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February 19th 1942: Japanese internment begins

On this day in 1942, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed executive order 9066 which allowed the military to relocate Japanese-Americans to internment camps. A climate of paranoia descended on the US following the attack on the naval base at Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan, which prompted the US to join the Second World War. Americans of Japanese ancestry became targets for persecution, as there were fears that they would collude with Japan and pose a national security threat. This came to a head with FDR’s executive order, which led to 120,000 Japanese-Americans being rounded up and held in camps. The constitutionality of the controversial measure was upheld by the Supreme Court in Korematsu v. United States (1944). Interned Americans suffered great material and personal hardship, with most people losing their property and some losing their lives to illness or the violence of camp sentries. The victims of internment and their families eventually received an official government apology in 1988 and reparations began in the 1990s. This dark episode of American history is often forgotten in the narrative of US involvement in the Second World War, but Japanese internment poses a stark reminder of the dangers of paranoia and scapegoating.

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Not a story but I thought you guys might find this interesting. I live in Plymouth, England and every Monday at 11:30 they test the nuclear siren at the naval base. It’s super creepy

Submitted by  afterllfe

The Arrangement (Part 4)

Summary: You spend the night at Dean’s place

Pairing: AU!Dean x Reader

Word Count: 3,000

Warnings: language, leering, smutty thoughts/implications/suggestions (PG13)

A/N: The next part is here EARLY because holidays suck and I have work to procrastinate, which makes me super productive with writing! Hope you guys like this part (side note: this GIF destroys me) (please check the tags, guys, a bunch aren’t working)

Need to catch up? Part 1 - Part 2 - Part 3

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The Other Prince + A CS Modern Royal AU [Chapter 1]

Modern Royalty AU: HRH Prince Killian has grown up in the shadow of the crown while enduring tragedy and the burdens of being the spare to the heir. With a desire to escape his past, he agrees to play host to the visiting general’s daughter in exchange for an eventual life outside royal bounds. Moving on is never that easy though and he quickly learns that being the ‘other’ prince is even more difficult when you find yourself falling for the girl everyone wants your brother to marry.

Also on FF.net and AO3.

Word Count: 4,386


Alright, here we are! I’m so excited to be FINALLY writing this story and I wanted to have a few chapters written in advance so I wouldn’t have to wait ages to update (I’ll be shooting for weekly updates, god willing). Keep in mind that this is a modern royal AU that’s got a Prince Harry type version of Killian (who I’m kind of in love with already) and there’s going to be a lot of feels/angst ahead. There will be some M-rated stuff eventually, but it’s a long ways off so I’ll post a warning before those chapters. Thank you all for being patient and lovely :) enjoy! XOXO


“You’ve truly outdone yourself this time, little brother,” Liam grumbled, a soft curse under his breath before throwing a sideways glare. “Above and bloody beyond.”

A roll of his tired eyes before lowering his sunglasses was the only response Killian could muster at an early hour like this on a Saturday. Aside from the harsh sunlight battling the tinted windows of the black SUV, the hazy state of his brain had certainly left him in no mood for a lecture or an honor inspired chat - especially one that was clearly about to be riddled with rather specific vocabulary and those well known accusations he truly couldn’t care less about.

Well, at least that’s how he was planning on stubbornly playing this.

“Been fighting cameras and reporters all morning,” Liam continued, silencing his cellphone as the vehicle rounded the corner of a palace surface road. “It’s an absolute royal mess, Killian.”

There it was - irony intended or not. It was that single word he’d been smacked with a thousand times over.

Royal. Royal, royal, royal.

The term had labeled him - well, them - for as far back as his recollection stretched, but even after a few decades of being wrapped up in that title, Killian still found himself a little uncertain on how such a word was defined. It wasn’t easy to fend off his amusement at his brother’s unnoticed pun, but Killian leaned back against the leather seat and considered the approaching speech he’d heard so many times over the course of his privileged life. Talk about a king complex, he thought as he watched Liam type out some sort of message with very obvious irritation.

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Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Hostage Rescue Team.
Law Enforcement’s Tier 1 Counter-Terrorism unit.

The FBI Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) is the counter-terrorism and hostage rescue unit of the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The HRT is trained to rescue American citizens and allies who are held hostage by hostile forces, usually terrorists and/or criminals. The Hostage Rescue Team was founded in 1982 by Danny Coulson, former Deputy Assistant Director of the FBI, and completed its final certification exercise in October 1983.

It was originally composed of 50 operators. However, this number has since increased to well over 90 full-time operators. The HRT commonly functions as a high-level national SWAT team in extremely sensitive or dangerous situations. Today, it is part of the Tactical Support Branch of the FBI’s Critical Incident Response Group (CIRG) and is based at the FBI Academy at the Quantico Marine Corps Base, in Stafford County, Virginia.

