you can use dashes, squares, spirals, Xs…
    5. The exception for this is when the enumeration corresponds to steps in a process. In that case, I number each step and circle the number.
    6. For each level you descend, indent your text. It’ll be easier to not get lost. Skip this if you’re working with a small notebook and you’re afraid of running out of pages.
    7. Sticky notes are your best friend. Does some random piece of info the professor just decided was important enough to be mentioned not fit into your very methodic structure? No problem, add a sticky note. Cute + calls attention to it, so you won’t forget.

Keep reading

  • <p> <b><p></b> <b><p></b> <b><p></b> <b><p></b> <b><p></b> <b></b> *The Basic Structure of a Sprousehart Interview*<p/><b>Interviewer:</b> *Asks a question*<p/><b>Cole:</b> *Lets Lili speak her mind*<p/><b>Cole:</b> *Low-key watches her the entire time with a smitten smile*<p/><b>Cole:</b> *Wholeheartedly laughs at inside jokes*<p/><b>Lili:</b> *to Cole, when he starts having too much fun at her expense* Shut...<p/><b>Lili:</b> ...Up<p/><b>Sprousehart fans:</b> *heart eyes heart eyes heart eyes*<p/></p><p/></p><p/></p><p/></p><p/></p><p/></p>

Astrological Houses as parts of a House

The 1st house is the overall style and build of the house.

Imagine looking at a house from the outside, the lawn, shutters, doors, etc. It’s the intial impression you give off overall- sets the tone and basic structure of the rest of the houses.

The 2nd house is the trophy room.

Where collections and valuable possessions are stored, physical and tangible security. Items of personal comfort. Objects money can buy, and reflect personal values/interests.

The 3rd house is the neighborhood. It’s also your mailbox.

It’s the immediate environment, how you interact with it, and the impact it has on your house. Rules communication with environment as well. Where you receive and send out writing such as letters.

The 4th house is the bed room.

It’s where you go to rest and restart, private and for family affairs. Personally and fundamentally vital for an individual’s pysche. A center of the home for the native.

The 5th house is the living room.

It’s where people go casually for entertainment, and for fun. Where hobbies are usually performed and friends are greeted.

The 6th house is the kitchen.

A daily necessity for life, essential for health. Especially vital for diet. How this house is treated will decide on the overall health affairs.

The 7th house is the guest room.

Where people staying in your house reside, people apart of you and your daily function, you may not claim to be apart of you, but is a reflection of who you are. Describes the type of people you encounter and that compliment you.

The 8th house is the bathroom.

Important for security of the individual and their health processes. Private. A few trusted will see the happenings of this house. Personal secrets or doings are done in there.

The 9th house is the library.

Where knowledge is stored, religious texts, and old Collage textbooks. Photo albums of trips taken long ago will be scattered among the shelves. A globe is probably hidden somewhere.

The 10th house is the office.

Where work is done in order to ensure the desirable public image. Momentums of the desired profession scattered, awards and prided accomplishments placed deliberately around.

The 11th house is the gameroom.

Where huge gathers happen, with games, food, and drink. Family reunions to highschool friends, bringing people you haven’t met personally but are bonded over a common cause.

The 12th house is the attic.

It’s where dust gathers on everything you hide away. It’s quiet and there’s boxes filled with the prized possessions of ancestors, as well as documents detailing events you forgot about. It creeks but there’s a light switch, in the darkness of night it can prove difficult to find the switch.

9

Taken from real experiences, here are some phrases said often between friends.


Click HERE for more Friendly Phrases!

Each of these posts will feature 8 sentences in any given topic, along with a breakdown of the vocabulary and sentence structure! 

BASIC SENTENCE STRUCTURE:  Subject - Time -  Object - Adverb - Verb


Let’s take a look at the vocabulary!

너무 - very, too
자책하다 - to blame oneself, to have a guilty conscience
~하지마 - don’t~

내 - mine, my
말 - words
그 - that

그 - that
얘기 - story, conversation
꺼내다 - pull out, take out, bring out
~지도 마 - don’t even~

엄청나다 - to be huge, to be great, to be enormous
엄청 - very, seriously, much
비싸다 - to be expensive

다시 - again

이번 - this time
만 - only, just
보다 - to look, to watch
주다 - to give
봐주다 - to overlook, to watch, to go easy on

내가 - I
가방 - bag
들다 - to take, to hold, to carry
주다 - to give

💖 For more Chinese language resources click here! 💖

I finished my finals yesterday so I thought I’d kick off this new blog with some finals related vocab!

