bacterial diseases

vox.com
Nurses returning from Puerto Rico accuse the federal government of leaving people to die
The nation's largest nurses union condemned the federal government's emergency response in Puerto Rico on Thursday for "delaying necessary humanitarian aide to its own citizens and leaving them to die."
By Alexia Fernández Campbell

The nurses union said it had put out a report about its findings in Puerto Rico but the FEMA administrator in Puerto Rico has yet to return the union’s calls to discuss them.

Here is what most concerned them from their experience on the ground:

  • People standing in line for hours in the sun for food and water, with federal workers giving them paperwork instead of distributing supplies
  • Residents living in soaked homes without roofs, where dangerous black mold is spreading and leading to respiratory problems
  • Rural towns that have never gotten food and water supplies, and yet have no running water and no electricity
  • An outbreak of leptospirosis, a dangerous bacterial disease that has already claimed lives; as of Thursday, four deaths have been attributed to this outbreak
  • Multiple communities without clean water that are at risk of the outbreak of water-borne illness epidemics

angelicuscadere  asked:

For a sentient specie of omnivorous raptors (think feathered dino) with social complexity, technology and population density similar to humans ~300 years ago, what would be the most prominent health issues for the common folk?

I’m using birds and alligators as references for most things anatomy, so what would be avian/crocodilian equivalent to fleas, flu, cholera, measles, or other highly contagious and common ailments? (They have both feathers and scales)  They have had little to no contact with any large mammals over the course of their evolution - upon contact with mammals (including humans), would that make them less or more susceptible to be affected by human illness, or a random mix? I know this is very broad so I’m not expecting a detailed answer - I was just hoping you could give me some pointers as to what kind of diseases to investigate and inspire myself from.   Thank you! I really love your script blog! :)

—————————————–       

Yay raptors! I hope you like info-dumps.

Originally posted by gifovea

If I assume a similar medical scene to the 1700-1800′s, I’d first broadly group the common diseases into parasitic, bacterial, viral and fungal. Most of these species don’t congregate in terribly large numbers, except in farms and fortunately for your writing, both birds and crocodiles are bred on farms in large numbers to give you disease examples that are probably common at high densities with sub-optimal hygiene. I will link to other sites for the most interesting ones.

Parasites are the group that were extremely common before effective medication, and also the most externally obvious. They’re also potential vectors for the other groups, to spread disease from one raptor to another (think about how mosquitoes do this today).

External parasites are your equivalent to fleas. Avians can get fleas, but mites and lice are far more common. Almost all wild birds are harboring some kind of feather lice. Reptiles commonly get ticks. Scaly leg mite might give you inspiration for a suitably interesting looking disease.

Internal parasites get a bit more variable, depending on the internal anatomy of your raptor species. Almost everything can get intestinal worms (because almost everything has intestines). Where exactly in the intestines they live will depend on anatomy, and young won’t get any placental transmission from their mother if they lay eggs. Worms like Heterakis can transmit other diseases to certain species too.

Birds get respiratory parasites, which are quite unique. Air sac mites may be relevant if your raptors have them, and gapeworm is one of my personal favorites. (Yes, I have favorite parasites. I’m not weird.)

Moving onto bacterial diseases, Cholera was a big killer of humans, and poultry have Fowl Cholera of their own. Botulism toxin kills a lot of birds that congregate around waterways, but interestingly birds and reptiles seem very resistant to tetanus.

Gut pathogens like salmonella are common in reptiles and birds, and are not species specific. These things can get into just about anything, but they are often host adapted. This means the usual species they infect doesn’t get as severe pathology as a new species. This may be relevant for your mammals who encounter this species, as it’s commonly spread by poor hygiene practices.

Psittacosis is a bacterial disease that you should definitely look into. It can affect both humans and parrots, and can be lethal in both. It was historically something of a mystery disease for a while, and worth reading about.

Most species (honestly, probably all species but we haven’t bothered to look) have a poxvirus of their own. Some of these poxviruses will cross species (eg goats and sheep) and will vary in how virulent they are (smallpox vs chickenpox). They hang around in the environment for a really long time and are difficult to exterminate. Your species probably has one, but despite the name not all poxviruses present with pox on the skin.

If your species is feathered, then Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease is simply fascinating and visually dramatic. It’s a chronic disease and may fill a similar social role as leprosy

Influenza viruses commonly affect many species of birds and will also potentially cross over to humans or other mammals. Human and mammal influenza can also cross over into birds. When you get an influenza type into a ‘new’ species, death rates are typically higher.

Most concerning, however, is when you have two different influenza strains infect the same individual, recombine by infecting the same cell, and then by chance produce a totally new strain of influenza which may then infect any species that could have been infected by either parent virus. Immunity to on strain of influenza offers little protection against another.  This is why bird flu outbreaks are such a concern.