The primary roles of the HRT are hostage rescue and counter-terrorism. Secondary roles of the HRT include:

- Apprehending barricaded subjects
- Executing helicopter operations and rescue missions
- Executing mobile assaults
- Performing high-risk raids, searches, arrests, and warrants
- Coordinating manhunt and rural operations
- Providing force protection for FBI personnel overseas

To a lesser extent, the HRT may deploy teams or individual operators to act as snipers, or to provide protective service details for certain high-profile federal witnesses or dignitaries. Teams provide support for missions overseas and support Joint Terrorism Task Forces. Teams at home and abroad perform typical law enforcement activities, such as making arrests, processing scenes for evidence recovery, and testifying in court.

The HRT has provided traditional law enforcement during hurricane relief operations, tactical surveys, and special events such as the Olympic Games, presidential inaugurations, and political conventions.

Prospective HRT operators are selected based upon their background and experience, as well as their demonstrated performance during the HRT selection course. The rigorous two-week selection process includes long-distance runs, forced marches, obstacle courses, and other tests of physical and mental stamina. Throughout the entire selection process, candidates are evaluated on their ability to think under pressure and to perform while physically exhausted. After a six-month initial training period known as “New Operator Training School” (“NOTS”), they are headquartered at the FBI Academy in Quantico, Virginia. Both the selection course and NOTS are near mirror images of the 1st SFOD-D (“Delta Force”) selection and training courses, with some minor adjustments for mission differences. Experienced HRT operators assigned to observer/sniper teams are sent to the United States Marine Corps Scout Sniper Basic Course. After successfully completing the course, they receive further instruction from HRT snipers. Maritime platoon operators are sent to a variety of maritime special operations courses, including Phase II of U.S. Navy BUD/S at Naval Amphibious Base, Coronado, California. HRT operators receive other specialized interoperability training from various U.S. Special Operations Command entities. HRT operators also conduct training with Allied nation counter-terrorism units such as the British SAS and German GSG-9.

When not operationally deployed, the HRT conducts full-time training for its members at various sites across the country. Two to three hours each day are set aside for physical training, a defensive tactics session, and combative training. One day a week is devoted to maintaining either perishable skills (such as fast roping, breaching, and photography) or specialized skills (such as mobile assaults, manhunt and rural operations), maritime operations, helicopter operations, parachuting, weapons of mass destruction training (provided by the United States Department of Energy), and cold weather operations. Three days are spent honing sniping or close quarters combat skills on the various training ranges available to the team. Biweekly, one day is allotted for gear maintenance. Discretionary time to be used by team leaders is built into the schedule. During a routine week of training, it is not unusual for HRT operators to fire 1,000 rounds of ammunition to keep their shooting skills honed. Every 12 to 18 months, the HRT also participates in at least one major combined exercise that may involve a variety of governmental entities, such as the FBI and the departments of Defense, State, Energy, and Homeland Security.

Three teams rotate through three 120-day cycles: training, operations, and support. During the training cycle, the team refreshes its skills and takes part in exercises, attends other courses, or trains with foreign and domestic units. During the operations cycle, the team is available for deployment (domestic or foreign). During the support cycle, the team works on special projects, maintains the HRT’s equipment, and conducts research.

The HRT is known to conduct joint training exercises and participate in exchange programs with US military units such as the US Army’s Combat Applications Group (otherwise known as 1st SFOD-D or Delta Force) or the U.S. Navy’s DEVGRU. The HRT routinely trains with other federal tactical teams such as the DEA’s FAST Team, the United States Border Patrol’s BORTAC unit or the United States Capitol Police’s CERT. Occasionally the HRT trains with French GIGN, British SAS and Special Boat Service, Irish Garda ERU, the Australian SAS, German GSG 9, and other international units. In addition to the HRT’s own facilities, the HRT routinely uses private and 1st SFOD-D Delta Force shoot houses and ranges. The HRT has also been known to train at Camp Peary and Harvey Point.

mormonfries  asked:

hey you mentioned the US' geopolitical interests in Syria, but I know nothing about IR and Google is mainly telling me US interests there are unclear since they don't have a lot of control over oil supply or anything like that. Do you mind saying what you meant by that

Beyond security interests in defeating ISIS, three major US interests come to mind in removing Assad from power in Syria:

  1. Syria is a major ally of Iran, thus making the Syrian conflict one of the two key fronts in the proxy way going on between Saudi Arabia and Iran at the moment (the other being Yemen). If you’d like background, I wrote an in-depth article on that proxy war in early 2016. The short version, though, is that Iran (an enemy of the US) and Saudi Arabia (a close ally of the US) are competing with one another for regional hegemony (dominant influence) in the Middle East, and we want to see Saudi Arabia win and Iran lose- removing Assad would be a major victory in that mission.
  2. Syria is also a major ally of Russia. Russia uses Syria as a foothold to project power across the Middle East, but even more importantly, it uses Syria as a foothold to project power in the Mediterranean. Russia operates an air force base and a naval base on the Mediterranean coast of Syria, giving it options for a degree of military power projection in Southern Europe and Northern Africa (and, should bad come to worst, possibly even the Suez Canal, a major chokepoint in global trade, especially in bringing oil and natural gas to Europe). As such, taking out Assad would serve as a blow to Russia as well.
  3. Finally, as a cherry on top, successful regime change in Syria would please Israel.