VOCAB

考试 -  Kǎoshì - test
老师 -  Lǎoshī  - teacher
指导教师 - Zhǐdǎo jiàoshī - academic adviser 
学分 -  Xuéfēn - academic credit
铅笔 - Qiānbǐ - pencil
- bǐ - pen
学习 -  Xuéxí - to study
练习 -  Liànxí - to practice
知道 -  Zhīdào - to know
-  Dǒng - to understand
图书馆 - Túshū guǎn 
宿舍 -  Sùshè - dorm
大学 -  Dàxué - college
中学 -  Zhōngxué - highschool
紧张 -  Jǐnzhāng - nervous
准备 -  Zhǔnbèi - to prepare
教室 -  Jiàoshì - classroom
-  Nán - difficult
容易 -  Róngyì - easy
-  Děng - to wait
成绩 -  Chéngjī - grade (mark)
挂科  -  Guà kē - to fail (an exam)
及格 -  Jígé - to pass (an exam) 

GRAMMAR

因为 A 所以  B  Yīnwèi… Suǒyǐ / Because… So

This structure basically functions as “because of A, B is true” though it feels a bit backwards from an English structure. More often we say the result before the reason, i.e. “I’m tired because I studied for 5 hours” but in Chinese this is a pretty common way to structure a statement:

 “because I studied for five hours, (so) I’m tired.”
因为我学习了五个小时, 所以我很累。”
Yīnwèi wǒ xuéxíle wǔ gè xiǎoshí, suǒyǐ wǒ hěn lèi.” 

“Because I failed my test, I don’t want to call my mom.”
因为我挂科了考试,所以我不想给我的妈妈打电话。”
Yīnwèi wǒ guà kēle kǎoshì, suǒyǐ wǒ bùxiǎng gěi wǒ de māmā dǎ diànhuà.”

ART MASTERPOST - A great selection of art resources form around the web.

Software

My Personal Selections:

  • Fireworks - From Adobe, but my go-to app for graphics. It fuses bitmap and vector art in on amazing package.
  • Autodesk Sketchbook Pro - Super iPad paint app

The Others

  • Alchemy - Fun for abstract shapes.
  • Brushes - One of the first, pro level paint apps for the iPad.
  • MyPaint - a good art app for unix/linux systems.
  • Queeky - A free, browser-based image app.
  • Procreate - An awesome paint tool for the iPad
  • The GIMP - An open source art app that is good and very similar to Adobe Fireworks.
  • Inkscape - Vector/drawing program meant to be similar to Illustrator.
  • DAZ Studio - 3D modeling.
  • Pixlr - A suite of web-based art apps from Autodesk.
  • Photoshop - The gold standard, but not the best graphics app. Mostly great for bitmaps.
  • Illustrator - The king of the hill in terms of vector art applications.

Anatomy

  • heads from different angles
  • anatomy and rotation of the head
  • human anatomy for artists
  • speed drawing studies
  • nude references
  • hands
  • arm and wing movement 
  • beer belliesbody types
  • noses
  • box and egg/run of the stroke
  • a trick for armproportions
  • body diversity
  • anatomy of the waist
  • feet
  • hands and forearms

Color Theory

  • the psychology of color
  • how to mix skin tones
  • color harmony
  • a ton of colour palettes
  • how to contour/highlight
  • colour meanings
  • how to colour

Drawing

  • Drawing facial expressions
  • Arms (male and female)
  • Kissing
  • Drawing faces tutorial
  • Drawing ears
  • Drawing eyes
  • Drawing hair
  • Draw a 3D room
  • Drawing lips
  • Drawing jeans
  • Drawing hands
  • Drawing wings
  • Drawing hats and other head accessories
  • Drawing heads
  • Drawing the booty and thighs

Expressions

  • emotions and facial expressions
  • expressions from different angles (love this site)
  • body language