I noticed you said no contact with large mammals over their evolution. If they’re farming, what’s eating their stored food? Rats are common and disease vectors to boot, if they have no rats, what do they have instead? Something will be taking advantage of food stores, and will be relevant to the diseases in the population.

And I don’t know if you considered it, but crocodillians tend to be cannibalistic. If they are, then you could potentially have a tapeworm species that spends it’s entire life cycle within this species. It matures and drops cysts in the intestine of one individual, those cysts are eaten by a second individual (faecal contamination of food most likely), then forming cysts in muscle or meat tissue, and when the 2nd individual is eaten by a 3rd individual, those cysts mature into the adult tapeworm to live inside their intestine, and the cycle begins again. There may also be a prion disease, though they are rare.

anonymous asked:

We recently started our cat on a raw diet due to his violent grain allergies, although he seems to be extraordinarily well on it, I was wondering if there were any health issues that could stem from it that I should look out for?

It’s nice to hear your kitty is doing well. If you are feeding raw there are a few extra things I’d recommend watching out for.

  • Basic food handling hygiene is a must. Cats are not magically immune to food borne bacterial diseases. It is entirely possible for them to catch Campylobacter and Salmonella.
  • Any bones, even raw bones, have the potential to splinter or get stuck and should only be fed under supervision.
  • Cats on raw diets do have more bacteria in their stool and mouth, and consequently on their fur from grooming.
  • Remember to de-worm or have a faecal test at least every 3 months due to risk of tapeworm. Freezing the meat for an extended period can reduce this risk, but this should also apply to any cats that might be hunting.
  • Particular to cats is Toxoplasma infection. This parasite uses cats as a primary host and reproduces in their intestine. Sometimes cats will show no symptoms from this, but if a human catches Toxo from their cat they may have symptoms ranging from flu-like through to abortion. This parasite can also flare up again if its host is immunosuppressed for any reason, whether that’s the human or the cat. You can get a toxoplasma test done on your cat to determine whether it’s ever been infected, and whether it’s likely to be shedding if this concerns you. Sheep and Kangaroo meat is particularly high risk meat for Toxoplasma.

Raw feeding requires more care than processed foods, but if it’s benefiting your cat it’s probably worth doing.

Surgery

They make me feel like I live in a bacterial infested disease hole….

Instructions: wash with hibiclens and get into clean sheets with a clean night gown. In the morning wash with hibiclens again.

This really struck a chord with me.

The misconception about GMO is that plant genetics are altered by means of chemicals developed in a lab.

The truth is GMO is solely SELECTIVE BREEDING. Remember in high school learning about Gregor Mendel, the father of modern day genetics? Remember learning about heredity and traits and whether the alleles are homozygous or heterozygous?

We’re doing the exact same practice as he did! In a theoretical situation using wheat as an example, a variety that is more resistant to diseases such as rust, spot mosaic, and root rot will be crossed with a less resistant variety. This would be the F1 generation that can be crossed increasingly to have a further generations that are almost if not entirely immune to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases. No chemicals!
Moreover, we have been selective breeding for thousands of years from the very start of domesticating crops to the show dogs you see on tv.

Instead of digesting whatever the tv feeds you, educate yourself through research of reputable sources to know the truth and make up your own mind rather than having it made up for you.

Don’t be a sheeple.

9

Whooooo wants to learn about viral diseases???

I got another micro exam coming up this week, so I needed to kinda organize my thoughts. I wouldn’t know how to make actual flashcards for all of these, so… this is the next best thing.

But yeah! I dunno, learning materials. I still gotta do the two bacterial diseases we covered in class and I think we have some protist diseases we need to cover, too.

Help save the honey bees! Please reblog and share :) I decided to post some information about honey! Education is the key!🍯🐝 “🐝💛Calling All Bee Lovers💛🐝” 🌸🌼🌸🌼🌸🌼🌸🌼🌸🌼🌸🌼🌸 ✨Bee’s are friends! 🐝👍 💛 They are not pests!🙅💔👎✨ 🌼 🍯🐝🌼🍯🐝🌼🍯🐝🌼🍯🐝🌼 “My son, eat thou honey, for it is good” — King Solomon – Proverbs: 24:13 🌸 🍯🐝🌼🍯🐝🌼🍯🐝🌼🍯🐝🌼 ✨Here are some important and fun facts about our fuzzy busy friends.🐝✨ ▶ Bees swallow, digest and regurgitate nectar to make honey; this nectar contains almost 600 compounds.🍯🐝 ▶ Honey is so good we have included it in our list ofpowerfoods that should be in your kitchen right now.💛💪🍯🐝 ▶ Prevents cancer and heart disease: Honey contains flavonoids, antioxidants which help reduce the risk of some cancers and heart disease.💪🙅👍💛🍯🐝 ▶ Anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-fungal:“All honey is antibacterial, because the bees add an enzyme that makes hydrogen peroxide,” said Peter Molan, director of the Honey Research Unit at the University of Waikato in New Zealand.🍯🐝 ▶ Reduces throat irritation. Honey helps with coughs, particularly buckwheat honey. In a study of 110 children, a single dose of buckwheat honey was just as effective as a single dose of dextromethorphan in relieving nocturnal cough and allowing proper sleep.💪🍯🐝 ▶ Honey has been used in ayurvedic medicine in India for 4000 years and is considered to affect all three of the body’s primitive material imbalances positively.💪🍯🐝 ▶ It can be used in improving eyesight, weight loss, curing impotence and premature ejaculation, urinary tract disorders, bronchial asthma, diarrhea, and nausea.🍯🐝 💛I will be posting more about bees!💛🐝 ❇What other facts do you know about honey?🍯 ✨Do you dig this? Was this helpful?✨ 👍Yes🌸No👎 🌸🐝🍯🌸🍯🐝🌸🐝🍯🌸🐝🍯🌸