March 13, 1917 - February Revolution: Kronstadt Sailors Kill their Officers and Seize Petrograd Naval Base 

Pictured - The Kronstadt sailors were among the most committed left-wing revolutionaries in Russia. Die-hard anarchists, they rebelled again against Bolshevik totalitarianism in 1921 and were put down mercilessly by the Red Army.

The struggle inside Russia was quickly spilling out of control. By March 13, soldiers were joining with the protesting crowds. Gun-battles broke out in the streets as the revolutionaries built barricades, seized weapons, and took on the police and Cossacks called in to control the situation. Sailors now joined the revolutionaries as well. Twentieth century navies tend to be more politically left-leaning than other branches of the military, because they contained mostly working-class men. Sailors from the cruiser Aurora, which was undergoing repairs in the capital, murdered their captain and seized their ship. In the sea just outside Petrograd, 3,000 sailors at the Kronstadt Naval Base also threw their lot in with the revolt, killing forty officers and sergeants and arrested more than a hundred others.

A Consolidated PBY-5A Catalina Flying Boat of Patrol Squadron VP-61 in flight during a patrol in the Aleutians in March 1943.

VP-61 was based at Otter Point Naval Air Facility, Umnak Island, Alaska (USA), at that time.

In the Battle of the Aleutian Islands (June 1942-August 1943) during World War II (1939-45), U.S. troops fought to remove Japanese garrisons established on a pair of U.S.-owned islands west of Alaska. In June 1942, Japan had seized the remote, sparsely inhabited islands of Attu and Kiska, in the Aleutian Islands. It was the only U.S. soil Japan would claim during the war in the Pacific. The maneuver was possibly designed to divert U.S. forces during Japan’s attack on Midway Island (June 4-7, 1942) in the central Pacific. It’s also possible the Japanese believed holding the two islands could prevent the U.S. from invading Japan via the Aleutians. Either way, the Japanese occupation was a blow to American morale. In May 1943, U.S. troops retook Attu and three months later reclaimed Kiska, and in the process gained experience that helped them prepare for the long “island-hopping” battles to come as World War II raged across the Pacific Ocean.

(Photo source - U.S. Navy 80-G-475409)

(Colourised by Richard James Molloy from the UK)

Japanese battleship “Mutsu” (Nagato-class) during her preparatory work in the naval base at Yokosuka. Sailors are busy checking the ship’s systems and working on her body. She met her untimely end not through hostile fire, but by internal explosion in the summer of 1943. 

On the right side of the photo a float-scout Nakajima E8N1 is visible being loaded, as it was the basic IJN reconnaissance aircraft of the Second Sino-Japanese War.

On the current Russia unrest:

If you hear about ‘pro-democracy protests’ be extremely suspicious. That’s not to say pro-democracy people are bad, but when actual pro-democracy protests happened in Bahrain in the early 2010s and Saudi forces were brought in to put them down, this country and it’s media didn’t bat an eyelid.

I so wish America and Britain were just honest and said ‘Yep, we’d rather like this unrest in Russia to continue because it destabilises a geostrategic rival and we don’t like unrest in Saudi or Bahrain because they buy our weapons and let us build a naval base on their highly strategically placed island in the Persian Gulf.

CHIEF JOSEPH BRANT: MOHAWK NATIVE, FREEMASON, LOYALIST, MONSTER (?)

This is an excerpt from my post: THE IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY: THE RED ROMANS AND THE RED COATS.

FIRST NATIVE FREEMASON

While the colonies of New France and British America were warring in the French and Indian War (1754–63 CE), a young Mohawk Native named Thayendangea or Joseph Brant began his rise from obscurity. During this war Joseph Brant, still in his early teens, was involved in conflicts at Fort Niagara and Lake George.

This being the first action at which I was present I was seized with such a tremor when the firing began that I was obliged to take hold of a small sapling to steady myself; but after the discharge of a few volleys, I recovered the use of my limbs and the composure of my mind so as to support the character of a brave man, of which I was especially ambitious.” – Joseph Brant, around the age of 12.

^ French (blue) and British territories (red) c.1750 CE.

There was an influential, rich and Native-friendly man named William Johnson who was a Freemason Charter Master, the Superintendent of Northern Indian Affairs and was Joseph Brant’s brother-in-law. This youth had potential, believing so, William Johnson sent him to Eleazar Wheelock’s “Moor’s Indian Charity School” in Lebanon, Connecticut (a predecessor of the famed Dartmouth College) where he was given a Christian education and converted to the Anglican church. Joseph Brant was also known for acting as a translator and aiding Anglican Reverend John Stuart in translating Christian works into Mohawk. 