Poses

  • figure drawing examples
  • posemaniacs
  • gesture drawing 
  • flexiblity
  • hand poses

Skin tones

  • handy palletpainting skin
  • paint some life into your skin tones
  • ethnic skintones

Color Technique

  • gamut mask tool (very nice!)
  • colour does not have to suck
  • 5 easy ways to improve your colouring
  • fucking gradients, how do they work
  • light and shadow
  • painting crystals
  • achieving a painterly look in SAI 
  • painting forests
  • colour scheme designer
  • kuler (more colour schemes)
  • portrait lighting cheatsheet

Tutorials

  • drawing 101
  • how to paint realistic hair
  • how to paint realistic eyes
  • conceptart.org tutorials
  • creature design
  • folds
  • glasses
  • a pretty extensive general art tutorial
  • how to draw hoods
  • how to draw boobs in shirts
  • how to draw hair
  • how to draw faces
  • another face tutorial
  • how to draw hands
  • how to draw mouths
  • how to draw expressions
  • more expressions
  • cargsdoodle’s body tutorial
  • how to draw arms
  • how to avoid same facing
  • how to draw clothing folds

references

  • drawing references
  • hairstyle references
  • eye references
  • a ton of clothing references
  • ear references
  • kneeling/sitting references
  • kissing references

 

Feline tutorials:

  • The domestic cat body
  • Improving upon (lion) anatomy
  • Realistic lion faces tips
  • Big cat paw tips
  • Canine vs. feline - paws and legs
  • Beginner feline tutorial
  • Guide to big cats
  • Feline comparison
  • Canine vs. feline - facial anatomy
  • Canine vs. feline - chest anatomy
  • Guide to little cats
  • Big cat eyes (could work for other eyes)
  • Spot variation in big cats
  • Big cat studies
  • Feline feet
  • Extremely helpful big cat references
  • Domestic cat references

Canine tutorials:

  • Basic wolf anatomy
  • Skeleton notes on wolf legs
  • The wolf skeleton as a whole
  • The wolf skull and teeth
  • Wolf paw tips
  • Basic canine poses
  • Canine ears and chest
  • Drawing realistic wolves
  • Basic wolf tutorial
  • Wolf paw tutorial
  • Paw pad tips
  • Wolf fur direction
  • Canine vs. feline - paws and legs
  • Canine vs. feline - facial anatomy
  • Canine vs. feline - chest anatomy
  • And this is just an excellent DA for wolf reference images
  • Fluid greyhound studies
  • Detailed canine nose tutorial

Avian tutorials:

  • Bird wing anatomy applied on humanoids
  • Bird wing tutorial (lots of underrated tips)
  • Varying bird wing structure
  • Basic owl anatomy
  • Bird wing vs. bat wing vs. pterodactyl wing vs. human arm
  • Bird wings and flight
  • Various bird wings
  • Eagle facts sheet
  • Bird muscular and skeletal anatomy
  • Some great photograph bird (wing) references
  • Dorsal anatomy of a bird wing
  • Winged people anatomy

Human(oid) tutorials:

Facial features:

  • Excellent expressions tut
  • Altalamatox face tutorial
  • Profile proportions
  • Expression tutorial
  • Virtual lighting studio
  • Various facial and body shapes reference
  • Drawing the nose
  • Human mouths
  • Breaking down the human nose
  • How to draw the ear
  • Jawline and kissing tip
  • The human head at various angles
  • Advice on eyes
  • Nose shapes
  • The human skull and face
  • Facial features
  • Portrait lighting cheat sheet
  • Animating dialogue (mouth movement)
  • A kissing tutorial
  • Expressions photo references
  • Semi-realistic eye tutorial
  • Painting a realistic eye
  • The face in profile
  • The human head at various angles
  • Muscles in the neck and face
  • Breakdown of lips
  • Blocked out human faces
  • Average female faces of the world
  • Expressive eye reference
  • Excellent ear anatomy tutorial
  • Constraining the face
  • The face at various angles
  • Human faces
  • Skull to face tutorial
  • Excellent teeth tutorial. Animalistic, but it works
  • Tips on teeth
  • Colours of the face
  • Photographic mouth/teeth reference
  • Stylized noses and ears

