“What has changed since the collapse of Jim Crow has less to do with the basic structure of our society than with the language we use to justify it. In the era of colorblindness, it is no longer socially permissible to use race, explicitly, as a justification for discrimination, exclusion, and social contempt. So we don’t. Rather than rely on race, we use our criminal justice system to label people of color “criminals” and then engage in all the practices we supposedly left behind. Today it is perfectly legal to discriminate against criminals in nearly all the ways that it was once legal to discriminate against African Americans. Once you’re labeled a felon, the old forms of discrimination—employment discrimination, housing discrimination, denial of the right to vote, denial of educational opportunity, denial of food stamps and other public benefits, and exclusion from jury service—are suddenly legal. As a criminal, you have scarcely more rights, and arguably less respect, than a black man living in Alabama at the height of Jim Crow. We have not ended racial caste in America; we have merely redesigned it… [M]ass incarceration in the United States [is a] stunningly comprehensive and well-disguised system of racialized social control that functions in a manner strikingly similar to Jim Crow.”
or as she so eloquently titled it, Ramblings from Someone who May or May Not Understand Econ (and citing Naked Economics by Charles Wheelan):
“The argument that capitalism requires people to be poor so as to fill up the "distasteful” jobs of modern society is very appealing, but fundamentally wrong from an economic perspective.
It comes down to the idea of opportunity cost. Opportunity cost is the foregone benefits of alternative choices. For example, you have to decide whether or not to stay home and study or go and watch a movie. If you study, the opportunity cost is watching the movie, and vice versa.
In the real world, salary is a reflection of opportunity cost. The opportunity cost of working at one job is the potential earnings of another job. So, in order to attract people to work for you, you must offer them a salary that is greater than their potential salary in another job.
Currently, there is a lot of inequality in education, which could be broadly categorized as human capital. Those with low human capital work jobs that require less of it, such as janitors and so forth. These janitors and people who do other “dirty” work are not paid very much because their opportunity cost is low. They do not command skills that would get them paid more in another job, and their current salary reflects that. But the question comes when everyone is a millionaire or everyone has high human capital (e.g. everyone has a PhD), then who will clean our toilets?!
The answer is actually really simple. You pay the toilet cleaner relative to his or her opportunity cost. If he or she can easily command a high paying job with his/her skill set, then just pay him/her a higher salary (to make up for the opportunity cost and maybe a little extra to get over his/her reservation about cleaning toilets) and he/she will clean the toilet (assuming this person is a completely rational actor that only cares about maximizing budget). In this world where everyone is a millionaire, the toilet cleaner might be the one commanding the highest wage!
This sounds ridiculous, but a lot of jobs work this way. Plumbers and other people who have dirty jobs command a higher salary than you imagine. This is because plumbing requires skill, but also because not a lot of people wish to be plumbers and thus the salary needs to be high to attract people to the profession. This goes into another concept of reservation wage, which we will not cover today.
In short, capitalism does not need a “lower class” of people to do the “distasteful” jobs. If wage is flexible, it will adjust itself so that all demands of the market are met. There will always be people willing to work if the price is right, and these people do not need to be the lower class.“
The renovation of a farmhouse erected in 1890 in the Fürstenfeldbruck district is focusing on the reorganization of the floor plan, the preservation of the basic structure, particularly the roof truss, and above all the creation of diverse and atmospherically dense interior rooms offering a very special living experience to a family of four.
In order to retain the typical character of a farmhouse consisting of living-dining area and utility rooms, the small room structures on the ground and first floor of the living area remain largely untouched. On the one hand, available or supplementary old objects such as doors, lamps or furniture support this aura. On the other hand, several rooms appear decidedly modern by using carefully matched colours, large wall panelling and fine wallpapers.
Fascinating spatial contrasts are being created by the combination of living area and former cowshed especially in the open attic floors. Black steel components complete or renew the construction of the sand-blasted wooden structure only where it was inevitable, whereas custom-made oiled oak floorboards up to seven meters long and small new fittings are shaping the spatial structure.
