We recently started our cat on a raw diet due to his violent grain allergies, although he seems to be extraordinarily well on it, I was wondering if there were any health issues that could stem from it that I should look out for?
It’s nice to hear your kitty is doing well. If you are feeding raw there are a few extra things I’d recommend watching out for.
Basic food handling hygiene is a must. Cats are not magically immune to food borne bacterial diseases. It is entirely possible for them to catch Campylobacter and Salmonella.
Any bones, even raw bones, have the potential to splinter or get stuck and should only be fed under supervision.
Cats on raw diets do have more bacteria in their stool and mouth, and consequently on their fur from grooming.
Remember to de-worm or have a faecal test at least every 3 months due to risk of tapeworm. Freezing the meat for an extended period can reduce this risk, but this should also apply to any cats that might be hunting.
Particular to cats is Toxoplasma infection. This parasite uses cats as a primary host and reproduces in their intestine. Sometimes cats will show no symptoms from this, but if a human catches Toxo from their cat they may have symptoms ranging from flu-like through to abortion. This parasite can also flare up again if its host is immunosuppressed for any reason, whether that’s the human or the cat. You can get a toxoplasma test done on your cat to determine whether it’s ever been infected, and whether it’s likely to be shedding if this concerns you. Sheep and Kangaroo meat is particularly high risk meat for Toxoplasma.
Raw feeding requires more care than processed foods, but if it’s benefiting your cat it’s probably worth doing.
For a sentient specie of omnivorous raptors (think feathered dino) with social complexity, technology and population density similar to humans ~300 years ago, what would be the most prominent health issues for the common folk?
I’m using birds and alligators as references for most things anatomy, so
what would be avian/crocodilian equivalent to fleas, flu, cholera,
measles, or other highly contagious and common ailments? (They have both
feathers and scales)
They have had little to no contact with any large mammals over the
course of their evolution - upon contact with mammals (including
humans), would that make them less or more susceptible to be affected by
human illness, or a random mix?
I know this is very broad so I’m not expecting a detailed answer - I was
just hoping you could give me some pointers as to what kind of diseases
to investigate and inspire myself from. Thank you! I really love your
script blog! :)
Yay raptors! I hope you like info-dumps.
If I assume a similar medical scene to the 1700-1800′s, I’d first broadly group the common diseases into parasitic, bacterial, viral and fungal. Most of these species don’t congregate in terribly large numbers, except in farms and fortunately for your writing, both birds and crocodiles are bred on farms in large numbers to give you disease examples that are probably common at high densities with sub-optimal hygiene. I will link to other sites for the most interesting ones.
Parasites are the group that were extremely common before effective medication, and also the most externally obvious. They’re also potential vectors for the other groups, to spread disease from one raptor to another (think about how mosquitoes do this today).
External parasites are your equivalent to fleas. Avians can get fleas, but mites and lice are far more common. Almost all wild birds are harboring some kind of feather lice. Reptiles commonly get ticks.
Scaly leg mite might give you inspiration for a suitably interesting looking disease.
Internal parasites get a bit more variable, depending on the internal anatomy of your raptor species. Almost everything can get intestinal worms (because almost everything has intestines). Where exactly in the intestines they live will depend on anatomy, and young won’t get any placental transmission from their mother if they lay eggs. Worms likeHeterakis can transmit other diseases to certain species too.
Birds get respiratory parasites, which are quite unique. Air sac mites may be relevant if your raptors have them, and gapeworm is one of my personal favorites. (Yes, I have favorite parasites. I’m not weird.)
Moving onto bacterial diseases, Cholera was a big killer of humans, and poultry have Fowl Cholera of their own. Botulism toxin kills a lot of birds that congregate around waterways, but interestingly birds and reptiles seem very resistant to tetanus.
Gut pathogens like salmonella are common in reptiles and birds, and are not species specific. These things can get into just about anything, but they are often host adapted. This means the usual species they infect doesn’t get as severe pathology as a new species. This may be relevant for your mammals who encounter this species, as it’s commonly spread by poor hygiene practices.