After William Johnson’s death Joseph Brant visited London alongside Guy Johnson (William Johnson’s nephew and son-in-law) in 1755 with the intent of negotiating a deal. If the Iroquois Confederacy were given a tract of land in Quebec, Canada, then the Iroquois Confederacy would aid the British in the American Revolutionary War (1775-83). While there Joseph Brant was enrolled as a Freemason and given a ritual apron, he was the first native American to be accepted as a mason.

^ Portrait of Joseph Brant. Brant was visiting England with Guy Johnson at age 33 or 34 when Romney painted him in his London studio.

There are some mentions of Joseph Brant sparing the lives of fellow Freemasons despite them being on the side of the Patriots. One such occurrence mentioned was one following the Battle of the Cedars (May 18–27, 1776) in which the American POWs were about to be executed but a captain named John McKinstry, who was a member of the Hudson Lodge No.13 of New York, recalled that Joseph Brant was a Freemason. Captain John McKinstry gave Joseph Brant a ‘Masonic sign of appeal’ in the hopes of being saved from his fate of being burned at the stake; the two became and remained friends from that point on. In 1779 this is again repeated as a Patriot scout by the name of Lt. Boyd was ambushed along with Private Parker and taken captive, Lt. Boyd asked to speak to Joseph Brant himself and gave him the ‘Masonic sign of appeal’. Joseph Brant assured them their freedom and safety but in his absence Colonel Butler had them interrogated, tortured and then beheaded.

BRITISH-LOYALIST

Battle of Long Island August 27, 1776

George Washington understood that the New York Harbor would be an advantageous place for the British to use as a naval base, because of its significant location, he thought it to be the next likely point that the British would attack so he brought the Continental Army to defend it. This was the largest battle of the American Revolutionary War, with about ten thousand on the side of the Continental Patriots and twenty thousand on that of the British in Long Island. The British decided to use their center and right forces to both assault and distract the front while a large force was sent to assault the weak American left flank. Joseph Brant is believed to have been involved with the aforementioned, flanking maneuver.

The Fracturing Of the Iroquoian Confederacy (Mohawk, Seneca, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga and Tuscarora)

During the American Revolutionary War all sides, “Whites” and Natives alike, wished to keep the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois Confederacy) neutral but in time the “whites” on both sides were desperate to win over the neighboring tribes to their cause. The Haudenosaunee were confused as they were allied with the British which were now two factions, the British Loyalists and the Continentals Patriots, which should they back? The Haudenosaunee began to fracture; the nations and tribes that were once unified were now divided between the two warring powers. 

The settlers had long opposed the British by continuing to trespass on and settle in Native American territories. Many of the Haudenosaunee (Iroquoian Confederacy) that favored the British did so because they feared, rightfully, that without the British to hold back the settlers the frontier would be swarming with settlers in much larger scale. Joseph Brant was able to gather four of the six Haudenosaunee nations together, the conference took place at Irondequoit on the 13th of July 1777, and here the Haudenosaunee were showered with gifts of rum and other provisions. 

^ Joseph Brant, painted in London by Gilbert Stuart in 1786.

Despite Seneca (Iroquois) leaders like Guyasuta and Cornplanter wishing to continue their policy of neutrality, the majority of the other Haudenosaunee (Mohawk, Onondaga, Cayuga) voted to side with the British – because of this the Seneca respected their decision and followed suit. Only the Oneida and Tuscarora refused to join the council and instead sided with the rebels, since they had long lived beside them they had grown accustomed to the colonists. There was also a Presbyterian missionary named Samuel Kirkland who baptized and educated the Oneida and Tuscarora, with the outbreak of war he swayed them over to the side of the American revolutionaries.

St. Leger’s Expedition: Siege of Fort Stanwix and Battle of Oriskany (August 1777)

The British planned a three-pronged offensive aimed at crippling any chance for the Patriots (Continental rebels) to invade Canada while also separating New England and the middle colonies. Since George Washington’s army was so limited he would then be forced to choose which to defend or to divide up his forces. One of these prongs was an expedition led by Barry St. Leger. While the British were laying siege to Fort Stanwix, Molly Brant sent word to Joseph Brant that a Patriot militia of 800 men from Fort Dayton in New York along with sixty Iroquoian Oneida warriors marched westward toward Fort Stanwix seeking to relieve the besieged fort and get revenge for the slaying of an innocent woman named Jane McCrea.

^ Treetop Advantage by Doug Hall.

Subsequently Barry St. Leger sent Joseph Brant and John Johnson to cut the Patriot reinforcements off. With Joseph Brant was his newly formed ranger corps called ‘Brant’s Volunteers’ which were made up of about 20% Loyalist Natives and 80% white Loyalist New Yorkers of English, Irish and Scottish descent. The Loyalists set an ambush about six miles from Fort Stanwix, near the Oneida village of Oriskany (Battle of Oriskany). In this dark ravine they laid in wait, deciding to assault the Patriot militia once they were surrounded but the British-allied Natives were too impatient and excited so they chose to leap out from behind the cover of foliage and assault the Patriot rebels. The Patriots at the rear fled and were then pursued by Joseph Brant and his Mohawk allies, armed with tomahawks and spears. After the initial clash, the conflict slowed in pace as both sides engaged in close combat or fired at each other from behind the cover of trees.

