kpop + zodiac signs: nugu boy groups edition

ARIES / They are independent, courageous, dynamic and full of energy. Rushing forward without fear, they won’t hold onto the past. Filled with enthusiasm and passion, an Aries is a true leader. They won’t give up without a fight but their stubbornness can be their most difficult trait.

anonymous asked:

Can you tell me more about de Kalb and his relationship with Lafayette?

Johann de Kalb was a Bavarian-born veteran of the French army during the Seven Years War. He was introduced to the idea of joining the American cause by the Comte de Broglie…the somewhat questionable man who began grooming Lafayette for the same enterprise. Like Lafayette, de Kalb was told by Silas Deane that he would become a major-general in the Continental Army upon arrival in the colonies. Johann immediately started looking for about  officers to join him on his trip to America…and he found one of the most enthusiastic specimens he could’ve hope for. 

Lafayette was already making plans to go to America when introduced to Johann de Kalb. Together, the two began to conspire (–literally daily…these two met up almost every day for an entire month–) a way to get Lafayette a commission in the Continental Army. It was through de Kalb that Lafayette met Silas Deane and with de Kalb’s persuasion that Deane eventually granted Laf the rank of major-general. Johann, however, was under the impression that Lafayette had his family’s complete consent to do so…a fact that Lafayette assured him was the case. It wasn’t. Thinking that he could still get the permission of the French ministers and his father-in-law, Lafayette acted on that assumption and was proven very wrong when he finally attempted to breach the subject with them. As de Kalb went off to locate a ship, Lafayette scrambled to get someone to consent to his leaving. He was ultimately unsuccessful.

De Kalb was all set to sail without Lafayette, but France’s ministry pulled permission at the last minute, wishing to appear neutral to the conflict. This forced the ‘baron’ to return to Paris. The initial party of hopefuls disbanded, but Lafayette and de Kalb were determined to try again. It was decided that Laf would buy a ship to avoid further unnecessary complications and, after a few weeks in London, Johann sent him word that they were ready to get underway. Lafayette raced back to France, made his excuses and wrote his farewell letters, and climbed aboard the ‘Victoire’ (the ‘Victory’) to set sail for America.

There were a few other complications, but eventually the group reached land. De Kalb wrote about the seasickness of the younger men, including Lafayette, in an amused tone in letters to home. Once on land, however, the group finally (and hilariously, but that’s another post) made it to Congress…where they were quickly denied the commissions Silas Deane promised them. After some negotiations and concessions, Lafayette was accepted as a major-general in the army, but the ‘baron’ and the other officers that had arrived with them remained in limbo. The Marquis began pulling some strings, and six days before being wounded at the Battle of Brandywine, Lafayette secured de Kalb’s position as a major-general.

The two had a good relationship and Lafayette greatly admired the ‘baron’. Based on Johann’s tone in his writings, the older man viewed Lafayette as a young man full of ideas bigger than he was and often wrote in a somewhat endearing, somewhat sarcastic way about the young French nobleman. De Kalb was often frustrated by the lack of seniority he received during the American campaign, but he was a brave man and was mourned by the Marquis and countless others when he was killed at Camden, August 19, 1780. His horse had been killed under him and when he stood, Johann was hit with three musket balls. The British then fell upon his position and by the end, eight stab wounds via bayonet finally took him. 

Johann de Kalb had this to say about Lafayette: 

On the whole, I have annoyances to bear, of which you can hardly form a conception. One of them is the mutual jealousy of almost all the French officers, particularly against those of higher rank than the rest. These people think of nothing but their incessant intrigues and backbitings. They hate each other like the bitterest enemies, and endeavor to injure each other wherever an opportunity offers. I have given up their society, and very seldom see them. La Fayette is the sole exception; I always meet him with the same cordiality and the same pleasure. He is an excellent young man, and we are good friends… La Fayette is much liked, he is on the best of terms with Washington.