The #1 question I get from most people participating in NaNoWriMo is how to stay motivated. I wrote a post about this, but obviously these things might not work for everyone. We’re five days into NaNoWriMo, so it’s important to keep up with your daily goals. If you can get ahead now, you might miss falling into a slump later!
Here are a few unique ways to stay motivated when you don’t have a lot of time:
Skip to the Scenes You’re Excited About
You don’t have to write in order! If you’re feeling stuck, try skipping ahead to a scene you’ve been dying to write. This will help you fill in the gaps and flesh out the basic structure of your novel.
Have a Conversation with Your Characters
If you’re used to talking to yourself, talk to your characters instead! Having trouble working out a scene? Talk it out with your characters. Figure out how they would respond to your line of questioning. What would be their next step? Keep character motivations in mind.
Write 1,000 words? Watch an episode of your favorite show. Finish a whole chapter? Go get some ice cream! Obviously we all have different ways of rewarding ourselves, so it will depend on you. Just don’t forget that you deserve to take a break.
Write the Ending First
Don’t know where to begin? Then don’t start at the beginning! There’s no problem with leaping ahead to the ending, if that will help you start off your novel. Sometimes writing the ending first helps motivate us to get to that point.
Pen A Diary Entry by Your Protagonist
One thing that’s definitely helped me in the past is writing diary entries. If you don’t know how your protagonist feels about a certain situation, attempt to get into their head. You might even want to turn those diary entries into a scene in your novel. Understand where your protagonist is coming from.
The Chambered Nautilus is a living fossil that has survived in Earth’s oceans for the last 500 million years. Existing before there were fish, dinosaurs, or mammals, the Nautilus could grow up to six meters long and was a predator in the ancient seas.
The main feature of the Nautilus is the large snail-like shell that is coiled upwards and lined with mother-of-pearl. The shell is subdivided into as many as 30 chambers. As the shell grows, its body moves forward into the new larger chamber and produces a wall to seal off the older chambers. The empty chambers are used to regulate buoyancy. A cross-section of the shell of the Nautilus will show the cycles of its growth as a series of chambers arranged in a precise Golden Mean Spiral.
The Golden Mean is represented by the Greek letter Phi (with the decimal representation of 1.6180…), and is one of those mysterious Natural numbers that seems to arise out of the basic structure of our Cosmos. Phi appears regularly in the Realm of things that grow and unfold in steps just as the Nautilus shell grows larger on each Spiral by Phi.
With each revolution completing a cycle of Evolution, the Golden Mean Spiral is Symbolic of Lifes unfolding Mysteries. The continuous curves of the Spirals, which are Feminine in Nature, and the Ratios between each of the chambers reveal the intimate relationship between the Harmonics of Nature and Sacred Geometry.
Ramones songs were basically structured
the same as regular songs, but played fast, so they became short. When I saw the
Beatles at Shea Stadium in 1965, they played a half-hour show. I figured that if
the Beatles played a half hour at Shea Stadium, the Ramones should only do about
fifteen minutes. So in the beginning, we kept the set at about fifteen minutes.
I’d based it on that. I’ve always thought you’re better off playing shorter. You
get in your best material and leave them wanting more. I don’t think anyone,
even big bands, should play for more than an hour.
Above: Sally Hardesty, archetypal fairy-tale heroine from The Texas Chain Saw Massacre, lost in the fairy-tale forest.
Like many horror films, the basic narrative structure of The Texas Chain Saw Massacre has elements in common with a number of popular fairy tales. It is not difficult to spot structural parallels with “Jack and the Beanstalk” (the ascent into a secret world, ruled by a ogre; the descent back into the “real” world at daybreak, given chase by an axe-wielding giant); “Goldilocks and the Three Bears” (the golden-haired girl encountering a bestial family sitting around their table at dinner); “Beauty and the Beast” (the beautiful daughter “stolen” by the ugly beast and dragged off into his own world); “Bluebeard” (the “dreadful room” with its terrible secret); “Little Red Riding hood” (the girl lured into the house by a monster in disguise); and, perhaps most of all, “Hansel and Gretel” (children lost in the woods, stumbling upon an attractive house owned by a cannibalistic brute, who kidnaps them and attempts to use them for food).