This was truly a battle where brother fought brother, sons and fathers clashed; as the Iroquoian Mohawks and Oneidas fought for each side respectively, as well as many “whites” – with many on both sides knowing their “enemies” personally. The leader of the Patriot (rebel) force was General Nicholas Herkimer, during the conflict his horse was shot and his leg was wounded, despite his injuries he sat beneath a tree and smoked his pipe while continuing to issue commands and orders –after the battle he would later die from complications after a leg amputation. 

Though the British (Loyalists) inflicted far more casualties on the Patriots (rebels), the latter still held the field and after hearing of a skirmish by Fort Stanwix, the British (Loyalists) fell back. Most of the losses on the British side were that of the allied Native Mohawks and Senecas so in revenge these Natives slaughtered as many prisoners as they could and even retaliated against an Oneida village, which would eventually strike back by burning Mohawk villages. This conflict also marked a shift within the Iroquois Confederacy as the pact made long ago to half hostilities amongst brethren had been tarnished.

^ Herkimer at the Battle of Oriskany by F. C. Yohn.

All hope for the fate of Fort Stanwix seemed lost, but Patriot (rebel) General Benedict Arnold came up with a strategy to turn the tide. General Benedict Arnold led a small Patriot (rebel) force towards Fort Stanwix while turning a British soldier into his spy by holding his brother hostage. This spy, named Han Jost Schuyler, was to sow doubt and fear into the British besiegers by warning them of a massive Patriot reinforcement which sought to engage them in battle personally. The ploy worked as many of the British-allied Natives deserted, being that the Iroquois made up at least half of the British force, their loss prevented any chance for succeeding to take Fort Stanwix. 

The remaining British and Loyalist forces retreated in haste, leaving their camp supplies made up of money, clothing, tents, provisions, hospital supplies and private papers. Joseph Brant and Molly Brant both headed to the Onondaga Council seeking to sway the others into siding with the British and separating the Oneida from the rebels (Patriots). The Six Nations sent out wampum belts as far west as Detroit in the hopes of winning the assistance of the western tribes; the Iroquoian Mingoes and Algonquian Shawnees, whom were already dissatisfied with the “white” settlers, began raiding Kentucky.

^ Lost Documents by Robert Griffing.

Battle of Cobleskill (Massacre) – May 30, 1778

Joseph Brant led a force near to the settlement of Cobleskill (New York), there a small portion of said force made themselves visible in order to lure the local militia into pursuing them. This ruse worked and after being pursued for about a mile, Joseph Brant set off the trap, killing about half the militia force. They then raided the settlement and its crops while also massacring the inhabitants. Joseph Brant prevented his Native allies from slaughtering five settlers by taking them captive and allowing them to choose whether they would like to become adopted into the Natives or be taken to the British (Loyalist) held Fort Niagara instead, they chose the latter.

Battle of the Wyoming Valley (Wyoming Massacre): July 3, 1778

A Seneca war-chief named Sayenqueraghta Old Smoke, earlier mentioned as being involved in the Battle of Fort Niagara and the Battle of La Belle-Famille; the taking of forts Venango, Le Boeuf, and Presque Isle; as well as the ‘Devil’s Hole Massacre’; planned to retaliate against Wyoming, in his cause he was joined by Cornplanter and Major John Butler alongside “Butler’s Rangers”. After taking two forts and setting them ablaze, the militia in ‘Forty Fort’ rushed toward the direction of the British (Loyalist) and the smoke that rose from their allied forts. In their haste they fell into an ambush the British had laid, much like the Battle of Oriskany, the Natives couldn’t wait for the enemy to be surrounded as they sprang up from their prone position to attack them despite them being 30 yards away. 

^ Ensign Downing’s Escape - Battle of Wyoming (July 3, 1778).

Nevertheless, the ambush was successful as the militia was wedged between the British (Loyalist) and the Seneca, leading to a complete rout in which more than two hundred Patriots were killed. ‘Forty Fort’ surrendered and Major John Butler signed an agreement with them assuring them of their safety but once he left the Natives, whom were still upset over their losses at Fort Stanwix and Oriskany, completely plundered the Wyoming Valley; destroying over a thousand settlements and farms, burning crops, killing or driving away cattle and massacring the settlers.

^ Depiction of the battle by Alonzo Chappel, 1858. 

Joseph Brant was not present in the Wyoming expedition as he was still attempting to rally Natives and “whites” to his cause but he would nevertheless be blamed for almost every British-allied Native conflict, “crime” and atrocity that occurred, even for those in which he wasn’t present. Almost every band of British-allied Natives that were seen were thought to be led by Joseph Brant, a man seemingly present in several locations at once. He became sort of a bogeyman, with the Patriots (rebels) spreading propaganda which framed him as a bloodthirsty savage referred to as “Monster Brant”.