(why am I writing this? I don’t even like vampires!) Coldflash Vampire AU

“You have hemochromatosis, by the way.”

The thief rolled his eyes to face his unwilling nurse. “What?”

Barry ran his tongue over his teeth unconsciously, not noticing how his patient followed the movement with trepidation.

“It means your body captures iron too efficiently. The trait is common in people of European descent, because it makes them more resistant to bacterial diseases, so they survived the Black Death better, but it can cause your organs to basically rust, and it’s hard to diagnose, but people usually treat it by giving blood every few weeks-“ He bit his lip, stopping the deluge of words.

Len raised an eyebrow. “If you wanted an invitation to suck on my neck, kid, there are better ways of asking.”

“I didn’t mean it like that!” The young man’s face was scarlet as blood, my blood Len thought idly, rushed to his cheeks. “I just meant you shouldn’t take any iron supplements or anything while you’re recovering, because blood loss won’t make you anemic!”

“And here I was wanting to test out the new fainting couch Lisa installed in the hideout.” The thief drawled. “Pity, I thought your kind liked the swooning victims.”

Barry pressed his hands to his face. “Oh my god, stop! Nothing in Dracula is actually true!”

“Except for the whole vampires thing.”

The hands lowered, and the younger man’s expression turned sorrowfully serious. “Yeah. Except- except for that.”

The thief hummed in his throat, and winced as the slight movement aggravated the two pinprick holes along his jugular. The kid made a move to adjust the hastily taped on gauze, but flinched back as blue eyes snapped evaluate to him like one would a wolf in the room.

“Sorry.” He stuttered, and immediately clenched his hands back in his lap.

The gaze turned icily ponderous. “So, is this the part where I’m silenced, and you turn me into your Igor minion?”

Barry pursed his lips over his fangs. “I don’t do that.”

“But you could.”

“I don’t.”

He hummed again, more carefully this time. “Then, what, you’re going to keep me here until I’m well enough to be you midnight snack?”

“No!” The kid’s eyes flashed yellow like lightning, highlighting the deep red undertones in his iris. “I’m not like-“ He looked away again. “You’re free to go as soon as you can stand.”

Len made a point to look from his too pale limbs back to the vampire. “Then it seems that we’re going to be spending a lot of quality time together.”

Real Facts From Episode 203

While The Knick is a work of fiction, it is based on exhaustive historical research. Below, the show’s writers share some of the true facts of the era that are depicted in this episode.

Rockefeller, Carnegie, and Harriman all put money toward eugenics research. At the turn of the Century, Eugenics was viewed as an “emerging science,” an offshoot of Darwin’s theories on evolution, and a new way to understand human beings. (Image courtesy of the Burns Archive.)

Syphilis spirochete is called Treponema Pallidum. It is fairly unmistakable in appearance (it looks a lot like a ramen noodle). Thackery’s understanding of a fever’s impact on syphilis is mostly due to the work of Austrian psychiatrist, Julius Wagner Jauregg (1857-1940).

Jauregg saw a woman with severe psychosis recover after a bout of Erysipelas, a bacterial skin disease that causes high fevers. He began experimenting with tuberculin-induced fevers. After several patients died under such treatment, he stopped his experiment, only to start up again after 1900. Then in the post-WWI era, Jaurgegg switched to using Malaria to try and cure patients with Neurosyphilis. He went on to win a Nobel Prize in 1927 for his work. (Image courtesy of the Burns Archive.)

In 1900 Mount Sinai Hospital purchased an X-Ray Machine and set it up in their synagogue. )

Huber’s Palace was an establishment that housed stages for performances, exotic animals, and “freak acts” like “The Dog-Faced Boy.” Huber’s motto was “A dollar show for ten cents.”