Other key elements of the film’s structure incorporate a number of random fairy-tale symbols and motifs: the forest, the broomstick, the woodcutter’s ax, lost children, the child in a sack, the bucket, the dinner table, the farm, cows, chickens and pigs, the giant, grandparents, the disguise, the “escape” back into the “real world” at sunrise…
The fairy tale is controlled by a mythic order and a ritual narrative script. The story of “Hansel and Gretel,” for example, embodies the child’s anxieties about abandonment, separation anxiety, being deserted or devoured, suffering from starvation or being punished for oral greediness. But the children are victorious in the end, when Gretel achieves freedom and independence for both, and the witch is utterly defeated. By embodying the child’s anxieties, fairy tales help him or her to understand and overcome these difficulties, as well as to come to terms with Oedipal tensions within the family by separating and projecting various aspects of the child’s own personality and those of, for example, his or her parents into different characters in the story… Most horror films share the positive, pragmatic function of the fairy tale in that–when they do allow unconscious material to come to awareness and work itself through in our imaginations–its potential for causing harm is greatly reduced. As with the fairy tale, the traditional horror film generally works to serve positive acculturating purposes.
Tobe Hooper’s classic piece of cinéma vomitif inverts this mythic order and upsets the ritual narrative script–and on a cosmic level. The inverted fairy tale narrative is not simply a tale of personal tragedy; rather, like all fairy tales, it works to universal dimensions. This apocalyptic sentiment is suggested first by the film’s “documentary” aspect. On one level at least, the film is meant to be approached as a “true story” and has many stylistics of the documentary, such as the opening “explanation” and the specification of an exact date printed on the screen (August 18, 1973)… The Texas Chain Saw Massacre is compelled to repeat a fixation on a nonregenerative apocalypse, an end to history, a cosmic destruction ultimately denied by the film’s ending. Sally’s escape, however, is not a forestalling of the apocalypse, but simply a postponement of the end of the ritual violence. Her escape signifies a return to the cycle of horror, never to be redeemed by any sense of an ending.
- Mikita Brottman, Offensive Films: Toward an Anthropology of Cinéma Vomitif
In an exclusive interview for pokemonmillennium.net, Junichi Masuda and Shigeru Ohmori (Director of Pokémon Omega Ruby and Pokémon Alpha Sapphire) discussed several aspects of Pokémon Omega Ruby and Pokémon Alpha Sapphire.
Q: DexNav and Soaring Sky are the newest features added to Omega Ruby and Alpha Sapphire, can these features return in future games?
A: The Basic structures of the franchise like gym battles, Elite Four and Champion will never change. But we haven’t decided which new features we will retain in future games. It all depends on the fans which features will return in the future games.
Q: Why is the Battle Frontier absent from Pokémon Omega Ruby and Pokémon Alpha Sapphire?
A: The answer to this question is related to the previous question. That’s the reason why we didn’t add the Battle Frontier to Pokémon Omega Ruby and Pokémon Alpha Sapphire.
Interviewer’s Note: Basically Junichi Masuda is saying that they didn’t included the Battle Frontier because a small portion of players made use of this feature. Today’s players are no longer interested in more demanding / challenging features.
In Korean, you don’t always need a verb. Some simple particles will do the trick:
The subject particles are: 은 and 는
The object particles are: 을 and 를
Words ending in a consonant get 은 or 을 while words ending in a vowel get 는 or 를.
Now, after your subject (and object, if you have one) comes your verb or adjective–which comes LAST. (If you want to learn conjugation patterns, check one of my recent posts) :>
Now, let’s put together my sentence.
Subject: I ~> 저
저 ends in a vowel so we add ~는
Object: Cake ~> 케이크
케이크 ends in a vowel as well, but since it is the object (the thing that is acted UPON), we add ~를.