MONSTER BRANT

Chief Joseph Brant, who was in dire need of provisions such as cattle and crops, led raids (July, 1778) against the settlements of Springfield and Andrewstown (Jordanville). Casualties were low, with only eight being killed and fourteen being taken captive (two elderly men were set free) in both settlements. Joseph Brant saved many women and children from being harmed by his fellow Native brethren. Joseph Brant was known for being against harming women and children. Joseph Brant’s next target were the ‘German Flatts’, arriving on the seventeenth of September (1778 CE), Joseph’s raiding party destroyed their homes and barns, killing three; yet another raid was led against Peenapack.

The last raid that was launched (November 11, 1778 CE) before winter fell was one against Cherry Valley, New York. An Oneida spying for the Patriots (rebels) warned his allies of this proposed expedition but they had warned them before and nothing came of it, it seemed that once again the Oneida were crying wolf and this supposed threat seemed unlikely as winter was coming. Nevertheless the expedition neared its target location, with Joseph Brant being stripped of almost all of his Natives and overall command as a young man named Walter Butler had threatened and bribed them into following him instead. 

Unbeknownst to Walter Butler, the Iroquoian Seneca were angry and vengeful after learning of the Patriots destroyed their settlements of Tioga and Oquaqa. The young and inexperienced Walter Butler was unable to control the Iroquoian Seneca as they massacred or captured men, women and children – despite Joseph Brant’s attempts to save the innocent and unarmed. Even those who were Loyalists or friends of Joseph Brant (the Wells family) were slaughtered. So troubled was he that instead of returning to Fort Niagara with Walter Butler, Joseph Brant left the party and returned to the Mohawks for some time.

^ Cherry Valley massacre, the fate of Jane Wells, one of thirty non-combatants killed during the massacre.

Sometime later (1779 CE) as Joseph Brant and company traveled to Quebec, where General Haldimand had summoned them to, the General thought over how much of a great support Joseph Brant had been to the British cause, all the while receiving little economic support from them, and how virtually every important British officer praised both his character and ability. While there British general General Haldimand awarded Chief Joseph Brant the office of ‘Captain of the Northern Confederated Indians’; he was also given a commission equal to a white captain and even a pension after the war’s end.

Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, “The Winter of the Deep Snow”

The massacres at Wyoming and Cherry Valley led to a massive surge of refugees fleeing from the frontier. These atrocities however unified many behind the Patriot (rebel) cause. The Patriots were now cornered into either surrendering or into launching an assault against the Natives, by taking the offensive and assaulting the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois Confederacy) at their very homelands they would be able to cripple the main power strengthening the British (Loyalists). The following summer George Washington organized a military campaign led by Major General John Sullivan and Brigadier General James Clinton, this Sullivan-Clinton Expedition was aimed at:

The Expedition you are appointed to command is to be directed against the hostile tribes of the Six Nations of Indians, with their associates and adherents. The immediate objects are the total destruction and devastation of their settlements, and the capture of as many prisoners of every age and sex as possible. It will be essential to ruin their crops now in the ground and prevent their planting more. 

I would recommend, that some post in the center of the Indian Country, should be occupied with all expedition, with a sufficient quantity of provisions whence parties should be detached to lay waste all the settlements around, with instructions to do it in the most effectual manner, that the country may not be merely overrun, but destroyed. But you will not by any means listen to any overture of peace before the total ruinment of their settlements is effected. Our future security will be in their inability to injure us and in the terror with which the severity of the chastisement they receive will inspire them.” – George Washington to John Sullivan: May 31, 1779.

This plan was effectively enacted, the Patriot forces destroyed as many as forty Iroquoian settlements and stored crops which lead to large-scale deaths to starvation and the elements (freezing to death) the following winter as well as refugees seeking shelter. 

I am well persuaded that, except one town situated near the Allegana, about 50 miles from the Chinessee, there is not a single town left in the country of the Five nations.” – John Sullivan to Congress.

A little known fact is that George Washington was referred to as Conotocarious (“Town Destroyer”), and would even refer to himself by that same name.

Recommend me kindly to our good friend Monacatootha (a leader of the Iroquoian Oneida), and others; tell them how happy it would make Conocotarious to have an opportunity of taking them by the hand at Fort Cumberland, and how glad he would be to treat them as brothers of our Great King beyond the waters.” – George Washington to Andrew Montour, 1755.

The name first appeared in reference to George Washington’s great-grandfather named John Washington but when Seneca leader Half-King Tanacharison met a young George Washington in 1753 he also gave him that name, eerily foreshadowing the future. Over two decades later, Seneca chief Cornplanter recalls the Sullivan-Clinton Expedition, its effects and George Washington.

When your army entered the country of the Six Nations, we called you Town Destroyer: and to this day when that name is heard, our women look behind them and turn pale, and our children cling close to the necks of their mothers,“ – Seneca chief, Cornplanter.

^ Joseph Brant by Charles Willson Peale (1797).