Disease

There are a number of stories that have infectious diseases play a major role in the plot. It’s a great plot device, if used well—it forces isolation, people to work together, fear, panic, and death. The problem comes when authors don’t understand how diseases work. It is true that fantasy author do have more leeway when it comes to what they can do with their diseases, but there are still some basic points that should be kept in mind.

Infectious diseases come in the form of either viruses or bacteria. In fantasy, magic is a third choice, which will be covered later. In terms of general writing, unless you’re writing a medical thriller or something of the sort, you don’t need to know a whole lot about the differences between the two. There are some differences that are important to note, especially if you are writing about a time since the invention of vaccines and/or antibiotics. Vaccines exist for both viral and bacterial pathogens. That being said, some of the early vaccines were for viruses; the first vaccine was for smallpox. They are generally used as preventative measures to keep people from getting certain diseases, and some may require boosters to stay effective. Antibiotics (or antibacterials), on the other hand, only work for bacterial diseases, and they either kill the bacteria or inhibit its growth. This means that they will not work on things like the flu.

If your invented disease is magic, clearly these rules don’t apply. What that means, however, is that you shouldn’t have your doctors using antibiotics to fight the magical disease. They can attempt it if they don’t know that it’s magic, but as soon as they figure out that it’s not bacterial, they should not try to use it. Similarly, it would probably be incredibly difficult if not impossible to vaccinate against something caused by magic.

Infectious diseases spread in certain ways. This doesn’t mean that all diseases spread the same way. A few possibilities are as follows: though physical contact, though ingestion of infected water or food, through sharing of fluids, or through the air. Many of these are obvious. For sharing of fluids, this can include blood, seminal or vaginal fluid, or saliva.

Magical diseases are, of course, different. For one thing, as opposed to regular diseases, magical diseases can be set to specifically target or spare people, depending on the magic system of your world.

Drug-resistant bacteria are a real threat. To spare you the details, the more an antibiotic is used, the more likely it is that large sets of the bacteria will become resistant to it. This can appear in a number of different ways, with bacteria being resistant to varying numbers of drugs. Some are only resistant to one can be treated by simply switching to another drug. The bigger problem comes with things like XDR-TB (extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis), where the strain of TB is resistant to not only the first line drugs but also the second-line drugs.

Vaccines aren’t 100% effective. Boosters (getting a second or third shot of the same vaccine) help with this by boosting the immune reaction to the virus or bacteria, but even with this, there is never a 100% guarantee that someone who received a vaccine cannot catch the disease. Along with that, not everybody can receive vaccines for various reasons. These reasons can include weakened immune systems, such as those of people with TB or HIV/AIDS, as well as people with egg allergies. The second reason is because many vaccines are harvested in chicken eggs. Herd immunity helps with this problem. The basic idea behind herd immunity is that, if enough people have immunity, the disease won’t spread to those who don’t have immunity.

There are many controversies around vaccines and around disease prevention or treatment in general. In some religions, there is a feeling that vaccines and the like are circumventing God’s work and that, if God wanted someone to live or die, it should happen without other people getting involved. In some Muslim countries or communities now, there is a feeling that American doctors who are providing vaccines are instead trying to sterilize them.

Not all cultures are or always have been as knowledgeable about diseases as first-world countries are now. This may seem obvious, but it is important to remember for writing about any time or place with different levels of scientific knowledge than ours. Words like “bacteria” and “virus” might not be used. Vaccines may or may not exist, depending on when and where you’re writing about, as they were first invented (or at least finalized, as I’m using the introduction of the smallpox vaccine as the start date) in 1798. There have throughout the years and cultures been thoughts that bad smells, an unbalance of the humors, the theft of the soul by an evil spirit, or numerous other causes to have been the cause of disease.

If you are thinking of implementing a specific disease into your story, you should obviously research that disease and how it works at more depth. The important thing to remember is that you should attempt as much as you can to get this correct. Magic is an okay excuse if you have magic as the reason for your disease, but you should still know about how diseases work before writing about them.

The newest apiary inspector at the Maryland Department of Agriculture has four legs, golden fur and a powerful sniffer.

Mack, a 2-year-old yellow Lab, joined the team last fall to help his mom, chief apiary inspector Cybil Preston, inspect beehives for American foulbrood — AFB — a highly contagious bacterial disease that infects honeybee brood and, eventually, kills the colony.

“Maryland has a thriving beekeeping industry, and most of our beekeepers have thousands of hives that travel from state to state for pollination,” explains Preston. “It’s our job to make sure that infected hives don’t cross state lines.”

The Maryland Department of Agriculture has had a “bee dog” on staff since 1982 and is believed to be the only state agency in the nation using a dog to detect AFB.

Keeping Bees Safe: It’s A Ruff Job, But This Doggy Detective Gets It Done

Photo credit: Morgan McCloy/NPR