Psittacosisis a bacterial disease that you should definitely look into. It can affect both humans and parrots, and can be lethal in both. It was historically something of a mystery disease for a while, and worth reading about.
Most species (honestly, probably all species but we haven’t bothered to look) have a poxvirus of their own. Some of these poxviruses will cross species (eg goats and sheep) and will vary in how virulent they are (smallpox vs chickenpox). They hang around in the environment for a really long time and are difficult to exterminate. Your species probably has one, but despite the name not all poxviruses present with pox on the skin.
If your species is feathered, thenPsittacine Beak and Feather Diseaseis simply fascinating and visually dramatic. It’s a chronic disease and may fill a similar social role as leprosy
Influenza viruses commonly affect many species of birds and will also potentially cross over to humans or other mammals. Human and mammal influenza can also cross over into birds. When you get an influenza type into a ‘new’ species, death rates are typically higher.
Most concerning, however, is when you have two different influenza strains infect the same individual, recombine by infecting the same cell, and then by chance produce a totally new strain of influenza which may then infect any species that could have been infected by either parent virus. Immunity to on strain of influenza offers little protection against another. This is why bird flu outbreaks are such a concern.
I noticed you said no contact with large mammals over their evolution. If they’re farming, what’s eating their stored food? Rats are common and disease vectors to boot, if they have no rats, what do they have instead? Something will be taking advantage of food stores, and will be relevant to the diseases in the population.
And I don’t know if you considered it, but crocodillians tend to be cannibalistic. If they are, then you could potentially have a tapeworm species that spends it’s entire life cycle within this species. It matures and drops cysts in the intestine of one individual, those cysts are eaten by a second individual (faecal contamination of food most likely), then forming cysts in muscle or meat tissue, and when the 2nd individual is eaten by a 3rd individual, those cysts mature into the adult tapeworm to live inside their intestine, and the cycle begins again. There may also be a prion disease, though they are rare.
A series of events occurred where the last part gave me an opportunity to do a major revamp on my study area so now I have a lot more space around me! Re organized my desk and it’s so much more space effective. If you have great eyesight you may also notice someone special on my desk 😛
Came home from a 8hr study session on bacterial diseases, sure gotta love this micb life. Fastest way to staying productive so far has got to be me trekking out to campus to study everyday. Really hoping I can keep this up.
Flint, Michigan, is now facing an outbreak of shigellosis, a highly contagious, dysentery-like bacterial disease that can cause fever and bloody diarrhea. There are already 84 cases in Genesee County, and 53 within Flint city limits. At least 27 of those cases involved hospitalizations.
The misconception about GMO is that plant genetics are altered by means of chemicals developed in a lab.
The truth is GMO is solely SELECTIVE BREEDING. Remember in high school learning about Gregor Mendel, the father of modern day genetics? Remember learning about heredity and traits and whether the alleles are homozygous or heterozygous?
We’re doing the exact same practice as he did! In a theoretical situation using wheat as an example, a variety that is more resistant to diseases such as rust, spot mosaic, and root rot will be crossed with a less resistant variety. This would be the F1 generation that can be crossed increasingly to have a further generations that are almost if not entirely immune to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases. No chemicals!
Moreover, we have been selective breeding for thousands of years from the very start of domesticating crops to the show dogs you see on tv.
Instead of digesting whatever the tv feeds you, educate yourself through research of reputable sources to know the truth and make up your own mind rather than having it made up for you.
The newest apiary inspector at the Maryland Department of Agriculture has four legs, golden fur and a powerful sniffer.
Mack, a 2-year-old yellow Lab, joined the team last fall to help his mom, chief apiary inspector Cybil Preston, inspect beehives for American foulbrood — AFB — a highly contagious bacterial disease that infects honeybee brood and, eventually, kills the colony.