In the early months of 1780 CE Joseph Brant began a series of successful retaliatory raids against the rebel colonists and their Iroquoian allies until being decisively defeated at the Battle of Klock’s Field (October 19, 1780 CE). Eventually Brant’s expeditions petered off as the British were nearing peace terms with the rebels colonists, concluding with the Treaty of Paris (1783 CE). With Native lands now given by the British to the Americans, the Natives were embittered. Joseph Brant traveled westward were he aided in the creation of a ‘Western Confederacy’ which consisted of many Natives from different nations or tribes like the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois Confederacy), the Wabash Confederacy (Wea, Piankashaw, Kickapoos, Mascoutens, etc.), the Council of Three Fires (Ottawa, Potawatomi, and Ojibwe) and the Illinois Confederation – among many others.

^ 1830′s lithograph based on the last portrait of Brant, an 1806 oil on canvas painting by Ezra Ames.

Joseph spent the rest of his life either allying the Natives against future American encroachments while also buying land back from the ‘whites’ for his Native brethren. At the age of sixty-four he passed away (November 24, 1807 CE): a Mohawk Native born in a difficult time where his people were trapped between more powerful and advanced world powers. Joseph Brant or Thayendangea (“places two bets”), was a sort of prodigy caught between two worlds: the old world of the Natives and the newer one the ‘whites’ brought. He was the first Native American to be invited into the Freemason order and was also one of the few Natives to visit Paris, France and London, England. He rose from obscurity, a relatively unknown Native American who was taught in white schools, invited into the Freemason order and rose in the ranks by means of his bravery, loyalty, skill, honesty, integrity, respect and honor. As he did in life, even his last words reflected his hope for a future for his Native brethren.

Have pity on the poor Indians. If you have any influence with the great, endeavor to use it for their good.


If there are any errors please privately inbox me so I can update it. As always, if you’d like to read or learn about any specific historical subjects just let me know what they are and I will take note of them.

SEE ALSO:

  • THE COUNCIL OF THREE FIRES AND THE PONTIAC-GUYASUTA UPRISING – This post covers some of the history, culture and religion of the Native American inhabitants of the Great Lakes region of North America, focusing on the Pontiac-Guyasuta Uprising and the Council of Three Fires (the Ottawa, Ojibwe and the Potawatomi); the peace-pipe, the Delaware prophetsRogers’ Rangers, the sport that inspired lacrosse, and some Native battle tactics
  • THE IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY: THE “SAVAGE” EMPIRE – The origins of the Iroquois Confederacy, the early wars they were involved in, the effects that disease epidemics incurred upon them, the Iroquoian cultural use of torture, scalping, and cannibalism, the tomahawk and its symbolism (bury the hatchet), as well as the taking of captives during mourning wars and adopting them in order to replace lost tribal members. 
  • THE IROQUOIS CONFEDERACY: THE RED ROMANS AND THE RED COATS – This post covers the religious beliefs of the Iroquois Confederacy, their origin story, their belief in duality (like yin and yang), their secretive and mysterious masked societies, and their involvement in the conflicts between their two great colonial neighbors (New France and the New England) like the famed French and Indian War. I’ll also speak of their involvement in the American Revolutionary War. It is believed that without the aid of the Iroquois Confederacy, North America would now be speaking French instead of English and that France would’ve held a massive portion of the eastern half of North America, leaving a massive battlefield for the French and Spanish to battle over.
A Very Supernatural Case

Characters: Sam, Dean, Gibbs, DiNozzo, McGee, Y/N (no pairing)

Word count: 1,342

Warnings: none! :D

A/N: This was requested by @mikumaythebeast so hopefully I did alright! <3 If you’d like you can request things too! I hope you all enjoy this! Feedback is welcomed and appreciated! <3

It was your dream to visit Washington D.C..  You never visited the nation’s capital before.  Today was your lucky day.  After a twenty hour drive, the three of you arrived in D.C..  Dean and Sam knew how excited you were to be in D.C., so they promised to stay at least a day after the hunt.

This particular hunt was near a naval base in D.C..  You weren’t too keen on going into their crime scenes.  Sometimes the real FBI showed up.  The last case you had in this part of the United States was in New Orleans.  You were reunited with a long-time friend, Dwayne Pride, or as everyone else called him King.  He worked for NCIS, but luckily he knew who you were.  Otherwise things could have gotten messy.  You buttoned the last few buttons of your suit jacket, grabbing your FBI badge and slipping it into your jacket pocket.  

Dean and Sam walked out of the motel room behind you.  “Now, if someone comes up to us that is actually from the FBI or NCIS, let me talk to them,” you instructed the Winchesters.  “I know someone who can help us if we get into a sticky situation.”

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@astralord​ liked for a starter!

“I don’t get what’s so special about Tim Horton’s.” 

Controversial words, he knows. Next thing he knows, Peter will be clutching his pearls like an old lady in church who is about to faint. Hopefully his poor little Canadian cowboy heart could handle such an insult.