VERB/ADJECTIVE ACTION TIME:
Verb: to like~> 좋아하다
But I am liking in the present tense, because I am currently liking cake soooㅇㅅㅇ
We do some conjugating and TADA
저는 케이크를 좋아해요.
I like cake. :>
Hey, but guess what? Subjects can be implied, so:
Means the same thing!
BUT WHAT ABOUT ADJECTIVES?!
What if I want to say my cake is yummy?
In this sentence you would only have a subject and adjective (no verb “to be,” like in English).
Here’s where it gets confusing. MORE particles: 이 (after words ending in a consonant) & 가 (after words ending in a vowel). Now, there’s no need to stress over the difference between 이+가 and 은+는 just yet. :> calm down~ it’s a small difference.
케이크가 맛있어요 and 케이크는 맛있어요. Could be interpreted in nearly the same way.
How I look at it is:
케이크가 맛있어요. The cake is yummy.
케이크는 맛있어요. As for this cake, it’s yummy.
저 I (formal)
좋아하다 to like
맛있다 to be yummy/delicious
How to tell a good story on your college application essay
Here’s the structure that most American films use. Learning this may change the way you watch films (it did for me). It’s a structure as old as time and storytellers have been using it for thousands of years. Joseph Campbell called it the monomyth or Hero’s Journey. I’ll refer to as narrative structure. Its basic elements are:
Inciting Incident/Status Quo Change
Raise the stakes
Moment of Truth
Outcome/New Status Quo
Life as is. The hero, our main character, is living his/her normal life.
Inciting Incident/Status Quo Change
One day, something happens. A boy discovers he is a wizard (Harry Potter). A girl falls down a rabbit hole (Alice in Wonderland). A murder happens (almost every mystery). You get the idea. In short, the hero is called to adventure.
Raising the Stakes
Things get more dangerous and important.
In small dramas, the events become more important inwardly, to our main characters’ personal lives, threatening to change them forever.
In action movies, events become more important outwardly, escalating until not only our characters’ lives are threatened, but the country, the world, then (in big budget films) Civilization as We Know It.
In some films, the character’s inward journey (what s/he must learn) and outward journey (what s/he must do) are intertwined. See: Star Wars, Avatar, The Dark Knight.
Moment of Truth
The climax. The moment of highest tension. The character must make the Ultimate Choice or fight the Ultimate Battle.
Will Beauty kiss the Beast and save his life? (Beauty and the Beast)
Will Neo realize—and accept—his role as The One before it’s too late? (The Matrix)
Will Frodo destroy the Ring and save Middle Earth? (Lord of the Rings)
As social beings, humans have the capacity to make quick evaluations that allow for discernment of in-groups (us) and out-groups (them). However, these fast computations also set the stage for social categorizations, including prejudice and stereotyping.
According to David Amodio, author of the review I am summarizing:
Social prejudices are scaffolded by basic-level neurocognitive structures, but their expression is guided by personal goals and normative expectations, played out in dyadic and intergroup settings; this is truly the human brain in vivo.
But what is the role of the brain in prejudice and stereotypes? First, let’s start by defining and distinguishing between the two:
Prejudice refers to preconceptions — often negative — about groups or individuals based on their social, racial or ethnic affiliations whereas stereotypes are generalized characteristics ascribed to a social group, such as personal traits or circumstantial attributes. However, these two are rarely solo operators and are often work in combination to influence social behavior.
Research on the neural basis of prejudice has placed emphasis on brain areas implicated in emotion and motivation. These include the amygdala, insula, striatum and regions of the prefrontal cortex (see top figure). Speficifically, the amygdala is involved in the rapid processing of social category cues, including racial groups, in terms of potential threat or reward. The striatum mediates approach-related instrumental responses while the insula, an area implicated in disgust, supports visceral and subjective emotional responses towards social ingroups or outgroups. Affect-driven judgements of social outgroup members rely on the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and may be characterized by reduced activity in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a region involved in empathy and mentalizing. Together, these structures are thought to form a core network that underlies the experience and expression of prejudice.