“Maryland has a thriving beekeeping industry, and most of our beekeepers have thousands of hives that travel from state to state for pollination,” explains Preston. “It’s our job to make sure that infected hives don’t cross state lines.”
The Maryland Department of Agriculture has had a “bee dog” on staff since 1982 and is believed to be the only state agency in the nation using a dog to detect AFB.
(why am I writing this? I don’t even like vampires!) Coldflash Vampire AU
“You have hemochromatosis, by the way.”
The thief rolled his eyes to face his unwilling nurse. “What?”
Barry ran his tongue over his teeth unconsciously, not noticing how his patient followed the movement with trepidation.
“It means your body captures iron too efficiently. The trait is common in people of European descent, because it makes them more resistant to bacterial diseases, so they survived the Black Death better, but it can cause your organs to basically rust, and it’s hard to diagnose, but people usually treat it by giving blood every few weeks-“ He bit his lip, stopping the deluge of words.
Len raised an eyebrow. “If you wanted an invitation to suck on my neck, kid, there are better ways of asking.”
“I didn’t mean it like that!” The young man’s face was scarlet as blood, my blood Len thought idly, rushed to his cheeks. “I just meant you shouldn’t take any iron supplements or anything while you’re recovering, because blood loss won’t make you anemic!”
“And here I was wanting to test out the new fainting couch Lisa installed in the hideout.” The thief drawled. “Pity, I thought your kind liked the swooning victims.”
Barry pressed his hands to his face. “Oh my god, stop! Nothing in Dracula is actually true!”
“Except for the whole vampires thing.”
The hands lowered, and the younger man’s expression turned sorrowfully serious. “Yeah. Except- except for that.”
The thief hummed in his throat, and winced as the slight movement aggravated the two pinprick holes along his jugular. The kid made a move to adjust the hastily taped on gauze, but flinched back as blue eyes snapped evaluate to him like one would a wolf in the room.
“Sorry.” He stuttered, and immediately clenched his hands back in his lap.
The gaze turned icily ponderous. “So, is this the part where I’m silenced, and you turn me into your Igor minion?”
Barry pursed his lips over his fangs. “I don’t do that.”
“But you could.”
He hummed again, more carefully this time. “Then, what, you’re going to keep me here until I’m well enough to be you midnight snack?”
“No!” The kid’s eyes flashed yellow like lightning, highlighting the deep red undertones in his iris. “I’m not like-“ He looked away again. “You’re free to go as soon as you can stand.”
Len made a point to look from his too pale limbs back to the vampire. “Then it seems that we’re going to be spending a lot of quality time together.” …
While The Knick is a work of fiction, it is based on exhaustive historical research. Below, the show’s writers share some of the true facts of the era that are depicted in this episode.
Rockefeller, Carnegie, and Harriman all put money toward eugenics research. At the turn of the Century, Eugenics was viewed as an “emerging science,” an offshoot of Darwin’s theories on evolution, and a new way to understand human beings. (Image courtesy of the Burns Archive.)
Syphilis spirochete is called Treponema Pallidum. It is fairly unmistakable in appearance (it looks a lot like a ramen noodle). Thackery’s understanding of a fever’s impact on syphilis is mostly due to the work of Austrian psychiatrist, Julius Wagner Jauregg (1857-1940).
Jauregg saw a woman with severe psychosis recover after a bout of Erysipelas, a bacterial skin disease that causes high fevers. He began experimenting with tuberculin-induced fevers. After several patients died under such treatment, he stopped his experiment, only to start up again after 1900. Then in the post-WWI era, Jaurgegg switched to using Malaria to try and cure patients with Neurosyphilis. He went on to win a Nobel Prize in 1927 for his work. (Image courtesy of the Burns Archive.)
In 1900 Mount Sinai Hospital purchased an X-Ray Machine and set it up in their synagogue. )
Huber’s Palace was an establishment that housed stages for performances, exotic animals, and “freak acts” like “The Dog-Faced Boy.” Huber’s motto was “A dollar show for ten cents.”