Neck, shoulders, arms, back, and torso:

  • A male shoulder study
  • Muscles in the neck and face
  • Neck and torso tut
  • Male torso anatomy in use
  • Arm shape and muscles
  • Breaking up the male torso
  • Female anatomy patterns
  • Male torso photo reference
  • Over the shoulder poses
  • Shoulder structure (male)
  • Male torso in motion
  • A neat arm trick
  • Detailed arm muscle drawings
  • Male muscle reference
  • Human back tips
  • Movement and muscles of the neck, torso, and arms
  • Simplifying a muscular male torso
  • Drawing boobs
  • Female vs male arms and shoulders
  • Making sure ladies have room for organs and realistic boobs
  • Shoulders vs hips
  • Hands on hips poses
  • Muscles of the arms and shoulders (in motion)
  • Varied male and female torso references

Legs, hips, and feet:

  • Male vs. female waist
  • Female anatomy patterns
  • The human hips
  • Male legs reference
  • A beginner’s guide to knees
  • Feet and shoes tutorial
  • Simplifying the human foot
  • Feet reference drawings
  • Feet, ankles, and shoes
  • Shoulders vs hips
  • Bent legs yes and no’s (female)
  • Hands and feet from cone shapes

Hands:

  • Hand tips and reference
  • Simplifying hands
  • More simplified hands
  • The human hand
  • More hand(y) tips
  • Yet another hands tutorial
  • The fist
  • The hand in motion
  • Hand and feet tips
  • Excellent hand and feet studies
  • How hands grip a sword
  • Hand poses
  • Boxing out the hand
  • Hello more hand refs
  • Hand angle references
  • Correct grip on a pistol
  • Various hand references (with object holding poses)
  • Simple hands, fingers, and nails
  • Hands and feet from cone shapes

Full body and poses:

  • Simplifying human anatomy
  • Understanding anatomy part 1 (follow desc. links for more)
  • A guide to movement: flexibility
  • Pose tutorial
  • Varying the female figure
  • Excellent action and couple references
  • Various athletic builds
  • Proportional height of different positions
  • The human body in perspective
  • Body type diversity
  • Another ladies tutorial
  • Fullbody proportions tutorial
  • Guide to human types
  • Couple pose photo references
  • Practice figure drawing (animals as well)
  • How weight sits on different (female) bodies
  • Kneeling and sitting stock references
  • Constructing poses and the line of action
  • Varying your body types (female)
  • Large source of female anatomy references

Hair and skin:

  • Various types of hair
  • Drawing hair
  • Skintone palettes
  • Variation of colour throughout the skin
  • Painting skin
  • Skin tutorial
  • Skin undertones (men)
  • Drawing freckles
  • Drawing different types of hair

Other:

  • Bird wing anatomy applied on humanoids
  • Animal feet on a human figure
  • Various human bone studies
  • Interesting mythical creature skeletons with humanoid anatomy
  • Winged people anatomy

Dragon tutorials (and bat wings):

  • Anatomy of the Western dragon
  • Dragon wing tips
  • Dragon wing tutorial
  • Dragon anatomy
  • Dragon tutorial
  • Bat wing anatomy tutorial

Equine tutorials:

  • Basic horse (back) reference
  • The equine skeleton
  • Horse anatomy and pointers
  • A good, large collection of horse stock references
  • Skeleton of a horse and its rider
  • Horse hooves
  • Skeletal and fluid horse studies

Cervine tutorials:

  • Basic deer anatomy
  • Deer skeleton drawing
  • Deer musculature
  • Deer skeleton
  • Fluid deer studies
  • The Big Book of Drawing: deer
  • Reindeer noses

Ursine tutorials:

  • Fantastic bear anatomy/poses references
  • Basic bear structure
  • Bear anatomy tutorial

Miscellaneous animal tutorials:

  • Sheep vs. goats
  • Anteater studies
  • Chimp studies
  • Asian elephant skeletal drawing
  • Animating four legged creatures
  • Various animal studies from an animation aspect
  • Drawing rats
  • A tutorial on creature design
  • Snake mouths
  • Amazing teeth tutorial

Background and objects tutorials:

  • Griffsnuff background tut part 1 (second in desc.)
  • Tree tutorial
  • Realistic gems tut
  • Water tutorial
  • General water tutorial
  • Drawing crystals
  • Drawing bows
  • Painting rocks
  • Parts of a saber (other swords linked in desc.)
  • Analyzing key and contrast/time of day/etc
  • Corner-pin perspective distortion
  • Using three cubes to make a street view
  • Cloud tutorial
  • A beautiful flower tutorial
  • A simple but effective tree tutorial
  • Drawing mechanical objects
  • Multiple tree tutorials
  • Perspective tricks
  • Weapon and shield accessory tutorial
  • Background painting tips (blocks and angular objects)

Clothing tutorials:

  • Fabric tutorial
  • Clothing folds part 1 (second in desc.)
  • Drawing hoods
  • Drawing jeans
  • Hat on human figure reference
  • Armor
  • More hat on figure references
  • Different shirt collars
  • Collars, sport backs, vests, and pants
  • Draperies and costumes
  • Making colourful fabric patterns
  • Baseball cap reference
  • A ton of clothing references
  • A boatload of well-organized clothing refs
  • Feet and shoes tutorial
  • Dressing Rosalind Lutece (older female clothing)
  • Feet, ankles, and shoes
  • Hats and how to draw them
  • Clothing folds tutorial
  • Drawing clothing wrinkles
  • A breakdown of medieval armor
  • Drawing hoods

General painting, drawing, and style tips:

  • Altalamatox digital painting walkthrough
  • Simple fur tutorial
  • Realism painting tutorial (human subject)
  • Excellent colour tutorial
  • Painting a wolf (good fur painting visual)
  • Photoshop brushes tut
  • Basics of Photoshop tutorial
  • Another digital painting tutorial
  • Common digital painting mistakes
  • Colour and light
  • Soft cel-shading tutorial
  • Various types of hair
  • Colour tips and the mood it expresses
  • Composition tips
  • Lighting and colour tips
  • Shadows
  • Another composition tut
  • Simple colouring via overlay
  • From paper to digital
  • Painting gold
  • Colour palette turtles
  • Excellent fur painting tutorial
  • Skin painting tips
  • Colouring black and white pictures
  • Creating a colour palette with MS Paint
  • Obeying screen direction
  • Analyzing key and contrast/time of day/etc
  • The coil technique
  • Colour adjustment tips
  • Making flat colour pieces look gorgeous
  • Blending with hard brushes
  • Outlining in SAI
  • Uncommon information regarding colours
  • Compositional balance
  • Visual algorithms
  • Gesture over anatomy
  • Disney Chris Sanders’ style tips
  • Design, colour, and value
  • Decent art without lining or shading
  • Varied shots of the human figure
  • Cinematography of the Incredibles
  • Giving characters personality with poses and expressions
  • The main shapes of character design
  • Tamberella’s shading tutorial
  • SAI watercolour tutorial
  • Choosing interesting colours (by PurpleKecleon)
  • Local colour and dramatic lighting
  • Silhouettes and line of action

Hand and wrist health:

  • Carpal tunnel syndrome information
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome exercises
  • Wrist, hand, and finger stretches video
  • Another video with good hand exercises
dating stuart twombly would include...

Masterlist 

  • Meeting somewhere cute and quaint like the local coffee house or the bookstore
  • Him looking up from his phone one day and deciding he wanted to talk to you
  • Eventually falling head over heels in love with him
  • Texting him when he isn’t paying attention to you or when you think he’s not listening
  • Him leaving you on read 
  • “You know I can see you reading these right?”
  • Being the only person that can call him Stewie
  • Soft, tender forehead kisses all the time 

Keep reading

  • what she says: i'm fine
  • what she means: in the first episode of season two of rick and morty summer says there's mildew growing on jerry and beth but if time has been frozen for the last six months not only would mildew be unable to grow because growth requires the passage of time but there would be no point in vacuuming jerry and beth in the first place because dirt can't accumulate without time passing so either they were wasting their time with cleaning them and summer was lying about the mildew or the device rick used to freeze time only worked on things that had above some minimum number of atoms and if that's the case that means that single-cell organisms and other basic structures exist on a slightly separate plane from the rest of the universe