In contrast to prejudice, which reflects an evaluative or emotional component of social bias, stereotypes represent the cognitive component. As such, stereotyping is a little more complex because it involves the encoding and storage of stereotype concepts, the selection and activation of these concepts into working memory and their application in judgements and behaviors. When it comes to social judgments, I find it useful to think of prejudice as a low road, and stereotypes as a high road (which recruits higher order cortical areas). For example, stereotyping involves cortical structures supporting more general forms of semantic memory, object memory, retrieval and conceptual activation, such as the temporal lobes and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), as well as regions that are involved in impression formation, like the mPFC (see bottom figure).
Importantly, although prejudice and stereotyping share an overlapping neural circuitry, they are considered as different and dissociable networks. Also, it is important to remember that areas such as the mPFC, include many subdivisions that may contribute to different aspects of the network. This is important because these within structure subdivisions are usually not readily identifiable in neuroimaging studies. Anyway, if you want to learn more about the specifics of these network and obtain real world examples of these networks at work, read the full review article (see below).
This is going to cover the basic physical structure of trains & some terminology & other important things about the physical aspects of trains. I’ve tried to include everything that I could find or think of, if there is anything that I have gotten wrong or missed, please add it on! :)
High Speed Trains [images: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 ] Generally defined as trains that can operate 125mph or faster. High speed trains generally connect large metropolitan areas (with very few stops in between) and are meant to be competitive with airlines in terms of overall travel time. Although High Speed Rail trains in general are compatible with regular passenger and freight trains (and often share tracks at major stations in Europe), it requires dedicated tracks to operate at high speed.
Inter-City Trains [images: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 ] Generally mean trains traveling long distances connecting metropolitan areas. Although the distances covered by some of these trains are comparable to airlines, inter-city trains generally operate at highway speed. Long distance inter-city trains may provide amenities not found on most other forms of transportation, including sleeper-cars and cafe/dining cars.
Commuter/Regional Trains [images: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 ] Generally mean trains connecting suburban areas with the central city and primarily serves riders to and from work. Commuter trains typically run on weekdays, during rush hours, and only in the peak directions. Many commuter trains in Europe, as well as some in the U.S. use electric multiple units instead of locomotives. In a multiple-unit train, every car (or every other car) in the train has motors which are capable of propelling the vehicle. Multiple unit trains are more reliable (with multiple engine/motors rather than one engine) and more efficient (by easily changing train length for peak and off-peak hours).
Rapid Transit [images: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 ] Also known as metro, subway, and heavy rail, mean trains that generally serve the urban-core, have large passenger capacity, and operate totally separate from road traffic. In order to run separately from road traffic in the city-core, rapid transit trains would run either above or underground.
Light Rail [images: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 ] Which might be also known as trolley and streetcars, mean trains that function as local transit in an urban-core and can operate on the street-level. Compared to rapid transit, light rail costs less, is more pedestrian friendly, but has less passenger capacity. The major advantage with light rail is that it can operate like rapid transit or like local buses, depending on the available infrastructure.
Modern Streetcar [images: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 ] Typically have smaller dimensions and operate at slower speed than their light rail counterpart. The streetcars are meant to facilitate local circulation in the urban core (and serve as a catalyst for transit oriented developments) rather than connecting nearby suburbs with downtown.
A steam engine is a machine that converts the heat energy of steam into mechanical energy. A steam engine passes its steam into a cylinder, where it then pushes a piston back and forth. It is with this piston movement that the engine can do mechanical work. The steam engine was the major power source of the Industrial Revolution in Europe in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. It dominated industry and transportation for 150 years.
What are the parts of a steam locomotive?
Driving wheels - the large steel wheels attached to the engine
Cab - the place where the engineer rides and operates the locomotive
Boiler - where water is turned into steam by hot gases from the firebox
Steam dome - located at the top of the boiler, it holds the steam
Firebox - place for the fire in a steam locomotive
Smokestack - place where steam and smoke leave the steam locomotive