“I went to one once when I was out in Virginia of all places doing some training,” He explains. “They have one on the base over there, not really sure why. We had a bit of down time so we went over there and I got some coffee and it was…okay. I wouldn’t go out of my way to get it again.”

He scratches his chin. 

“That one does have a one star rating so I guess that kinda speaks for itself.” 

A Perfect Storm 14

Characters:  Dean, Reader, Cas

Summary:  Reader is an actress on the show Supernatural.  What happens when she’s ripped from her world and thrust into the real world of Sam and Dean?

Word Count:  830 

Warnings:  Language

As always, feedback is welcomed and appreciated.  Thank you.

A Perfect Storm Part 14

Slowly waking in the lumpy motel bed, you roll over to see Cas sitting in a chair right beside you. Just fucking watching you.

“Have you been watching me all night?” you ask as you sit up.

“I don’t require sleep. And you look peaceful when you sleep,” the angel says earnestly.

“Not gonna lie Cas. That’s kinda creepy.”

“My apologies. Are you ready for your training?”

“Coffee, Cas. I need coffee. I may be half angel, but the half human part of me requires caffeine before rigorous training,” you say.

“I’ll be back shortly.” With that, Cas disappears.

Dean exits the bathroom, toothbrush in hand. “You ready for this, (Y/N)?”

“Ready as I’ll ever be,” you say with a sigh, pushing your hair out of your eyes.  

Cas returns, a tray of coffees and bagels in hand.  “Cas, you’re an angel,” you say, standing up and kissing him on the cheek. You can’t be certain, but it looks like Cas blushes slightly. Dean giggles at the expression on the angel’s face.

Dressing quickly, you chug your coffee and scarf down a bagel.  “Let’s do this,” you say, strapping your boots on your feet.  

Dean crosses the room to where you stand with Cas. “I’m coming too.” Neither of you protest. Cas, likely, because he knows Dean won’t back down. You, because you want the support.

“Okay,” Cas nods. “First lesson, teleportation. I know you’ve gone a short distance, but now you need to transport all three of us farther. This planet should be geographically the same as yours. Envision some place open, secluded, where we can train. When you’re ready, grab hold of myself and Dean and take us there.”

Closing your eyes, you think for a moment. Ah, there it is. Reaching out, you grab each man by the arms and zap the three of you out of the motel room.

———

“What is this place?” Dean says when you drop his arm.  

“It’s an abandoned naval weapons base. Not far from where I grew up. It was shut down long before I was born. Just acres upon acres of abandoned fields,” you explain, gesturing to the open field surrounding you.

“This is perfect,” Cas agrees. “Let’s try telepathy. I know you’ve been able to talk to me and to Jesse. Let’s see if you can communicate with Dean.”

“I…uh, is that okay?” you ask the hunter. “It feels invasive, somehow.”

He gives you a cocky grin. “I’m an open book, sweetheart!”

You giggle as Cas explains. “You’ll be able to read Dean’s thoughts, but you can’t communicate with him, because he’s not a telepath. Concentrate and see if you can hear what he’s saying.”

Closing your eyes, you again imagine an invisible thread between the two of you. Where the thread between you and Jesse was red, the thread to Dean is green, similar to the color of his eyes. Interesting. Many different emotions roll off the hunter, complex and deep. Concentrating harder, you sift through the emotions and focus on his thoughts. “You’re good. We got this. By the way, your ass looks great in those jeans.”

The last sentence catches you off guard, and you burst out laughing, severing the connection. “Shut up, Dean!” you exclaim.

Shrugging, he smirks at you. “Didn’t actually say anything, doll.”

You roll your eyes before turning to receive more instructions from the angel. The rest of the morning is spent working on improving your skills. You learn to move objects with your mind. You discover that your strength is growing. You are even able to summon your grace to destroy objects, practicing on rocks and eventually a small boulder.

As the morning turns to afternoon, your energy begins to wane. Emotionally and physically you are drained. “Cas, it’s break time,” Dean tells the angel when he notices you starting to slow down.

“Yes, of course. Just one more thing.” Cas produces a short sword. It’s similar to an angel blade, but it’s longer. It’s not overly ornate, but it beautiful in its simplistic detailing. The handle is curved and there is Enochian lettering etched into the blade. “This is your father’s sword, the sword of Michael.”

Dean’s mouth drops open. “Wait, I thought I was the sword of Michael.”

“Figuratively, yes, Dean, that is correct. This is Michael’s literal sword. It now belongs to you, (Y/N).”

Reaching out tentatively, you take the sword into your hand. It molds to your palm and it feels almost alive, as if you can feel the archangel’s power thrumming through it. A faint blue light emanates from it.

“It will serve you well, (Y/N),” Cas says, looking impressed with the way the sword reacts to you.  

“Thank you, Cas,” you whisper, in awe of the power you hold in your hands. Feeling infinitely more confident in your abilities to face Jesse in the coming battle, you whisk Dean and Cas out of the field and back to the motel.

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